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Патент USA US2406324

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Aug. 27, 1946.
A. P. DAVIS
2,406,324
GUN CONTROL SYSTEM
Filed sept. 6. 1935
2 sheets-sheet 1
NT
ßwñîâmä
.
Aug.. V27, 1946.
A. P..DAVIS
2,406,324
GUN CONTROL SYSTEM
Filed Sept. 6,. 1933
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
vEN‘roR
/ 40%/
ATTORNEYS
Patented Aug. 27,4 1946
2,406,324
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,406,324
GUN CONTROL SYSTEM
Arthur Pattison Davis, New York, N. Y., assignor
to Arma Corporation, a corporation of New
York
Application September 6, 1933, Serial No. 688,285
9 Claims.
l
(Cl. 89--41'l
2
This invention relates to systems for the con
trol of the positions and movements of gun
mounts and the like to follow the movements of
the output shaft 22 of differential I 6 is propor
tional to the difference in speed between the gun
mount I9 and hand wheels I0.
a primary element such as a sighting device or
This output shaft 22 of differential I6 is geared
gun director.
at 23, 24 to one side of differential 25 and through
The main object of the invention is to provide
this diiferential and its output shaft 26 to the
a combined automatic and manual control in
control box of the oil gear 2l. The output of
volving simple control circuits and providing ac
differential I6 is thus transmitted to control shaft
curate and efûcient means for moving the gun
28 of the oil gear but with a modification at the
mount or other secondary element.
10 diiferential 25 which, as is later explained in de
Further objects of the invention particularly
tail, subtracts from the angularity of shaft 22
in the reduction of the reaction on the hand
an angle proportional to the differential speed
wheels of the manual control and the very critical
of the gun mount I9 and hand Wheels I9 at each
precision> of the gun mount moving will appear
from the following speciñcation taken in con 15
The input or “A” end of the auxiliary oil gear
nection with the accompanying drawings in which
2l is driven at substantially constant speed by
Fig. 1 is a diagram of a control system illus
the power motor 28 and the speed of the “B”
or output end is proportional to the deflection of
trating one embodiment of this invention;
Fig. 2 is a vertical section view of one of the
the control shaft 26. The output of oil gear 27 `
devices employed in said system,
,
20 is connected by gearing 29, 39 to the control
shaft SI for the tilting box of the main oil gear
Fig. 3 is a plan view of the device shown in
Fig. 2,
4€! (of the variable speed type) having its “A”
Fig. 4 is a plan view in outline of a modified
end driven by motor 28 and its “B” end connected
by gears 32, 33, 34 and 35 to drive the gun mount
detail, and
Fig. 5 is an elevational view with parts in sec
gear I9. The speed of the “B” end of main oil
tion of the apparatus shown in Fig. 4.
gear 40 is proportional to the deflection of con
In the speciñc embodiment shown in the draw
trol shaft 3I. It follows that the acceleration
of the “B” endV of gear 4G is proportional to the
ings, the system is illustrated in connection with
a gun director D and a gun mount M. Electrical
speed of the control shaft 3| and therefore also
means are provided for controlling the movements proportional to the deflection of the control shaft
of the gun mount M to follow very precisely the
26 of the auxiliary gear 2l. Since the “B” end
of gear 40 is geared to the gun mount gear I9
movements of the gun director D, said means
comprising transmitters of the self-synchronous
and since torque is proportional to acceleration
it follows that the torque applied to gun mount
type at the director, low speed transmitter 6 be
ing connected to drive the low speed synchroniz- .
gear I9 is proportional to the deviation of the gun
ing motor l. at the gun mount and a high speed
mount from the position of the hand wheels I0
transmitter 8 being connected tc drive the high
minus a factor “f” interposed between shafts 22
speed motor 9.
and 26 and regulated to be proportional to the
differential velocity of the gun mount gear I9.
