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Патент USA US2406372

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AUS-'27,1946 _
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w. w.‘HANsEN E-rAL I
’HIGHy FREQUENCY -'A_1=>P.I\RATU¿~:
Filed May 17, 1_941
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2,406,372
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3 sheets-sheet v1
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INVENTOR
WILLIAM W. HANSEN
«M JOHN R. WOODYARD
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Aug. l27', 1946. .`
’2,406,372
w. w. HANSEN ETAL
HIGH FREQUENCY APPARATUS «
File@ Mày 17, 1941
_5 Sheets-Sheet 2
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FIG». 6
Í .ÉÁ
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INVENTOR
WILLIAM W HANSEN
dw( JOHN R. WOODYARD
'BY
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AugQ 27, _1946.
HIGH FREQUENCY APPARATUS
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fs Shee'çs-sheet s
Filed >May 17', 41_94
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Fll-r.
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A
INVENTORS
WILLIAM W. HANSEN
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Y JQHN FLWOODYARD _'
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THEIR ATTQN'Y.'
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Patented Aug. 27, 1946
2,406,372
UNITED STATES PATENT? »OFFICE
ì
2,406,372
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HIGH-FREQUENCY APPARATUS
William W. Hansen an d John R. Woodyard, Gar
den City, N. Y., assignors to Sperry Gyroscope
Company, Inc., Brooklyn, N. Y., a corporation
of New York ‘
-
Application May17, 1941, .Serial No. 393,868
24 Claims. (Cl. 17E-44)
This invention relates, generally, to the art of
high frequency energy transmission and appara
tus related thereto, and has reference more par
ticularly, -to novel improvements in` impedance
matching and transforming devices adapted for
use with this type of apparatus operating at
ultra-high frequencies, of the order of 109 cycles
per second.
In transforming energy from one high fre
quency device to another, it is Well known that
the Value of the impedances of the respective de
vices must be properly matched in order to avoid
the production of standing waves with attendant
increase in losses and decrease in the energy
2
section of an electron discharge tube structure
adapted to be used in a high frequency transmit
ting and/ or receiving system wherein the present
invention may advantageously be included. y"An
electron discharge tube of the indicated type is
disclosed and claimed in a- copending divisional
application filed in the names of the present in
ventors and bearing Serial N o. 420,771;
Fig. 2 lis a perspective view rof the fine tuning
adjustment of the tube of Fig. 1;
.
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal sectional view of one
typé of impedance matching device, or imped
ance transformer;
Fig. 4 shows a radio transmitting system incor
transmitting capacity of the system. Further,
porating the tube of Fig. 1 and the impedance
for maximum» eillciency, it is known that the 15„ transformer
of Fig. 3;
impedance of a load or utilization «device must
be properly transformed to match that of the
source.
.
The present invention is principally directed
toward the provision of improved impedance
matching and transforming devices which are
adapted to eflicien-tly couple and match the im
pedance values of the circuit elements inter
Y Fig. 5 is a view partly in section of a detail of
Fig. 4;
Fig. 6 is a sectional View. of the antenna and
reflector of Fig. 4;
‘
Fig. 7 is a longitudinal section vof an alterna
tive type of impedance transformer;
Figs. 8, 9 and 10 are cross-sections of Fig. 7
taken along lines 8_8, 9_9 and Ill-I0 respec
connected thereby with a minimum of adjust
tively;
~
ment and a maximum of facility and efliciency. 25
Fig.
11
is
a
diagram
explanatory
of
the
opera
In another of its aspects, the present inven
tion of the device of Fig. 7; and
tion is directed .toward a provision of a novel
Fig. 12 is a longitudinal cross-section of a fur
sliding joint utilizable in connection with the
ther modification of impedance matching ‘trans
above-mentioned impedance matching and
former.
transforming devices, or, which may be em 30
In the drawings, Fig. 1 shows an electron dis
ployed generally in ultra-high-frequency cou
charge tube structure I comprising an indirectly
pling arrangements wherever adjustability and`
heated cathode 2 having a heater 3, a modulat
smoothness of transition are desired.
