Патент USA US2406324код для вставки
Aug. 27, 1946. A. P. DAVIS 2,406,324 GUN CONTROL SYSTEM Filed sept. 6. 1935 2 sheets-sheet 1 NT ßwñîâmä . Aug.. V27, 1946. A. P..DAVIS 2,406,324 GUN CONTROL SYSTEM Filed Sept. 6,. 1933 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 vEN‘roR / 40%/ ATTORNEYS Patented Aug. 27,4 1946 2,406,324 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,406,324 GUN CONTROL SYSTEM Arthur Pattison Davis, New York, N. Y., assignor to Arma Corporation, a corporation of New York Application September 6, 1933, Serial No. 688,285 9 Claims. l (Cl. 89--41'l 2 This invention relates to systems for the con trol of the positions and movements of gun mounts and the like to follow the movements of the output shaft 22 of differential I 6 is propor tional to the difference in speed between the gun mount I9 and hand wheels I0. a primary element such as a sighting device or This output shaft 22 of differential I6 is geared gun director. at 23, 24 to one side of differential 25 and through The main object of the invention is to provide this diiferential and its output shaft 26 to the a combined automatic and manual control in control box of the oil gear 2l. The output of volving simple control circuits and providing ac differential I6 is thus transmitted to control shaft curate and efûcient means for moving the gun 28 of the oil gear but with a modification at the mount or other secondary element. 10 diiferential 25 which, as is later explained in de Further objects of the invention particularly tail, subtracts from the angularity of shaft 22 in the reduction of the reaction on the hand an angle proportional to the differential speed wheels of the manual control and the very critical of the gun mount I9 and hand Wheels I9 at each precision> of the gun mount moving will appear from the following speciñcation taken in con 15 The input or “A” end of the auxiliary oil gear nection with the accompanying drawings in which 2l is driven at substantially constant speed by Fig. 1 is a diagram of a control system illus the power motor 28 and the speed of the “B” or output end is proportional to the deflection of trating one embodiment of this invention; Fig. 2 is a vertical section view of one of the the control shaft 26. The output of oil gear 27 ` devices employed in said system, , 20 is connected by gearing 29, 39 to the control shaft SI for the tilting box of the main oil gear Fig. 3 is a plan view of the device shown in Fig. 2, 4€! (of the variable speed type) having its “A” Fig. 4 is a plan view in outline of a modified end driven by motor 28 and its “B” end connected by gears 32, 33, 34 and 35 to drive the gun mount detail, and Fig. 5 is an elevational view with parts in sec gear I9. The speed of the “B” end of main oil tion of the apparatus shown in Fig. 4. gear 40 is proportional to the deflection of con In the speciñc embodiment shown in the draw trol shaft 3I. It follows that the acceleration of the “B” endV of gear 4G is proportional to the ings, the system is illustrated in connection with a gun director D and a gun mount M. Electrical speed of the control shaft 3| and therefore also means are provided for controlling the movements proportional to the deflection of the control shaft of the gun mount M to follow very precisely the 26 of the auxiliary gear 2l. Since the “B” end of gear 40 is geared to the gun mount gear I9 movements of the gun director D, said means comprising transmitters of the self-synchronous and since torque is proportional to acceleration it follows that the torque applied to gun mount type at the director, low speed transmitter 6 be ing connected to drive the low speed synchroniz- . gear I9 is proportional to the deviation of the gun ing motor l. at the gun mount and a high speed mount from the position of the hand wheels I0 transmitter 8 being connected tc drive the high minus a factor “f” interposed between shafts 22 speed motor 9. and 26 and regulated to be proportional to the differential velocity of the gun mount gear I9. An alternative hand operation is provided by By properly proportioning this factor “f” the connecting the hand wheels IU to gears II, I2, I3 40 system can be critically damped to avoid hunt and clutch lâ and gears I5 to one side of the ing while at the same time reducing to a mini differential iii, the other side of the differential mum the instantaneous deviation of the gun I6 being geared at I’I and I8 to the gun mount mount M from thev director D. For example, if a table gear I9. The hand drive is geared to the is taken as equal to the instantaneous deviation differential by gears I5 on one side of the dif ferential gear 2| while the high speed motor 9 of of the gun mount M from the director, it is also proportional to the output of dilîerential I 6. The the automatic control has its gear 29 meshed with the other side of gear 2l. When the auto factor f thus is proportional to the diiîerential speed matic drive is in operation the Clutch I4 of the magnetic type is released and when the drive 50 is shifted to hand operation the clutch I4 is en dt gaged to complete the train of gearing from the hand Wheels lll through to the gun mount table of gun mount gear I9 and is added algebraically gear I9. to a between shafts 22? and 26 by differential 25 Taking ñrst the hand operating means, the and its associated “anti-hunt” device 36. hand wheels I0 being connected to one side of the The deflection of control shaft 26 of oil gear 21 differential I6 and the gun mount I 9 to the other is proportional to this algebraic sum side, the output of the differential I6 is propor tional to the angular difference between gun mount i9 and hand wheels I0 and the speed of 60 instant. , . 