An alternative hand operation is provided by
By properly proportioning this factor “f” the
connecting the hand wheels IU to gears II, I2, I3 40
system can be critically damped to avoid hunt
and clutch lâ and gears I5 to one side of the
ing while at the same time reducing to a mini
differential iii, the other side of the differential
mum the instantaneous deviation of the gun
I6 being geared at I’I and I8 to the gun mount
mount M from thev director D. For example, if a
table gear I9. The hand drive is geared to the
is taken as equal to the instantaneous deviation
differential by gears I5 on one side of the dif
ferential gear 2| while the high speed motor 9 of
of the gun mount M from the director, it is also
proportional to the output of dilîerential I 6. The
the automatic control has its gear 29 meshed
with the other side of gear 2l. When the auto
factor f thus is proportional to the diiîerential
speed
matic drive is in operation the Clutch I4 of the
magnetic type is released and when the drive 50
is shifted to hand operation the clutch I4 is en
dt
gaged to complete the train of gearing from the
hand Wheels lll through to the gun mount table
of gun mount gear I9 and is added algebraically
gear I9.
to a between shafts 22? and 26 by differential 25
Taking ñrst the hand operating means, the
and its associated “anti-hunt” device 36.
hand wheels I0 being connected to one side of the
The deflection of control shaft 26 of oil gear 21
differential I6 and the gun mount I 9 to the other
is proportional to this algebraic sum
side, the output of the differential I6 is propor
tional to the angular difference between gun
mount i9 and hand wheels I0 and the speed of 60
instant.
, .
3
4
ïI‘herefore, since the speed of the “B” end of gear
piston 49. Oil will flow from one cylinder to the
21 is proportional to the deiiection of shaft 26,
the speed of control shaft 3|, which is geared to
the “B” end of gear `21, is proportional to the de
ñection of control shaft 2B. Denoting the speedY
of shaft 3| by
The piston 49 will move in the direction of re
duced pressure until the restraining forces of the
Vsprings 55 balance the forces of pressure differ
other over the circuit indicated by the arrows.
im
ence. For any given velocity of the shaft 31 the
piston 49 will assume a definite position either to
’ the left or right of center, depending upon the di
rection of rotation of the shaft. A change in ve
l0 locity of the shaft 31 will alter the balance be
tween the forces of pressure and the force of the
springs and cause the piston to move to a new po
where k1 and k2 are constants of proportionality. ,
Now the speed of the “B” end of gear 49 is pro
portional to the deflection s of control shaft 3|.
Therefore since the gun mount is driven from this
“B” end the differential speed
sition of equilibrium.
The motion of the piston 49 is converted into
angular motion at the shaft 4| by the rack and
gear. Since angular motion of the shaft 4| de
pends upon motion of the piston 49, which in turn
depends upon a change in pressure difference be
tween the piston ends and since this pressure dif
dt
20 ference is a function of the velocity of the input
shaft 31, the angular position of the shaft 4| is a
of mount M is proportional to deflection s, so
function of the velocity of the shaft 31 and the
Velocity of the shaft 4| is a function of the rate of
change of velocity of the shaft 31.
The characteristics of the anti-hunt device are
orv
so arranged as to make the constants of propor
tionality in each direction such that K12=4K2 as
dif’ 3dr
above explained, and thus attain a critical damp
where k3 is a constant of proportionality.
ing in each direction.
Now substituting in (l) we have
The system istherefore dead beat in operation
30
while at the same timeproviding through motor
28 and hydraulic gear 49 the power for moving the
gun mount M. All the operator has to do is to
turn the hand wheels I9 as determined by his in
formation and the gun mount will precisely fol
low. While relatively large powers are available
from the drive there is little resistance at the
Equation a, is of well known type characteristic
control. The hand power is only required to turn
the parts through differentials I6 and 25 to turn
of a system with inertia, restoring torque propor
tional to displacement from a stable position and
the control shaft of the light auxiliary gear 21.
damping proportional to velocity. By making
Very little effort is requiredby the operator to
accurately control the power delivered to the gun
K_121=4K2 the damping is made critical so that
while the gun mount M follows director D with
der
'
'
‘
da
_añ-[C38
rank-e
mount.
almost no deviation it does not overrun or hunt.