ing grid 5 and spaced, cylindrical, resonators or
A principal object of the present invention is
to provide novel impedance matching means for 35 resonating chambers'l, 9, II. These resonators
have rigid dished walls I3, I5, I1 and opposed
matching the impedance of an apparatus of the
ilexible
walls I9, 2|, 23, respectively, the dished
above character to that of other apparatus, such
walls being centrally apertured and provided
impedance matching means being designed for
with grids. 'Flexible walls' I9 and 2l of resonators
versatile operation in that it may efñciently con
'l and 9 are joined by a' drift tube 25 also having
nect two impedance elements havingimpedances 40 grids
at it-s ends opposite the grids of Walls I3
of different values with high elìciency of power
and I5. This tube 25 has a central threaded por
tion 21 for retaining'a thrust plate 29 thereon.
A further object is to provied novel impedance
The main body 33 of the tube I carries a flange
matching means which is so designed as to ef
35 which has several threaded holes 3l, in this
ñciently match both the resistive and reactive _ case
shown, for illustrative purposes ~ only, as
components of any two impedance elements hav
three in number although only two are visible in
ing generally different impedance values.
\
the showing of Fig. 1. These threaded’holes 3l
Another object is to provide novel and eilicient
ilow therebetween.
Y
i . l
sliding joints for telescoping concentric trans
mission lines, whereby reflections and standing
waves are prevented.
A still further object is to provide a novel
transmission line section having a cylindrical
outer conductor and an eccentrically and adjust
ably positioned inner conductor.
Other objects and advantages will become ap
parent from the specification taken in connec
carry thrust screws 39, one end of each of which
terminates in a shape suitable for the application
of a Wrench for turning the screw, or in a'slot
for receiving a screw driver, while the otherL end
terminates in a socket adapted to receive the
ball headsV of .thrust rods 4l, 43. The screws 39
also have lock nuts 45 for maintaining them in
their set position. TheV other end of each of the
- thrust rods 43 is placed'in a socket in the thrust
plate 29 similar tothe sockets in screws 39._ The
Fig. 1 is a view in side elevation ¿and partly in 60 plate 29 has rigidly fastened to it, as by screws
41„a resilient >cantilever leaf member 49. The
tion with the accompanying drawings, wherein,
2,406,372
member 43 is fastened to plate 29 YatQone end
only, in cantilever fashion. The unfastened end
of cantilever ¿9 is adapted to be moved by the
transmitted to the rigid wall I1 and the` flexible
wall 23 of resonator ll to create-relative thrust
therebetween. This thrust is opposed by the ac.
tion of atmospheric pressure on the evacuated
movable stem 5l Vof a micrometer arrangement. . ` chamber, which tends to collapse the flexible wall.
53 mounted as by bracket 55 on plate 29. Rota-l ' ' This> adjustment of screws 'Il' therefore causes
tion of handle 51 results in transmission of thrustv
to cantilever sà through ball 59, resulting in de
flection of the resilient cantilever; ¿59. Thrust rod
4| is socketed at one end in the member êûmear
the fastened end of this member,l and Yat the
other end in its screw 39.
_deformation of the flexible wall 23, thereby
changing the resonating frequency of this res
onating chamber- Once adjusted, the frequency
may bemaintained by use of the lock nuts El to
maintain screws 11 in desired position.
Turning screwsY 55 will in like manner create
Fig. 2 shows plate 2Q with rodsât and/¿Sdn
relative thrust between the rigid and flexible walls
their normal operating position. These rodsv are,
of resonator 9 and causetuning of this resonator.
held in position in the actual device by the oppo
It will be noted that this tuning cannot affect the
15
sition to deformation of the rresonating chamber
tuning of resonator > l-I, since »no thrust is` created .
