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Патент USA US2406336

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Patented Aug. 27,’ 1946
taszIeA-uer, South Orange,
No‘ Drawings ‘ ‘Application’ August 21, 1942,
Serial No. 455,613
r0" claims. (CL 106-40)
This invention relates to the modi?cation 0f
the properties of Waxes. The invention is par
a. Main constituents:
1’. Palm-itin
2. Palmitic acid
b. Subordinate constituents:
ticularly concerned with treatment of organic
ester-type waxes or waxlike materials, as dis
tinguished from certain hydrocarbons which are
sometimes termed waxes. For instance; while
paraf?n, montan wax and cere‘sin,ua're= sometimes
L Dibas-ic' acids
2-. Soluble acids
referred'to as waxes, they are not “true” waxes‘.
Bayberry was:
In contrast, the invention is concerned with- the 10
treatment of ester-type waxes such, for instance,
as listed just below:
Although some of the'f'oreg‘oing lis‘t'are o'f ani
Inal and some of vegetable origin, I believe them,
15 all to“ be‘ organic~ is'oc‘olloids, i. e., colloidal sub
Carnauba wax
Spermaceti wax
stances‘ in‘ which; the dispersed phase and the
Candelilla wax
Japan Wax
dispersion‘ medium‘ are: both of the same chemical
composition; though present in different physical
Bayberry (Myrtle)v Wax
These waxes are esters of long chain aliphatic 20
There‘ are» other wax ,or wax-like materials
alcohols with long chain aliphatic fatty acids,‘ as
which are‘ organic; isoco'l-loi'ds andwhich may be
is indicated in the following listing of some of
the major constituents of various oi the: waxes
above mentioned.
Beeswax‘ :
either a natural wax alcohol or a natural wax
25 acid or their homologues, derivatives and- substi
t‘ution' products;
a. Main constituents:
The“ term‘ “ester-type waxes," as used‘ herein,
1. Cerotic acid
2. Myricyl palmitate
b. Subordinate constituents:
I. Melissic acid
2'. Myricyl' alcohol
3". Ceryl alcohol"v
is’ intended to ‘comprehend. not‘ only the natural
ester-type" waxes‘, but‘ also‘ synthetic products of
30 the type‘ in'entionedjust above;
I‘ have found that bycispersing treating‘ or
' frfod'iiyihg'ag'ehts‘in tnevvaxes, changes may be
brought‘ about in" a number or different charac
teristics‘ or properties, thereby rendering‘ the
c. 13%‘ hydrocarbon
C'arnaubu- was‘
. Carriaubic acid
treated in accordance with the“ invention'jfor
instance, synthetic wax-11x6- products containing
. Ceryl, myricyl alcohols‘
. Other alcohols
. A hydroxy acid
. A hydrocarbon
Spermac‘eti wax?
' treated waxes better suite'd'to many purposes than
are'tne" same‘ untreated‘ wastes. The changes or
nm'di?cations brought about‘ in accordance with
the present invention are apparently colloidal
and/or chemical in; nature, in many instances
40 changes of both typesio‘ccurriiig' asra result of the
treatment. For instance, a change inrtne relative
proportions of the dispersed phase andadispersion
medium may be brought about.
- Whatever may be the exact mechanism» by’
1. Gem palmitate
45. which the changes occur, I have found thatthe
b. Subordinate constituents:
present invention may be utilized to bring about
l. Glycerides of lauric, stea'ric, and myristic
changes in such physical characteristics as melt
ing point, acid value, sa‘ponii’ication value, iodine
Cc‘mdelilla war"
value, solubility characteristics in various sol
a. 56%unsaponi?able (hydrocarbon)
50 vents, and. physical consistency at various diii’er
b; Remainder (ester)
a. Main constituents:
Many of the compounds falling in certain‘
Modi?cation in certain respects noted above is
important for some purposes, and for other pur
poses, modi?cation is desirable in other respects.
‘Because of common uses of various waxes, for
instance, in ?oor polish, furniture polish, shoe
polish, and the like, it is frequently desirable to
employ a wax having a relatively high melting
3 point. Although the melting point need not nec
1essarily be changed in all instances, it is of im
portance that the invention is well suited to the
‘raising of the melting point of waxes, for in
classes mentioned above are also of the type
which I have termed “two-radical” compounds,
i. e., compounds having within the molecule an
acidic inorganic residue and an organic residue.