The mechanism contributing the anti-hunt fac
tor f is indicated at 36 Fig. 1 and shown more in
detail in Figs. 2 and 3._ Itcomprises a gear pump
44 having its driving shaft 31 provided with gear
38 meshing with gear 24 driven by gear 23 on
shaft 22. The output of the gear pump 44 is
transformed into rotary motion by pressure de
veloping means, which rotary motion turns shaft
.
'
Similarly when the automatic Vdrive through
, high speed motor 9 is substituted for the hand op
eration the oil gear 40 provides the power and the
anti-hunt device 3B gives the-desired damping and
close control. AFor this automatic gun control the
magnetic clutch |4 is energized to disconnect the
hand wheels‘ll) and the high speed motor 9 is
connected to the high speed transmitter 8 by three
wire cable 69 from the transmitter to contacts 8|
of synchronizing relay 62, then through wires 63
4| carrying gear 42 meshing with gear 43 of the
and connections 64 to three wire cable 65 to con
other side of differential 25.V The shaft 22 thus
drives one side of differential 25 while the other 55 tacts B6 of limit relay 61 and through three wire
cable- 68 to motor 9.
side is driven from the “anti-hunt” device 35,
the output of diiîerential 25 beingthe algebraic
Any motion ofthe director D will therefore be
imparted at a high angular speed to the motor
sum of these inputs. To develop the input factor
9 and the gun mount M once synchronized will
f the anti-hunt device has its gear pump 44 driven
by shaft 31 (Figs. 2 and 3) to develop oil pressure 60 reproducev continuously the position of the direc
tor by the self-synchronous action of the trans
between the passages 45, 49 in either direction de
mitter 8 and motor 9. By making the ratio of
pending on the direction of rotation of the gears.
the angular speed of the transmitter 8 large with
Passages 45, 46 are connected to opposite ends of
respect to the director movement, any aberration
cylinders 41, 48 respectively andY so develop pres
sure against one end or the other of double ended 65 of the motor 9 will be minimized.
piston 49, normally centered by springs- 59. The
piston rod 5| carries rack teeth engaging pinion
5,2- onjoutput shaft 4| passing through stuffing box
53 and carrying gear 42 at its outer end. The pis
ton ends are provided with passages 55 which per
mit a restrictedv flow of oil from one cylinder to
the other.V
'
Operation is as follows: Rotation of the input
shaft 31 will actuate the gear pump 44 and un
balance the oil pressure on the two ends of the
.
Safety stops are provided by hunt contacts 19,
Y1| at the low speed synchronizing motor 1, frame
12 of which is geared to turn with the gun mount
as shown. At the extremes of movement ofthe
70 mount lug 13 on frame 12 engages one or the
other 0f contacts 19, 1| to close it and correr
spondingly energize the limit relays 61, 11, and
disconnect the low and high speed motors 1, 9
from the transmitters 6, 8.and at the same time
dee‘nergizing the clutch I4, thus permitting itto
5
2,406,324
6
connect the hand-wheels I Il to one side of .dif
ferential I6 to resume manual control and bring
the director gear lili). Armature 82 of motor ‘l
is rotatably carried by the frame ‘l2 and carries
the gun mount to rest. Energizing relay 6l opens
contacts 66 of the high speed motor >9 and con
tacts i6 of the low speed motor and energizing
relay 17 opens contacts 'IS of the circuit for the
magnetic clutch Id. Conversely when the mount
the contact arm 82. Armature IBI of the trans
mitter 90 rotates with gear £02 driven by the gun
mount gear I9, and armature 103 of motor 9
rotates with the gear 20.