'l' created largely by atmospheric >pressureacting
between the rigid andA flexible walls `of thatnres
on the evacuated casing 3%; as described below.
onator by turning screws G5. At most, a slight
HWhile> the cantilever ». tuning'v means has been
motion ofthe Whole- resonator H occurs,- due- to
shown` as applied only to the first> resonating
deformation of »flexible Wall 2|v of resonator Si
chamber, it is obvious that it could equally well
InV the-same manner, the frequency 0f resonator
be applied to anyof the others;
'l canf-bevadjustedßby screws 39; Here again', no
lätesonatingY chambers 9 and il have-their rigid
effect is produced on either of the otherlresona
Walls I5, ll‘ connected‘together as by- peripheral
tors. Itis obviousthat the tuning- of-each-'of the
connection member Sl, which carries a flange E3
resonators» isindependent of anyl other,- andthe
25
similar to flange 35. Flange’ läß'carries screws 65
resonatorsmay be adjusted in anyY desired order;
similar to screws 59, which transmit thrust
In the case/of resonator 'I there-is further pro
through thrust rods 61 to plate 29. Resonator ll
vided the novel ñne cantilever- adjustment for
has its flexible wall centrally aperturedA and car
tuning above described.V y It willbe seen-that turn»
ries a tube l l4 terminatinginiouter coolingfñns 13.,
ing micrometer handle 51 will createla- thrust on
Mounted on this tube 'HV is another thrust plate 30 resilient cantilever ¿iii through ball' 5e: This
l5 carrying thrust screws 'Fll bea-ring against
thrust is transmitted'to rod ¿il >by theîcantilever
thrust rods 'iS which in turn bear'against iiange
actiony of member-:159- and thence to-~ resonator
63, the usual lock nuts 8| beingprovided.
chamber l. A dual refinement of tuning-isch'
Eachy of theresonating chambers l, 9, l-lI has
>tained
by this means. First, there is `the reiine-l
35
provided means for, supplying or abstracting‘high
ment by use of a micrometer screw insteadïofthe
frequency energy in the form of concentric line
ordinary screws Se. Thereis a secondgreflnee
terminal posts ßâwhose inner conductorstermi
ment in tuning by use'of the cantilever arrange
nate in coupling or pick-up loops 815.
ment, even over an ordinary rigidA lever, arrange-
‘
In operation, electrons emitted by the‘ cathode '
ment. AIf an- ordinary lever were used, pivoted-‘at f ,
2 forma beam which `may be modulated bysupa 40 screws lil', the/motion of rod 4I would‘bereduced .
plying suitable potentials togrid'ö'.; The electrons
relative to that of micrometer rod' âtby aI factor
are accelerated by the potentialI diiïerenceibe
which is proportional to the ratio- of their rela
tween cathode 2, usually maintained; at a high
negative potential, and'rigid" wall I3; which acts
tive distances from the pivot. The novel method
here used-obtains a further reiinement'overl such
45
as . an accelerating electrode and is `usually
a pivoted lever arrangement, since thereduction
grounded; As is well known, thepassing ofthe
in Adeflectionoírod 4l, using the` cantileveriar'
beam. throughA the ñrst resonating chamber T,
rangementv and` neglecting the` opposing; force
knownA as the “buncher” effects recurrentchanges
created by rod El, is‘by ar factor‘roughly'propor
invelocity ofthe electrons, ofthe beam. Passage 5.0 tionalvto thev square of the ratio> of the' relative
of electronsthrough the drift tube 25’ permits the
distances, sincethe cantilevenassumesa roughly
electronsto'bunch, and to give up their energy
parabolic-shape. Furthermore, the effect'ot'the
upon passage through the secondresonator 9,
opposition'of rod> ¿i to being moved bythe appli
known as the “catcheri’
Output energy cannbe
obtained from the resonator 9. However, morder
to prevent theabstraction of energy from affect’
ing the frequency characteristics ofresonator il
and- of resonator l, which may,> in someY applica
cation of> force to the endof _'the; cantilever tg'is
to further reduce'therelative motion, van'd‘toíeffe'ct
further ' refinement`4 of tuning.
.From
another ,
point of View, thisl results in-further curvature of
the cantilever spring, makingjfthe d’eilectionv of
tions of the device, be coupled to resonator'ß,v the
rod-_ ¿il proportional «to .the appliedlmotionby a
electron beam, now “bunched,” is allowed to pass
factor which is inversely proportional to> .even
60
through the further resonator I l, and output en
higher powers ofthe distance ratio than thesec
ergy is` obtained.»from Vthis resonator, whichlcan
ond power; It~willbe seen thusV that’ extremely
not reflect back into4 the other resonators 'i and 9
ñne andv sensitive tuning adjustments can. be
Y to change their frequency characteristics since
made, which is essential forv successful operation,
it' is coupled tothe other resonators only by the
especially in small tubes operating'athighfre- ,
electronbeam. The novel tube of this invention
quency, >where the slightest. change in size Yand
thereby includes a buffer. stage or resonator, as
shape produces extremelyA _large changes in res
well as the “buncher” and “catcher” stages or
onating , frequency.