3 4 ïI‘herefore, since the speed of the “B” end of gear piston 49. Oil will flow from one cylinder to the 21 is proportional to the deiiection of shaft 26, the speed of control shaft 3|, which is geared to the “B” end of gear `21, is proportional to the de ñection of control shaft 2B. Denoting the speedY of shaft 3| by The piston 49 will move in the direction of re duced pressure until the restraining forces of the Vsprings 55 balance the forces of pressure differ other over the circuit indicated by the arrows. im ence. For any given velocity of the shaft 31 the piston 49 will assume a definite position either to ’ the left or right of center, depending upon the di rection of rotation of the shaft. A change in ve l0 locity of the shaft 31 will alter the balance be tween the forces of pressure and the force of the springs and cause the piston to move to a new po where k1 and k2 are constants of proportionality. , Now the speed of the “B” end of gear 49 is pro portional to the deflection s of control shaft 3|. Therefore since the gun mount is driven from this “B” end the differential speed sition of equilibrium. The motion of the piston 49 is converted into angular motion at the shaft 4| by the rack and gear. Since angular motion of the shaft 4| de pends upon motion of the piston 49, which in turn depends upon a change in pressure difference be tween the piston ends and since this pressure dif dt 20 ference is a function of the velocity of the input shaft 31, the angular position of the shaft 4| is a of mount M is proportional to deflection s, so function of the velocity of the shaft 31 and the Velocity of the shaft 4| is a function of the rate of change of velocity of the shaft 31. The characteristics of the anti-hunt device are orv so arranged as to make the constants of propor tionality in each direction such that K12=4K2 as dif’ 3dr above explained, and thus attain a critical damp where k3 is a constant of proportionality. ing in each direction. Now substituting in (l) we have The system istherefore dead beat in operation 30 while at the same timeproviding through motor 28 and hydraulic gear 49 the power for moving the gun mount M. All the operator has to do is to turn the hand wheels I9 as determined by his in formation and the gun mount will precisely fol low. While relatively large powers are available from the drive there is little resistance at the Equation a, is of well known type characteristic control. The hand power is only required to turn the parts through differentials I6 and 25 to turn of a system with inertia, restoring torque propor tional to displacement from a stable position and the control shaft of the light auxiliary gear 21. damping proportional to velocity. By making Very little effort is requiredby the operator to accurately control the power delivered to the gun K_121=4K2 the damping is made critical so that while the gun mount M follows director D with der ' ' ‘ da _añ-[C38 rank-e mount. almost no deviation it does not overrun or hunt. The mechanism contributing the anti-hunt fac tor f is indicated at 36 Fig. 1 and shown more in detail in Figs. 2 and 3._ Itcomprises a gear pump 44 having its driving shaft 31 provided with gear 38 meshing with gear 24 driven by gear 23 on shaft 22. The output of the gear pump 44 is transformed into rotary motion by pressure de veloping means, which rotary motion turns shaft . ' Similarly when the automatic Vdrive through , high speed motor 9 is substituted for the hand op eration the oil gear 40 provides the power and the anti-hunt device 3B gives the-desired damping and close control. AFor this automatic gun control the magnetic clutch |4 is energized to disconnect the hand wheels‘ll) and the high speed motor 9 is connected to the high speed transmitter 8 by three wire cable 69 from the transmitter to contacts 8| of synchronizing relay 62, then through wires 63 4| carrying gear 42 meshing with gear 43 of the and connections 64 to three wire cable 65 to con other side of differential 25.V The shaft 22 thus drives one side of differential 25 while the other 55 tacts B6 of limit relay 61 and through three wire cable- 68 to motor 9. side is driven from the “anti-hunt” device 35, the output of diiîerential 25 beingthe algebraic Any motion ofthe director D will therefore be imparted at a high angular speed to the motor sum of these inputs. To develop the input factor 9 and the gun mount M once synchronized will f the anti-hunt device has its gear pump 44 driven by shaft 31 (Figs. 2 and 3) to develop oil pressure 60 reproducev continuously the position of the direc tor by the self-synchronous action of the trans between the passages 45, 49 in either direction de mitter 8 and motor 9. By making the ratio of pending on the direction of rotation