The A. C. supply 'I4 also furnishes the current
for magnetic clutch I4, two wire cables 96 con
necting the leads 14 to relay contacts ‘I8 and
thence to the clutch. The solenoid currents `for
the synchronizing and limit relays are also in
moves so that both limit switches lli, 'il are open
the limit relays 6i, ‘il will close to restore the
automatic control.
To provide `for synchronizing the gun mount
for va vlarge initial deviation between the director
circuit with the supply '14, conductor 91, connect
ing relays 'il and 6T in series with limit contacts
ie, 1I (in parallel with each other) to return
conductor 98. The synchronizing relays are sup
plied by conductor 99 connected to have relay 62
in series with parallel circuits through relay 81S
and ‘the mount, the low speed motor whose frame
is geared to the mount is connected electrically
to the low speed transmitter S; Three wireßable
Sii leads to contacts "F6 of limit relay 81, then to
three wire cable 8| to the motor l. The rotor 82
of motor 'l carries contact arm 83 which for
and segment 34 on one side and relay Bland seg
deviation of the gun mount more than a prede
ment 85 on the other, thence through .contact
terlmined amount from the direction will make 20 arm 83 to return wire 98.
contact with one or the other of stationary con
The parts between output `'shaft 22 of differ
tact segments 84, 85. This contact energizes the
ential i6 and control shaft 3l of main oil `gear
synchronizing relay 52 and one or the other of
40 may -be replaced by a modified form of liri
synchronizing relays 85, 31, breaking contacts iii
termediate control means as shown for instance
and making contacts 58 or 89. If contact is made
in Figs. 4 and 5. The power motor 2B drives
with segment 84 contacts 88 are closed to con
the “A” end of the main hydraulic gear ¿i9 as
nect »the high speed synchronizing transmitter (iii
shown in Figs. 1_. 4 and 5 and the control shaft
to high speed motor ä in such manner as to cause
3i of said gear is geared through the gear ESS
meshing with the gear lill of the differential H33.
Gear H31 turns with sleeve H39 carrying pinion
Hi! meshing with the rack -Hl between work
pistons H2, H3 in cylinders Hd and H5, >the
ports H6, Il? of which are controlled by piston
the motor 5 to lead or lag by 66° whichever di
rection will impose a torque on the gun mount ~
in a direction to reduce the deviation. Transn
mitter Si] is then connected by three wire cable
9i and contacts 88 to wires 53, contacts 5d, three
wire cable F55, limit contact 66 and three wire
cable t1 to motor 9. Assuming a leading rela
tion for the connection made by segment 33,'there
will then be an effective lead of the high speed
Ll
valves H8, H9 connected by rack rod E2G. Pis
tons H8, H9 slide in cylinder 132i having open
ends l23, i2!! communicating directly Iwith the
oil in the oil reservoir tank £25 in which the ap
control ahead of the gun mount and rotation of
paratus is located. Between pistonsV HS, H9 oil
the mount in the direction to catch up with the
pressure is maintained through inlet l2@ and
director and until the mount and director are 40 piping i2? from the oil pressure pump £29 driven
sufficiently nearly in agreement to move contact
by pulleys and belting |28 from the shaft of .nio
83 from segment d4 when the control from trans
tOr 23.
mitter 8 is restored. Similarly 0n contact oi arm
Balanced pressures are thus `maintained on
S3 with segment 85, connection will be corre
both sides of each of these piston valves H8, H9
spondingly made through contacts 89 which shift l
and in their normal central position they cover
the phase relation so that motor 9 will lag for
leading arrangement with contacts 83 or lead for
lagging arrangement with said contacts 88. As
suming a 60° lag between the rotor circuits of
transmitter 9@ and motor e, that is, with the _
phases of the rotor of transmitter 9i) in a direc
tion opposite to the relation when contact 83
engages segment dit, this gives rotation oi the
gun mount in the opposite direction, which rota
tion will continue until contact at 83 is opened.