By an acidic inorganic residue I mean a residue
capable of yielding an inorganic acid upon the
addition of one or more hydrogen atoms, OH
groups, or water molecules, or upon the applica
10 tion of heat.
Such two radical type compounds may desir
ably contain a sulpho-, halo..v or nitro-group,
Typical examples of certain of the foregoing
classi?cations are given just below:
stance, of beeswax andrcertain others, which, in
. their normal condition have a relatively low melt
1 ing point and therefore have not heretoforebeen'
lconsidered as practicable to employ for certain
Metal salts of inorganic acids:
Sodium bisulphite
I1 purposes
stance, that
in which
of carnauba
a higher
is preferred.
point (for in-v
‘ v
Sodium 'hydrosulphite
The foregoing is cited as illustrative of the
‘ Sodium sulphite
manner in which the present invention may be‘ I
Ammonium iodide
‘ utilized to adapt certain waxes to uses for which 20v;v Magnesium chloride
they are not well suited in their natural state.
‘In this way, in some instances the invention 7'
3 makes possible the utilization of a less expensive ‘v
_Lead chromate
Metal salts of organic acids:
, wax to replace a more expensive one, without ap
preciable sacri?ce of quality of ?nished-product 25
such, for instance, as ?oor or furniture polish.
In addition to some of the uses'already men
‘ tioned, waxes are adaptable for many other pur
‘ poses among which might be mentioned metal
Sodium oxalate 7
G-salt (sodium beta hnaphthol-?,
Salts of organic amines:
Diphenylamine trichloracetate
Inorganic acids:
polishes, automobile body polishes, carbon paper
Sulphuric acid
Phosphoric acid'
.Hydrochloric acid
Organic acids:
i and typewriter ribbon impregnating compounds,
1 dental waxes, sealing waxes and ski ‘waxes. A
1 wide variety of properties and characteristics are
, ; desired for many of the several commercial uses
_ Tartaric acid
Maleic acid '
and the invention, in its broad aspect, hasin mind
adapting various waxes to the several commercial
‘ uses, thereby better ?tting them for such pur
‘ Zinc carbonate
Acetic acid
Oxalic acid
Salicylic acid
Before ‘considering in, detail the nature'of the
process andthe treating agents employed, the 40 Phthalic
Citric acid
process is ?rst brie?y summarized as follows:
Metal alcoholates:
The ‘wax to be treated is preferably heated in
Sodium amylate
I the presence of the modifying agent for a sub
stantial period of time and at a temperature con~ ‘
‘ V siderably above normal room temperature, it be- ‘
ing of importance to secure thorough dispersion
' Modifying agents of 'quite'awide variety of 50
' '
types may be employed. Many of such agents
are polar compounds, 1. e., compounds contain
molecule, or capable of orienting their different
radicals in opposite directions on an interface of
liquid-gas, solid-gas, liquid-solid or liquid-liquid.
VMany polar compounds which are electrolytes .
The modifying agents may be classi?ed in vari
ous Ways, for instance under the following
Metal alcoholates
Aryl-metal compounds
Organic salts of inorganic acids
Inorganic salts of organic bases
Organic esters
p-Toluene sulphonic acid
I have found certain“ groups of modifying
agents“ to be particularly effective in the treat;
ment of waxes—for instance, metal salts; amines,
particularly diprimary amines; and two radical
type compounds, especially those. containing
sulpho- and nitro-grcups.
Hereinafter examples are given of the treat
ment of waxes with modifying agents selected
from various of the classes above discussed.’
Metal salts of inorganic acids
Metal salts of organic acids
Inorganic acids
Organic acids
Metallo-organic compounds:
p-Toluene sulphochloride
ing a positive charge in one part of the molecule
and a negative charge in another part of the
a-Naphthylamine '
Sulphosalicylic acid
Moorr'vmc AGENTS
Benzidine base
V 'I‘wo-radical compounds:
of the treating agent in the wax.
‘ have been found to be useful.