'
f
Fig.Y 3 shows a‘ concentric ,line impedance
' resonators.
.Asis well known, the frequency of ‘operation of
matching device or, transformer ß'ï'suitableÍfor
such devices as the present depends onthesize 70 connectingthe tube of Fig. líto any load and ,with
and shape of the resonating chambers; The pres
maximum effect. Such a. connection is shown in
ent invention providesl means for'adjusting’v the ,
Fig. 4.-, which shows the tube connected to an
frequency of~each~of the/resonators. Thus, it is
cleary that turning _screws 'H will» create a-thrust
between plate ‘l5 and ilange E3, kwhich Willbe 75
Ér'iten'na BS-byimeans of»V impedance transformer
2,406,379
The transformer 81 is illustrated as comprising '
a central sleeve 9| in which are mounted the ends
of spaced concentric transmission lines 93, 95
Whose outer conductors are permanently con
nected to sleeve 9| and whose inner conductors
6
by means of phase adjuster I | 1, impedance trans'
former 81‘and transmission line |I5, to a load
shown as antenna 89. This figure shows an elec
tron discharge tube | of the type described above,
coupled to an antenna 89 by means of transmis
sion lines II3 and II5, phase adjuster |I1 and
impedance transformer 81. In tube I, resonator
9 is shown coupled back to resonator 1 by line I I 2,
to provide oscillations. Transformer 81 and phase
extend radially inwardly of this sleeve 9|. These
lines may be open stub lines or terminal posts
having their remote ends adapted for connection
to other transmission lines or loads. .Two cy
lindrical end members 91, 99 are carried by or 10 adjuster` || 1, which is of the sliding joint type
formed in sleeve 9 I. The members 91, 99 are bored
further described below, are shown as mounted
to a suitable diameter for receiving a slidable
on a base I I9 by means of bracket I 2| which holds
snorting plug |0| carrying a reduced rod |03.
the impedance transformer 81 and the ñxed part
The size of the bore in member 99 and the di
93 of the phase adjuster II1. The movable part
ameter of rod I 03 are suitably chosen to form an 15 ||4 of the phase adjuster I|1 is connected to
eiìcíent concentric transmission line. The re
screw |23 by a member |25. The screw |23 is
mote end of rod |03, shown reduced, is threaded . threaded into the bracket |2| , so that rotation of
as at |05. Upon this threaded portion is screwed
the screw | 23 will produce relative motion be
snorting plug |01, which ñts snugly but slidably
tween the two parts of the phase adjuster I I1.
in the bore of member 91 and has an enlarged 20
Transmission
line I I3 is connected directly tothe
portion |09 serving as a knobwhereby the dis
buffer stage output of tube I `and is connected to
tance between the inner faces of plugs |0| and
the input of impedance`transformer 81 by means
|01 may be varied by turning knob |09, and the
of the sliding joint of phase adjuster |I1 more
entire unit composed of plugs |0I and |01 and rod
fully described in connection with Fig. 5. As an
|03 may be slid back and forth longitudinally
illustrative example, let us take the output im
within outer members 91, 99 and sleeve 9|, by lon
gitudinal translational motion of knob |09.