of the gears. the angular speed of the transmitter 8 large with Passages 45, 46 are connected to opposite ends of respect to the director movement, any aberration cylinders 41, 48 respectively andY so develop pres sure against one end or the other of double ended 65 of the motor 9 will be minimized. piston 49, normally centered by springs- 59. The piston rod 5| carries rack teeth engaging pinion 5,2- onjoutput shaft 4| passing through stuffing box 53 and carrying gear 42 at its outer end. The pis ton ends are provided with passages 55 which per mit a restrictedv flow of oil from one cylinder to the other.V ' Operation is as follows: Rotation of the input shaft 31 will actuate the gear pump 44 and un balance the oil pressure on the two ends of the . Safety stops are provided by hunt contacts 19, Y1| at the low speed synchronizing motor 1, frame 12 of which is geared to turn with the gun mount as shown. At the extremes of movement ofthe 70 mount lug 13 on frame 12 engages one or the other 0f contacts 19, 1| to close it and correr spondingly energize the limit relays 61, 11, and disconnect the low and high speed motors 1, 9 from the transmitters 6, 8.and at the same time dee‘nergizing the clutch I4, thus permitting itto 5 2,406,324 6 connect the hand-wheels I Il to one side of .dif ferential I6 to resume manual control and bring the director gear lili). Armature 82 of motor ‘l is rotatably carried by the frame ‘l2 and carries the gun mount to rest. Energizing relay 6l opens contacts 66 of the high speed motor >9 and con tacts i6 of the low speed motor and energizing relay 17 opens contacts 'IS of the circuit for the magnetic clutch Id. Conversely when the mount the contact arm 82. Armature IBI of the trans mitter 90 rotates with gear £02 driven by the gun mount gear I9, and armature 103 of motor 9 rotates with the gear 20. The A. C. supply 'I4 also furnishes the current for magnetic clutch I4, two wire cables 96 con necting the leads 14 to relay contacts ‘I8 and thence to the clutch. The solenoid currents `for the synchronizing and limit relays are also in moves so that both limit switches lli, 'il are open the limit relays 6i, ‘il will close to restore the automatic control. To provide `for synchronizing the gun mount for va vlarge initial deviation between the director circuit with the supply '14, conductor 91, connect ing relays 'il and 6T in series with limit contacts ie, 1I (in parallel with each other) to return conductor 98. The synchronizing relays are sup plied by conductor 99 connected to have relay 62 in series with parallel circuits through relay 81S and ‘the mount, the low speed motor whose frame is geared to the mount is connected electrically to the low speed transmitter S; Three wireßable Sii leads to contacts "F6 of limit relay 81, then to three wire cable 8| to the motor l. The rotor 82 of motor 'l carries contact arm 83 which for and segment 34 on one side and relay Bland seg deviation of the gun mount more than a prede ment 85 on the other, thence through .contact terlmined amount from the direction will make 20 arm 83 to return wire 98. contact with one or the other of stationary con The parts between output `'shaft 22 of differ tact segments 84, 85. This contact energizes the ential i6 and control shaft 3l of main oil `gear synchronizing relay 52 and one or the other of 40 may -be replaced by a modified form of liri synchronizing relays 85, 31, breaking contacts iii termediate control means as shown for instance and making contacts 58 or 89. If contact is made in Figs. 4 and 5. The power motor 2B drives with segment 84 contacts 88 are closed to con the “A” end of the main hydraulic gear ¿i9 as nect »the high speed synchronizing transmitter (iii shown in Figs. 1_. 4 and 5 and the control shaft to high speed motor ä in such manner as to cause 3i of said gear is geared through the gear ESS meshing with the gear lill of the differential H33. Gear H31 turns with sleeve H39 carrying pinion Hi! meshing with the rack -Hl between work pistons H2, H3 in cylinders Hd and H5, >the ports H6, Il? of which are controlled by piston the motor 5 to lead or lag by 66° whichever di rection will impose a torque on the gun mount ~ in a direction to reduce the deviation. Transn mitter Si] is then connected by three wire cable 9i and contacts 88 to wires 53, contacts 5d, three wire cable F55, limit contact 66 and three wire cable t1 to motor 9. Assuming a leading rela tion for the connection made by segment 33,'there will then be an effective lead of the high speed Ll valves H8, H9 connected by rack rod E2G. Pis tons H8, H9 slide in cylinder 132i having open ends l23, i2!! communicating directly Iwith the oil in the oil reservoir tank £25 in which the ap control ahead of the gun mount and rotation of paratus is located. Between pistonsV HS, H9 oil the mount in the direction to catch up with the pressure is maintained through inlet l2@ and director and until the mount and director are 40 piping i2? from the oil pressure pump £29 driven sufficiently nearly in agreement to move contact by pulleys and belting |28 from the shaft of .nio 83 from segment d4 when the control from trans tOr 23. mitter 8 is restored. Similarly 0n contact oi arm Balanced pressures are thus `maintained on S3 with segment 85, connection will be corre both sides of each of these piston valves H8, H9 spondingly made through contacts 89 which shift l and in their normal central position they cover the phase relation so that motor 9 will lag for leading arrangement with contacts 83 or lead for lagging arrangement with said contacts 88. As suming a 60° lag between the rotor circuits of transmitter 9@ and motor e, that is, with the _ phases of the rotor of transmitter 9i) in a direc tion opposite to the relation when contact 83 engages segment dit, this gives rotation oi the gun mount in the opposite direction, which rota tion will continue until contact at 83 is opened. The constant catch up torque thus imposed on gun mount M rapidly reduces the deviation to cause arm 33 to leave the segment 84 or 85 so that when the gun mount arrives within a pre determined defiection from the angular position of the director, relays t2 and B6 or 81 are de energized, the high speed motor is disconnected from the high speed transmitter Sii and recon nected to the director transmitter 8. The transmitters ë, E and Bil and motors 'l and 9 are of the self-synchronous type having their fields and armatures relatively rotatable, the three-phase armatures being interconnected'as above described and the fields 93, 911,95, 9% and and close ports Al i6; ‘H1 to hold the pistons i i2, H3 in set position. Piston valves H3, H9 >are driven by pinion i3@ on shaft ISS connected to the differential spider I32 carrying the ,bevel gears l3i meshing with bevel gears Hifi’ and |22'. The bevel gear £22’ is rigid with an upper bevel gear |22> meshing with gear Viâëi connect ed to rotate with the output‘shaft »22 of the dif ferential l5. Y The “A” end of this auxiliary control is thus geared to the output of the differential i5, the “B” end being geared directly to con-trol shaft 3l of the main hydraulic gear lit. For the operation of this auxiliary gear the oil pump £29 main tains oil at a predetermined pressure. The A end of the auxiliary gear is moved to an .angle proportional to the deviation of the director D and the mount M. This offsets the valve >pistons H8, H9, say to the right, uncovering the ports H6, H7 and connecting port HB to the low pressure reservoir and port H'l to the high pres Isure supply between valves H8, H9. The pres sure on pistons H2, H3 are thus unbalanced, and these pistons move to 'the left turning pin Sl supplied from a source of alternating current 70 ion llil and gear lill and control shaft Si of the 'ifi byiconnecting conductors not shown. In this main oil gear 4i) to drive the “B” end thereof apparatus any convenient arrangement of parts in a direction to reduce the deviation between mount'M and director D. 'Bevel gear lû'l thus and relative rotations may be used. In the em forms one side of the differential |58 and its bodiment shown, field coils 93, 94 of transmitters 6, 8 rotate with the gears 93', 9d’ meshing 'with 75 movement-through gears .491', .§31 .and E22’ .turns 2,406,324 y7 portional to the difference in said speeds, and mechanical means for applying said modified the shaft |33 to bring the valve pistons H8, H9 back to the neutral position covering and Clos ing the DOIts H6, Ill so as to bring the work motion to control the torque applied to said fol pistons H2, H3 to rest. . o From this it follows that the motion of the lower by said drive, said mechanical means in cluding speed varying means between said power “B” end is proportional to the motion of the “A” end with greatly increased torque available, the torque required to actuate the “A” end being very small in comparison to the available output source and said follower. torque. Y Y 5. In a control system for reproducing motion the combination with a director element and a follower, of a source of power to drive said fol lower and means for controlling said power com - The system of this invention thu's combines the automatic and manual control so as to impose a minimum resistance on the initiating control prising means for comparing the relative speeds members of each, while at'the-same time apply ing a multiplied and adequate force to accurately turn the gun mount. The apparatus involved is said speeds, means for modifying the motion of said member by a predetermined variable pro portional to the differenceA in said speeds, me simple, avoiding electrical complications and de chanical means for applying said modified motion of the director and follower and moving a mem ber at a speed proportional to the difference in to control the Ytorque applied to said follower by »said drive, said mechanical means including 20 speed varying means between said power source I claim: ' and said follower, and a second speed varying 1. In a control system for reproducing motion means for regulating said first named speed vary the combination with a gun mount of a director ing means. ‘ element, a motor means for supplying power to 6. In a control system for reproducing motion move said mount, control means for regulating the combination with a director element and a said power, operating means for said control follower, of a source of power to drive said fol means comprising a synchronizing transmitter lower and means for controlling said power com moving with said gun mount and actuating said prising means for comparing the relative speeds control means to impart a relatively rapid move of the director and follower and moving a mem ment to the gun mount under predetermined con ber at a speed proportional to the difference in ditions, and a motor moving in synchronism with said speeds, means for modifying the motion of the director and actuating said control means to said member by a predetermined variable pro rmaintain said gun mount in substantial corre portional to the difference in said speeds, me spondence with said director under other prede- » pending in the main upon mechanical apparatus of established performance. chanical means for applying said modified mo termined conditions. 