Although the treatment conditions‘ may be
varied in accordance with a number of factors
such as the particular wax being treated, the .
treating agent selected and the characteristics
desired, in general, the treatment conditions
.70 should conform with the following:
With respect to temperature, it is ?rst noted
that while some modi?cation may be brought
about by dispersing the modifying agent in the
Amines also constitute a useful class,‘ particu- '" ‘Y wax at normal room temperature, in general, the ‘
larly the, poly-amines, for instance, di-a’mines.‘ ' "
treatment temperature should'be above the melt
ing point of the wax though not above the point
at which any appreciable decomposition occurs.
Usually it is found that a temperature between
and treating agent together. Obviously, however,
from the standpoint of the broader aspects‘ of the
invention, the wax and the treating agent may
be brought together in any desired manner. Agi-‘
about 100° C. and 310°’ C. is eifective; Increase
in temperature is usually accompanied by more 5‘ tation may be useful for this purpose in some in
rapid and/or more extensive modi?cation, al
though as just noted, the temperature is desir
ably kept below the point at which any decom
Beyond the foregoing, it is contemplated that
the modifying agent may be produced in siti,
position occurs. Particularly good results are se
by introducing materials which will react under
cured with many waxes at temperatures between 10 the conditions of treatment to produce the mod
about 250° C. and 310° C.
ifying agent desired.
The duration of the heating will again depend
somewhat on the materials used and the results
desired. Usually the heating should be continued
In a series of comparative experiments, a beesat least until thorough dispersion of the treating 15 wax was treated with a number of different mod
agent is obtained. Ordinarily it is found that
ifying agents. The initial untreated beeswax had
treatment for a period of at. least 30 minutes is
a melting point of 64° C., an acid value of 20.2
required for this purpose.
and a saponi?cation value of 93.3. The wax was
. The quantity of modifying agent employed will
of medium light color.
also depend somewhat, on the Wax being treated, 20' For purposes of comparison, in one experiment
on the modifying agent selected‘ and on the par
this wax was heated without any modifying
ticular characteristics desired. For various pur
agent, under exactly the same conditions as em—
poses a relatively wide range is suitable, for in
ployed for the heating in the following experi
stance, from an appreciable trace (such as .01%)
ments using various di?ferent modifying agents.
up to about 30%. Ordinarily, however, a range 25 This heated wax had a melting point of ‘75° 0.,
from .l% to 10% is found to be effective. With
an acid value of .75, and a saponi?cation value
many treating agents more than a fractional per
of 100.5. The product was black.
centage is required to secure an appreciable mod
The treatment conditions employed not only
ification, although as will appear from certain
for the heating of the wax without modifying
examples given hereinafter, .5% is shown to be 30 agent, as above mentioned, but. also in each of
su?icient for some purposes.
the following experiments of this series were as
The nature of the atmosphere in contact with
the reaction mass will in?uence the modi?cation
which occurs. With many waxes and with treat
The wax was placed in an open beaker under a
blanket of CO2 and maintained, at about 300° C.
ments for a number of purposes, it may be found 3 5 for a period of ?ve hours.
desirable to exclude air from the reaction. This
The following table indicates the modifying
may be accomplished by employing vacuum,
agents and percentages thereof used in each of
and/ or introducing certain gases into the reaction
vessel to blanket the surface of the batch. Gases
the comparative experiments, and also various
‘of the resulting characteristics:
. 1.
Modm mg agent
° C’.
Untreated__ ________________________________ _.
20 .2
93 .3
100 .5‘
2 .75
96 .4
77 .5
1 .15
89 .7
2 .8
66 .7
l .75.
79 .9
Heated ________ ______________________________ -_
1a~__ _
Sodnlm bisulphite ______ _ _
_________________________ ..
Sodium hydrosulph1te
__ ____
_______ _: _____ __
Sodium sulph1te_ __
Benzidine base._
o ___________________ -.
1 .98
88 .1,
92 .4
5a ________ __ N itro-anthraquinone .... __
.-_._do ______________ _-
91 .85
Sulphosalicylic acid
92 .8
6b_; _____________ __
p-Toluene sulphochlo
suitable for this purpose are ‘nitrogen, CO2, S02,
H28, amongst others. '
_____do ___________________ -_
p-Toluene sulphonic acid__
0 .8
92 .6
74 .4
100 .6
4 .9
94 .6
4 .03
85 .8
From the above it will be seen that certain
60 classes of treating agents are of especial advan
Pressures above atmospheric may also be em
tage in raising the melting point of the waxes.
ployed to advantage for some purposes.