The constant catch up torque thus imposed on
gun mount M rapidly reduces the deviation to
cause arm 33 to leave the segment 84 or 85 so
that when the gun mount arrives within a pre
determined defiection from the angular position
of the director, relays t2 and B6 or 81 are de
energized, the high speed motor is disconnected
from the high speed transmitter Sii and recon
nected to the director transmitter 8.
The transmitters ë, E and Bil and motors 'l and
9 are of the self-synchronous type having their
fields and armatures relatively rotatable, the
three-phase armatures being interconnected'as
above described and the fields 93, 911,95, 9% and
and close ports Al i6; ‘H1 to hold the pistons i i2,
H3 in set position. Piston valves H3, H9 >are
driven by pinion i3@ on shaft ISS connected to
the differential spider I32 carrying the ,bevel
gears l3i meshing with bevel gears Hifi’ and
|22'. The bevel gear £22’ is rigid with an upper
bevel gear |22> meshing with gear Viâëi connect
ed to rotate with the output‘shaft »22 of the dif
ferential l5.
Y
The “A” end of this auxiliary control is thus
geared to the output of the differential i5, the
“B” end being geared directly to con-trol shaft 3l
of the main hydraulic gear lit. For the operation
of this auxiliary gear the oil pump £29 main
tains oil at a predetermined pressure.
The A
end of the auxiliary gear is moved to an .angle
proportional to the deviation of the director D
and the mount M. This offsets the valve >pistons
H8, H9, say to the right, uncovering the ports
H6, H7 and connecting port HB to the low
pressure reservoir and port H'l to the high pres
Isure supply between valves H8, H9. The pres
sure on pistons H2, H3 are thus unbalanced,
and these pistons move to 'the left turning pin
Sl supplied from a source of alternating current 70 ion llil and gear lill and control shaft Si of the
'ifi byiconnecting conductors not shown. In this
main oil gear 4i) to drive the “B” end thereof
apparatus any convenient arrangement of parts
in a direction to reduce the deviation between
mount'M and director D. 'Bevel gear lû'l thus
and relative rotations may be used. In the em
forms one side of the differential |58 and its
bodiment shown, field coils 93, 94 of transmitters
6, 8 rotate with the gears 93', 9d’ meshing 'with 75 movement-through gears .491', .§31 .and E22’ .turns
2,406,324
y7
portional to the difference in said speeds, and
mechanical means for applying said modified
the shaft |33 to bring the valve pistons H8, H9
back to the neutral position covering and Clos
ing the DOIts H6, Ill so as to bring the work
motion to control the torque applied to said fol
pistons H2, H3 to rest. .
o From this it follows that the motion of the
lower by said drive, said mechanical means in
cluding speed varying means between said power
“B” end is proportional to the motion of the
“A” end with greatly increased torque available,
the torque required to actuate the “A” end being
very small in comparison to the available output
source and said follower.
torque.
Y
Y
5. In a control system for reproducing motion
the combination with a director element and a
follower, of a source of power to drive said fol
lower and means for controlling said power com
-
The system of this invention thu's combines the
automatic and manual control so as to impose
a minimum resistance on the initiating control
prising means for comparing the relative speeds
members of each, while at'the-same time apply
ing a multiplied and adequate force to accurately
turn the gun mount. The apparatus involved is
said speeds, means for modifying the motion of
said member by a predetermined variable pro
portional to the differenceA in said speeds, me
simple, avoiding electrical complications and de
chanical means for applying said modified motion
of the director and follower and moving a mem
ber at a speed proportional to the difference in
to control the Ytorque applied to said follower by
»said drive, said mechanical means including
20 speed varying means between said power source
I claim:
'
and said follower, and a second speed varying
1. In a control system for reproducing motion
means for regulating said first named speed vary
the combination with a gun mount of a director
ing means.