Rod |03 slides within a fixed sleeve | I I, whose
pedance of the tube I to be 30 ohms. Then, trans
mission line I|3 may be modified by the variable
section of phase adjuster |I1 to' be a, half-wave
outer diameter is so selected that it bears the
(or multiple of a half-wave) line, so that thek im-~
same ratio to the inner diameter of sleeve 9| as
pedance at the input of the transformer, looking
the diameter of rod |03 does to the bore of mem 30 back at the tube, will also be 30 ohms. The trans
bers 91, 99. Sleeve I |I is permanently connected
former is then adjusted to transform this value
to the inner conductorsof transmission lines 93,
of impedance to some value such .as '72 ohms,jand
95 and is therefore immobile with respect to sleeve
then a 'Z2-ohm line (i. e. line I I5)L is connected to
the output of the transformer. This 'l2-ohm line
9| and members 91, 99. Sleeve |II tapers down
to the size of rod |03 at its end proportions, as
shown. Members 91, 99 have a corresponding
internal taper. These tapers are s0 chosen as to
maintain constant the ratio of the sizes of outer
I I5 is then shown connected to a :S6-ohm quarter
wave antenna 89 by means of a matching section
|33 shown more in detail in Fig.
.
.
'
The sliding joint phase adjuster of Fig. 5 has a
diameter of the inner conductor to that of the 40 lixed part 93, with inner conductor I 3 I, and a slid
inner diameter of the outer conductor, thereby
ing part I I4, with inner conductor |29, and rela
preserving substantially constant characteristic
tively
movable by means of screw |23. With the
impedance for all sections of this concentric line
ordinary type of sliding joint it is almost impossi
element.
.
»l
ble to avoid Iwave reflection because of the discon
The method of operation is as follows: knob |09
tinuities involved. The joint of Fig. 5 is designed
is turned until the distance between the inner
to
avoid these reflections. The inner conductor
faces oi shorting plugs |0| and |01 is approxi
|29, which slides over the inner conductor I3I, is
mately one-half wave length at‘the operating
extended one-quarter wave length beyond its
frequency. rl‘hen the whole inner portion, com
outer conductor II4. Furthermore, the relative
prising rod |03 and plugs IOI and |01, is slid back 50 dimensions
of conductors |29 and 93 are so chosen,
and forth until the proper match is obtained. At
that the section of line between points P and Q
the optimum point, the device connected to line
93 in parallel with the short circuited stub line
to the left 0f the connecting point of line 93 is
matched, over the section of line between the con
necting point of 93 and that of 95, to the device
has a characteristic impedance which is the geo
_ metric mean of the impedances of each-of lines
55
93 and II4. Methods for calculating the di
mensions of transmission lines to obtaina given
impedance are taught in standard textbooks, such ’
connected to line 95 in parallel with the short cir
as “Radio Engineering,” by F. E. Terman (2d
cuited stub line to the right of the connecintg
edition, p. 698). In this Way, the extended por
point of 95.
tion of conductor |29 forms with the outer con
The impedance transformer of Fig. 3 will match, 60 ductor
93 a quarter-wave matching line which
with certain limitations, a device o-f any imped
causes lines 93 and II4 to be matched perfectly
ance value to another device of any impedance
value connected therethrough.
It lis perfectly
without reflections occuring.
Fig. 6 shows a tapered line section |33 for
symmetrical in action; that is, when a lower im
pedance Value is to be matched to a higher im 65 matching the line II5 to the quarter-wave an
tenna 89. In the example used above, this line
pedance value, the device having either one may
be connected to either terminal of the impedance
transformer.
section |33 would have to match the 'l2-ohm line
II5 to the 36-ohm antenna 89. This section |33
is one-half wave length long, and has an expo
Fig. 4 shows an arrangement using the above
nential variation of impedance with length.
impedance transformer in which resonator 9 is
coupled back to resonator 1, as by transmission 70 Thereforagthe diameter of theinner conductor
varies as an exponential function of an exponen
line I I2, thereby causing tube | to generate oscil
tial function of the distance along the line` seclations. The output of tube I is taken from buffer
tion.
resonator I I by means of transmission line II3 to
preserve stability of oscillation, and is connected,
The variation of inner-diameter shown in Fig.