Note for instance that a very marked increase in
In addition to employment of gases for pur
melting point is secured by the use of metal salts
poses such as mentioned just above, certain gases
(seei'Examples 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b and 3a) and also by
may also be utilized by bubbling the same through 65
use of an amine,such as the benzidine base
the reaction mass during the treatment, so as to
Examples 4a and 41), this amine being a di
bring about further or supplemental modi?ca-l ' of.
primary amine.
tions. S02 and H28 may be utilized for a pur
Analysis of the foregoing table will further show
pose such as this. Under certain conditions a
sulphurized product may be. obtained by com- 70 that in many instances the higher percentage of
modifying agent produces a greater degree of
bined use of S02 and HzS.
Since wax-es are ordinarily solid or paste-like
The comparative results above also indicate
ture of the wax and modifying agent is, inmost" ' the. possibility ofsecuring' appreciable changes
cases, desirably accomplished by melting the wax 75' not only in acid value but. also in the saponi?ca
materials at normal room temperatures, admix- "
Analysisv of'the foregoing again shows quite
‘tion value, depending upon the treating agent
employed and the percentage used.
surprising results in modi?cation of various prop
erties. Note for instance the exceptional result
The column in the above table under the head
. ing of “Solubility” indicates the consistency of a
secured 'from the. standpoint of melting point
‘ mixture of the wax with turpentine, in the ratio
when employing sodium bisulphite as in Example
of 50% wax and 50% turpentine. The numerals
11; .Sodium hydrosulphite, benzidine base and
p-nitrophenol also substantially increased the
P in the column represent an arbitrary scale, the
melting point.
7 ,
' higher numerals indicating stiffer wax-turpentine
- The modi?cations in color are also signi?cant,
mixtures. For example, numeral 2 indicates a
mixture of stiffer consistency than numeral 1. 10: it being of interest to note that a number of the
products treated with modifying agents had a
‘ 2+ indicates a still stiifer mixture, and so forth.
color lighter than the batch which was heated
Thus/from the “Solubility” column it will be
without any modifying agent. 7 In fact, nitro
' , seen that most of the treated waxes yield wax
‘ turpentine mixtures which are at least as stiff as
anthraquinone and p-toluene sulphonic acid of
those secured with the untreated wax (and also
with the wax which was heated without modify
; ing agent) . Many of the modi?ed waxes yielded
‘ wax-turpentine mixtures considerably stifferithan
' Examples 14 and 17 yielded a product having a
‘the same mixture incorporatingthe untreated
cation in certain instances in-the consistency of
'1 wax-turpentine‘ mixtures, this characteristic
color approximating that of the original un
treated and unheated candelilla wax.
The above table also shows considerable modi?
, wax; note, especially, the waxes treated with 5%
j of sodium hydrosulphite and with 5% of p
‘ toluene sulphonic acid.
‘again being indicated in the “Solubility” column. .
Various of the foregoing waxes were incorpo
Although the color of all of the products was
‘ darker than the untreated and unheated beeswax,
rated in several different polish‘formulas in order
to secure comparative data as between treated
1 it is interesting to note that the color of certain 25” and untreated waxes and also as between the ef- '
‘fect of different modifying agents. With this pur
3 of the products resulting from use of modifying
agents was lighter than the color of the beeswax
which had been heated without modifying agent.
pose in view the waxes were used in a furniture,
polish, in a floor polish and in.a shoe polish.
Thus, the‘ products of Examples 4a, 6a, 6b, 7a., 7b,
Furniture polish
8a and 9a were all lighter in color than was the 30'
1 product of the’ beeswax when cooked without
‘ modifying agent.
With respect to the color of the waxes, it is to
be noted that for many purposes the color is im
3 material. In instances, however, where it is de
A typical furniture polish formula was selected,
this being as follows (all parts being by weight) :
"Replacement ingredient” ______________ __
10 '
‘,. Beeswax ___________ __‘___' ______________ __
Ceresin ____________ __'____‘ _____________ __
‘ modifyingagent
sired to retain asshould
light be
a color
as possible,
Stearic acid ___________________________ __
In another series of comparative experiments
Triethanolamine _____' _________________ __
_ 4.8
‘ candelilla wax was treated with various modifyf ‘
"ing agents, the treatment conditions being the,‘
same for each example. In this series-treatment
V. M. & P. naphtha 1__*__~ _________ _'__;.____
Water (boiling) ____________ ___ _________ __
, 1Varnish maker’s and painter’s naphtha.