‘
element, a motor means for supplying power to
6. In a control system for reproducing motion
move said mount, control means for regulating
the combination with a director element and a
said power, operating means for said control
follower, of a source of power to drive said fol
means comprising a synchronizing transmitter
lower and means for controlling said power com
moving with said gun mount and actuating said
prising means for comparing the relative speeds
control means to impart a relatively rapid move
of the director and follower and moving a mem
ment to the gun mount under predetermined con
ber at a speed proportional to the difference in
ditions, and a motor moving in synchronism with
said speeds, means for modifying the motion of
the director and actuating said control means to
said member by a predetermined variable pro
rmaintain said gun mount in substantial corre
portional to the difference in said speeds, me
spondence with said director under other prede- »
pending in the main upon mechanical apparatus
of established performance.
chanical means for applying said modified mo
termined conditions.
2. In a control system for reproducing motion -
the combination with a gun mount of a director
element, a motor means for supplying power to
move said mount, control means for regulating
said power, operating means for said control
means comprising a synchronizing transmitter 40
tion to control the torque applied to said follower
by said drive, said mechanical means including
speed varying means 'between said power source
and said follower, and a second speed varying
means driven from said power source and acting
to regulate said first named speed varying means.
7. In a gun control system the combination
moving with said gun mount and actuating said
with a gun mount and a director element, a
control means to impart a relatively rapid move
driver for the gun mount, differential mechanism
ment to the gun mount under predetermined con
driven on one side in correspondence with said
ditions, a motor moving in synchronism with the
director andv actuating said control means to 45 director elementrand kone the other side in cor
respondence with saidgun mount, and control
maintain said gun mount in substantial corre
means actuated by said diiîerential mechanism
spondence with said director under other prede
and connected to said driver, to vary the torque
termined conditions, and means for automatically
thereof to be proportional to the angular devia-Y
rendering the lsynchronizing transmitter or the
motor operative in accordance with the said pre 50 tion between the gun mount and the director
element, said control means having between said
determined conditions.
Y
differential and said driver a second differential
3. In a control system rfor reproducing motion
device subtracting from said control a corrective
the combination with a director element and a
factor directly proportional to the differential
follower, of a source of power for the drive of
said follower and Ymeans for controlling Ysaid 55 speed of the gun mount and director element.
8. In a gun control system the combination
powver comprising differential means for compar
with a gun mount and a director element, a driver
ing the relative Speeds of the director and fol
for the gun mount, differential mechanism driven
lower and moving a control member at a speed
on one side in correspondence with said director
proportional to the difference in said speeds, dif
ferential means for modifying the motion of said 60 element and on the other side in correspondence
with said gun mount, and control means Vactu
member by a predtermined variable directly pro
ated by said differential mechanism and con
portional to the difference in said speeds, and
nected
to said driver to vary the torque thereof
mechanical means for applying said modified
motion to control the torque applied to said fol
lower by said drive.
>
'
.
to be proportional to the angular deviation be
65 tween the gun mount and the director element,
4. In a control system for- reproducing motion
said control means having between said differen
tial and said driver a second differential device
subtracting from said control a corrective factor
follower, of a source of power for the drive of
directly proportional to the differential speed of
said follower and means for controlling said
power comprising dilîerential means for compar 70 the gun mount and comprising a connection to
said first mentioned differential, an anti-hunt
ing the relative speeds of the director and fol
device driven thereby Vand connected to drive the
lower and moving a control member at a speed
other side of said differential and a differential
proportional to the difference in said speeds, dif
ferential means for modifying the motion .of said
output connected to said _driver for the gun
the combination with a director element and a
member by a predetermined variabledirectly pro-_ 75
mount.
'
-
‘
2,406,324
10
9. In a control system for reproducing motion,
the combination with a director and a follower,
of a drive for said follower, control means there
for, and operating means for said control means,
comprising means responsive to a deviation be
tween the director and follower within a pre
determined range for actuating the drive, and
means responsive to a deviation between the di
rector and follower in excess of said predeter
mined range for controlling said control means
in accordance with a predetermined artiñcial
deviation independent of the actual deviation for
moving the follower into said range.
ARTHUR PATTISON DAVIS.
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