6 is that needed for matching in the illustrative
'
anode-7.a
example .useda For matching -other- value'soiïixn
pedancethe proñle of the inner conductor! may
bef-concave', instead of `convert as shown', or'may
heb-oth`> concave and convex> With a poi-etici in-r
8
|49? isi similarly arrange'd‘ï.- 'Within sleeve,` MI.f
Sleeves |4‘5fand. i’ßâ'fhave thin-Walled sectionsf |514
and will extending away.' frornî the center of: the
device: These? thinew‘alled, sections are exactly
fiection‘, dependingi on theparticulair valuesof
one-_quarter'wave length long andso dimensioned
that. anale-gunste: thedevice of Fig;r 5, the thin
impedanceto »be matched.
walledï sections' act as quarter-Wave matching
’
'The' explanation of the-l operation of> thisnline
section to. prevent" reflections andstanding waves
1ines-=between=the terminalline and the line corn~
posedof’ sleeveï Ilia (or SL19) and conductor' |35,
is'similar'to that'v of. the usual quarter Wave line
the'chara'cteristic impedance of these matching
10
section. InI such a: quarter wavesectiom a trave
line'sibeingequalto. the. geometric mean of the
elingl Wave will seti un a> reilection> at the' begin
impedances'r of the‘lines immediately connected
ningv of the-section. Theunreflected portion will
thereby» Each of these sleeves |45 and' HiB has
travel quarter-Wave length furtherr and set `up
a= tapered-portion |51 which may be slotted ax
, a second reñected vvave‘at-> thev discontinuity at
the end of the section. This ksecond. >reflected'vlave Y'
W-ill travel back quarter-wave length‘and Will then
the'r ñrst- reiie'cted ' Wave and .'
be out' of' phase with
hence“ thev two reilect'ed waves* will»` neutralize',
provided»4 the proper amplitude relations are:ob«
served.' This is insured by having the characteristic impedance'of the. quarter-Wave length sec
tion equal the geometricme'an' of the two in1~
pedances to «be matched.
_
The present half-Wave length> sectionv operates
iallyï. FixedlyI attachedl to sleev‘es‘lêä-4 and m9,'
are threaded.. ring-s` |5ë'.. These- engagewvvith
clamping rings' `l 552 havingéa taperedk portion mat'
ing'»` with tapered portion §52', I~`whereby, upon
threading-clamping ring lñäen ring lëâ; the~ta~
pered- portion.. l5 if’ isi' clamped> againstÍ sleeve M5
or M9, servingct'o keep rings ¿Saandv M5, orgie-i
and M9, in_their‘y adjusted- positio'ns. SleevesA M25
and |49 are joined, by an eccentric yokev mern~
ber» |511 Sleeves lllô'andjlêâïmay have flanged
ends'asfat m91 Yoke |5’i‘isprovid'ed WiththreadM
in a similar‘manner; that is, the reflectedwave 25 edV portions» lîìl‘
cooperate withfrings itâ
at'the end |23 of- the‘half-Wave length section
to prevent-sleeves |655k andi |69 from‘any relative
|33îis' used to neutralize the Wave setup. ati the
axialmotiom While'leaving. yoke iâlfree tor beginning |39 of the section §33. One impor
tate.Y rIîhe'por-tio'n ofî yoke lä’i'whic‘h-cooperates
tant difference »exists here: in the case ofy the
with
offset portion. |31 or“V the inner conductor is
so
ordinary quarterèwave lengtliisection“, the change
in impedance» at'the'v points of discontinuity is
in the- same directionl at both'. en'dg of' the line
section; that is", both-have increasing impedance
values or botnfh‘ave decreasing-> impedance values.
In the case of'the present section. §33, the types
of discontinuity are opposite; that is, thereisa
break' from constant" impedance to: varying im»
pedance at mi, and then a' sec'ondlbreak' from \
exactlyfoneäquarterfWave length long.
,_
Inner conductor.'A |35' and Isleeve |39 (or ISH)
may have' any relative: sizes', but arefpreferably
so proportioned as tof constitute one of-the usual
concentric transmission line sizes.V The portion
of the; transmission; line: formed by the offset
inner conductor i3? and sleeve |45 (or |59) is
proportioned >t'o--lo'zwathe same impedance asthe Y,
porti-on of lin'e'.- constituted` by.- innerconductor
varying impedance to’ constant impedance at‘ |28.