‘ was eifected in a closed beaker (having only a
In formulating the foregoing polish, the several ‘
wax ingredients (including stearic acid) were
. .melted'in the order listed above, the ‘freplacement
small outlet to the atmosphere), without intro» 1 .
duction of any gas and at atmospheric pressure.
, The temperature was maintained in each case at
ingredient” being different .in each polish pre
1 about 300° C. for ?ve hours. 'In all experiments
‘ of this group 5% of the treating agent was em-~ >
pared, i. e., being selected from various of the un
@ treated and treated waxes’discussed above. After
melting of the waxes together, the triethanol
The initial untreated candelilla wax‘ had a.
1 melting point of 73°, an acid value of 16.9, saponié 50 amine was added. Then followed slow addition
of the naphtha with agitation. Agitation was
_ ?cation .value of 52.5, the initial color being -
I ployed. ’
medium light.
‘ continued during very slow addition of the boiling
For purposes of comparison one batch of they“ water, until a uniform'emulsion was produced, the
I 'wax was trea ed under the foregoing conditions ..
fa'gitation being continued until the polish had,
but without the presence of any modifying agent. "i cooled.
Q 'The untreated and also the heated (without
The product of this experiment had a' melting
modifying agent) beeswax and candelilla wax
point of '74" C., an acid value of 9.9, a saponi?ca
, were substituted in plaoeof the “replacement in
tion value of 48, and the color was medium dark.
gredien ,” in addition to the employment of var
The following table indicates the reagent used
‘ in the several experiments of this series, and also 60 ious of the waxes modi?ed with treating agents.
1 various characteristics:
Modifying agent
lgaglg Acid value 553;, giggly
Untreated ________________________________________ ._
For convenience in the following analysis of re
________________________________ __
Sodium bisu1phite_ _ _ _ _
Sodium hydrosulphite
52. 5
48. 0
16. 9
Fairly, dark.
Quite dark.
Benzidine base _ .
V 1-
Sulphosalicylic acid"
p-Toluene sulphochloride _____ __
>39. 6
17 '
p-Toluene sulphonic acid ______ __
29. 1
Quite light.
Very dark.
o-Nitrophenol _________________ ._
p-Nitrophenol _________________ _.
_ 40. 7
Fairly dark.
sults, the beeswax which was used in untreated
condition and the beeswax which was heated
without modifying agent are referred to, respec
tively as beeswax controls A and B. The cande
lilla wax (untreated, and heated without modify
ing agent) are similarly referred to as candelilla
controls A and B.
This series of furniture polish experiments
showed some very interesting improvements as'a
result of the use of modifying agents, as com 10
pared with the several controls; and while ad
justment of other ingredients in the formulation
would normally ‘be desirable, for properly bal
‘and the triethanolamine ‘is slowly added, with
constant stirring. Next the borax of part A was
dissolved in one-quarter of the water (heated
to boiling), and this borax solution was then
added to the wax solution. The resulting mass
was stirred for two minutes, after which the
remainder of the water (of part A) was added
and the mixture stirred until cold.
Part B was prepared by boiling the first part
of the water thereof and then dissolving the
borax therein, after which the shellac was added
to the borax solution with stirring. Finally the
remainder of the water (boiling) was added.
anced polishes when one 'Wax is substituted for
another, the formulation was kept the same
throughout the series of experiments in order to
clearly demonstrate the effect of substitution‘ of
the modi?ed wax for the unmodi?ed wax.
Various characteristics of the polishes were
added to 100.9 parts of A, with stirring.
which were noted.
of comparison.
First, with respect to the beeswax furniture
polishes, many of them indicated an improvement
both with respect to'rubbing qualities and with
Here again, not withstanding the fact that for
properly balanced ‘polishes when one wax is sub
stituted for another the formulation would ordi
Preferably after permitting the solutions (A
and B) to stand for a day, 18.5 parts of B are
As in the experiments with furniture’ polish,
various of the modi?ed and unmodi?ed waxes
were substituted in the position of the “replace
then determined and compared. The following 20 ment ingredient,” and the polishes were then
are some of the more important improvements
analyzed for various characteristics, for ‘purposes
respect to stability (stability of the emulsion).