2. In a control system for reproducing motion - the combination with a gun mount of a director element, a motor means for supplying power to move said mount, control means for regulating said power, operating means for said control means comprising a synchronizing transmitter 40 tion to control the torque applied to said follower by said drive, said mechanical means including speed varying means 'between said power source and said follower, and a second speed varying means driven from said power source and acting to regulate said first named speed varying means. 7. In a gun control system the combination moving with said gun mount and actuating said with a gun mount and a director element, a control means to impart a relatively rapid move driver for the gun mount, differential mechanism ment to the gun mount under predetermined con driven on one side in correspondence with said ditions, a motor moving in synchronism with the director andv actuating said control means to 45 director elementrand kone the other side in cor respondence with saidgun mount, and control maintain said gun mount in substantial corre means actuated by said diiîerential mechanism spondence with said director under other prede and connected to said driver, to vary the torque termined conditions, and means for automatically thereof to be proportional to the angular devia-Y rendering the lsynchronizing transmitter or the motor operative in accordance with the said pre 50 tion between the gun mount and the director element, said control means having between said determined conditions. Y differential and said driver a second differential 3. In a control system rfor reproducing motion device subtracting from said control a corrective the combination with a director element and a factor directly proportional to the differential follower, of a source of power for the drive of said follower and Ymeans for controlling Ysaid 55 speed of the gun mount and director element. 8. In a gun control system the combination powver comprising differential means for compar with a gun mount and a director element, a driver ing the relative Speeds of the director and fol for the gun mount, differential mechanism driven lower and moving a control member at a speed on one side in correspondence with said director proportional to the difference in said speeds, dif ferential means for modifying the motion of said 60 element and on the other side in correspondence with said gun mount, and control means Vactu member by a predtermined variable directly pro ated by said differential mechanism and con portional to the difference in said speeds, and nected to said driver to vary the torque thereof mechanical means for applying said modified motion to control the torque applied to said fol lower by said drive. > ' . to be proportional to the angular deviation be 65 tween the gun mount and the director element, 4. In a control system for- reproducing motion said control means having between said differen tial and said driver a second differential device subtracting from said control a corrective factor follower, of a source of power for the drive of directly proportional to the differential speed of said follower and means for controlling said power comprising dilîerential means for compar 70 the gun mount and comprising a connection to said first mentioned differential, an anti-hunt ing the relative speeds of the director and fol device driven thereby Vand connected to drive the lower and moving a control member at a speed other side of said differential and a differential proportional to the difference in said speeds, dif ferential means for modifying the motion .of said output connected to said _driver for the gun the combination with a director element and a member by a predetermined variabledirectly pro-_ 75 mount. ' - ‘ 2,406,324 10 9. In a control system for reproducing motion, the combination with a director and a follower, of a drive for said follower, control means there for, and operating means for said control means, comprising means responsive to a deviation be tween the director and follower within a pre determined range for actuating the drive, and means responsive to a deviation between the di rector and follower in excess of said predeter mined range for controlling said control means in accordance with a predetermined artiñcial deviation independent of the actual deviation for moving the follower into said range. ARTHUR PATTISON DAVIS.