Thus, polishes prepared with waxes treated with
narily be altered, in order to secure better com
parisons, the formula was kept the same in each
sodium bisulphite, sodium hydrosulphite, benzi
dine base, nitroanthraquinone, all disclosed im
instance, thereby clearly demonstrating the effect
proved rubbing qualities, as compared with both
of the beeswax controls A and B.
The stability of the polishes prepared with
modi?ed beeswax also compared very favorably
with the beeswax controls, most of the polishes
showing up better in this respect than the bees
wax control A, many also being equivalent to
beeswax control B.
The gloss of the modi?ed beeswax polishes also
compares favorably with the controls, beeswax
unmodi?ed waxes.
of substitution of the modi?ed waxes for the
Numerous of the ?oor polishes made with
modi?ed waxes showed improvements ‘over pol
ishes made wit the beeswax and candelilla wax
controls A and B.
With respect to ease of emulsi?cation, it is
?rst noted that most of the modi?ed beeswaxes
were at least equal to or better than the beeswax
controls A and B. Moreover, certain of the modi
fying agents yielded polishes in which the emul
treated with 5% sodium bisulphite, being marked 40 sion stability was at least equal to or better than
1y better than both of the controls A and B.
the controls. Sodium bisulphite and sulphosali
With respect to the use of candelilla wax, it is
,cylic acid were both effective in yielding good
noted that various of the polishes containing
modi?ed candelilla wax showed improvement in
stability characteristics.
rubbing qualities and stability of the emulsion as "
the polishes made with modi?ed candelilla wax
also showed up in a similar way. Sulphosalicylic
acid showed good results not only from the stand
point of ease of emulsion and stability of emul
sion, but also with respect to polish or gloss
secured. This reagent (sulphosalicylic acid) was
With respect to the properties just mentioned,
compared with candelilla controls A and B. . The
metal salts showed particularly good results with
respect to rubbing qualities and stability, espe
cially sodium bisulphite and sodium hydrosul
Although there was considerable variation in
color as between the Various polishes, it may be
mentioned that o-nitropheno-l and sulphosalicylic
acid, both with beeswax and with candelilla wax ,
in fact particularly good with respect to gloss.
Shoe polish
The shoe polish formula employed for test pur
yielded polishes of quite light color.
55 poses was as follows (all parts being by weight) :
“Replacement ingredient” _______________ __ 8
Floor polish
Beeswax ____________ __- __________________ __
The following formula was selected for pur
Montan ________________________________ __ 5
poses of testing the several waxes in a floor polish.
Para?in ________________________________ __ 15
(all parts being by weight) :
60 Turpentine _____________________________ __ 68
A. “Replacement ingredient” _____ __ 13.2
Oleic acid ___________________ __
Triethanolamine _____________ __
Borax _______________________ __
In preparing the shoe polishes, the “replace
Water _______________________ __ 83.0
B. Borax _______________________ __
Water _______________________ __ 14.2
Shellac ______________________ __
ment ingredient” (the wax) was ?rst melted after
which the montan, beeswax and paraffin were
65 added. Then, with agitation the turpentine was
added. Here again, both the beeswax and can
delilla controls A and B, as well as the modi?ed
waxes, were substituted in the position of the
replacement ingredient.
Water _______________________ __ 24.2
In formulating the foregoing polish, portion A
is prepared by ?rst melting the "replacement
ingredient,” i. e., the wax, and then adding the
oleic acid. The temperature is brought to 95° C.
The results with the beeswax polishes indicated
that almost all of the polishes made with modi
?ed beeswax were at least harder than beeswax
controlA, and in some instances, even appre
ciably harder than beeswax control B.
With respect to gloss, improvement was noted
with most of the polishes made with modi?ed
2,406,830 I .
'addition'of at least one of the group consisting '
beeswax; sodium blsulphite, sodium hydrosulphlte
and p-toluene sulphochloride yielding polishes of
particularly good gloss in comparison with the
fof hydrogen atoms, O-H-groups, and water mole
cules, said'modifying agent being a member of
the class consisting of aromatic sulfonic acids,
aromatic sulfochlorides, and nitro-substituted
aromatic compounds, capable of yielding an
' ‘ With respect to polish consistency, it is worthy
of note that ingeneral the waxes treated with
1/2% of the modifying agents yielded harder pol
inorganic acid which is a member of the group
consisting of sulfuric acid, chlorsulfonic acid and
' i‘she’s'
than those with 5% of modifying agent.
However, the metal salts showed up well with
respect to consistency, even where used in 5%
nitric acid.
concentration; 5% sodium bisulphite and 5%
is beeswax.
LMany of the polishes made with modified can
delilla wax also showed up‘ satisfactorily with
I claim:
' a
'7. A polish comprising a modi?ed wax product
‘and a volatile dispersion medium and being
characterized by a materially greater ?lm tough
20 ness than characterizes a polish ?lm made from
paste) than did the candelilla controls A and B.
to v310° C.
respect to consistency and gloss, sodium bisul
phite being particularly good for both of these
characteristics. p-Toluene sulphochloride also
yielded notably improved viscosity (a harder
whichsaid wax is candelilla wax.
6. A process in accordance with claim]. where
in the treatment temperature is from 250° C.
polishes in comparison with the beeswax controls
‘of-claim- 1, in which said wax
5. A process in accordance with claim 1 in
sodium hydrosulphite both yielding quite hard
A and B.
a 4. The process
‘ the same ingredients but in which the waxis
modi?ed, said modi?ed wax product comprising
thereaction product of av natural ester-type wax
1. The process of modifying at least one of the 1 with from 0.5% to 10% ofa compound having
‘following physical properties of ester-type waxes:
the molecule an acidic inorganic residue
consistency, melting point, rubbing characteris 25. within
and an organic residue, and said compound being
‘tics, which process comprises dispersing in the '
a member of the class consisting of aromatic
wax from 0.5% to 10% of a compound having
sulfochlorides, and
within the molecule an acidic inorganic residue 'sulfonic acids, aromatic
and an organic residue and heating the wax to
8. A heat-treated ester-type natural wax hav
a temperature between about 100° C. and the 30 ing dispersed therein from 0.5% to 10% of a
decomposition point of the wax, until the wax . treating compound having within the molecule
"manifests properties which are substantially dif
an acidic inorganic residueand an organic resi
ferent in .at least one vof the respects herein
due, said wax having a melting point, appreciably
named, as compared to the properties of a similar
higher than that of the same natural wax heat
material subjected to the same treatment but 35 7 treated alone, and said treating compound being
absence of the treating compound, said treat
a member of the class consisting of aromatic
:ing compound‘being a member of the class ‘con
sulfonic acids, aromatic sulfochlorides, and nitroi
lsisting of aromatic sulfonic acids, aromatic sulfo
‘chlorides, and nitro-substituted aromatic "com-7
‘pounds, capable of yielding an inorganic acid
‘which is a'member of the group consisting‘, of
sulfuric acid, chlorsulfonic acid and nitric acid
under the conditions of the treatment.
substituted aromatic compounds.
9. A polish comprising, as wax ingredient, the
‘modified wax product of claim 8, and manifesting
an increased hardness in its ?nal ?lms, as com
pared to a polish made in the same way and from
the same ingredients but in which-the wax come .
2. The process in accordance with claim 1' in
ponent does not comprise a treating compound,
which the treatment temperature is from about 45 said polish also containing water as volatile dis
250° C. to 310° C’.
persion medium.
3. The process which comprises dispersing
from 0.5% to 10% of a compound in an ester
7 type wax and heating the wax and treating com
‘pound to ‘atemperature between about 100° C.
‘and the decomposition point of the wax 'for at
‘least 30 minutes to modify the solubility of the
wax in organic solvents, which process is, char
10. A polish comprising, as wax ingredient the
'modi?ed wax product of claim 8. and manifest
ing an increased hardness in its ?nal films, as
compared to a polish made in the ‘same way and
from the same ingredients but in which the wax
component does not comprise a treating com.
pound, said polish also containing an organic
acterized in‘v that the treating compound em
solvent as volatile dispersion medium.
= ployed comprises an acidicinorganic residue and 55
3 an organic residue, said inorganic residue'being
capable of yielding an inorganic acid upon the
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