This introduces an additional?.v 180 degrees'phase
shift between the two reflected Waves. Hence,
for neutralization, the lin’e must be half-Wave
length (or 180 electrical degrees) long,- softhat
adding up the phase shifts caused by the" direct
wavetravel time, the reiiection, and the reflect
ed Wave travel rtime will result inzphase' opposi
tion; The proper amplitude' relations" are ob
servedby having an exponential variation ofim'
effect oi- offsettingfthe inner conductor of a con
centric transmission line is to increase its» ca
` pacitanceîand.'therefore- to decrease its character-v
pedancealong'the section |33. Since impedance
portion' ofíthelinner conductor is reduc’edby the
|35 and outer conductor ist: (or Ml), so that no
losses or.' reflections.. Will be encountered at the
junctions of offset andregular portions;
The
‘
istie’ impedance'ì TheY effect of decreasing. the
‘diameter ofthe inner conductor oi" a concentric
variesfasßth'e~ logarithm of the ratio ofîioiuter"con-V .
ductor diameter to' inner conductor diameter, and
since the outer conductor- |331’ is constant` inrdi
ameter, this necessitates a doublyu exponential
Variation of the diametericftheinner conductor
V|3121'
v Figs. 7- to 10 show» an alternativeïforrn of i1n-
pedanceltra‘nsformer'Whichwilloperate to trans
fo‘rxn or matchf the impedance of a fixed> impe'.
dance element into any‘desired‘ impedance value.
It’ mayi serve' to match a device' having an'arbi
trary impedance value with that of a particular
concentric transmission: line. This matching
transformer' has an` inner conductoríiSS which
has an intermediate. onset portion i3?` at'.- least
three-«quartersïci a Wave length long. Fixed to
the. inner conductorv |35.- are two sleeveportions
|39,. |4| xedly joined to theinner _conductor
|35 byinsulati'ngimember's |43. Slidably, mount
transmissioníline is to increase its characteristic
impedance'ìl Hence', the diameterr of the offset
amount necessary; to compensate for the de
creasedïch’aracteristic impedance caused by oil”- Y
setting,V leavingithenet impedance the same.
The diameter of theßeccentric opening‘in yoke
|51r is adjusted so that‘at the most eccentric po
sition of". the rotation of yoke Eâï, the yoke just
touch‘estheî offset' innerf conductor- I3?, as shown
in Fig.` 9,' and at` theV other extrerneof rotation
the inner conductor |31 is concentricWith-thc
sleeve opening, as’shovvnl in Fig. 8. For other'de
g-rees` of»A rotation there will be spacings' of inner
'conductor lßï'with respect toy yo-ke'riâ’l varyingY l
front-thatrshown in'Fig.y 9 to that shown in Fig. S.
Endcaps andV adapters |65 for connectingv the
device 'toi standardl concentric transmissionlines
are.' provided, usingl the proportional taper ex
plained; in connection with Fig. 3.
The operation of the device of Fig: 7 can best
be explained'on the basis ofthe diagram- of Fig.
ed-Within sleeve |39> and -outside of conductor
11; This‘i‘lguren shows', on animpedance-dia
|351 is va- conducting sleeve iñä'rnaintained elec>~ 70 grani WhoseI coordinate aXes represent resistance
trically'separate from conductor |35l byinsulat
and reactanœ, the constant-coordinate lines of
ing member HW.'Y Theinsulating member |51
slides on conductor |35 >and is iiXed to sleeve Iëë.
Obviously, member IM couldijust a's-‘vvellbefñxed
to? conductor |35 andi sliderv invsleeve-Iv | ¿45. Y- A-sleeve 75
aibip’olar coordinating system'having poles such
asfZo.v Onlyf the right half of this diagram is
shown», the left. half. beinga mirror image oflïthe
2,406,372v
9
right. 'I‘hese constant-coordinate lines form two
families of circles, one family with centers on
the X-axis (axis of reactance) and passing
through both poles and the other family having
centers on the R-axis (axis of resistance) such’
that each circle of one family crosses every cir
cle of the other family at right angles. This
system, therefore, forms an orthogonal curvilin
l0
R3 (Fig. 11) can easily be obtained, providing
substantially perfect matching.
Fig. 12 shows another embodiment of imped
ance transformer which also can match .the im
pedance of any impedance element to th'at of »
any other impedance element. This embodiment
comprises a concentric line device having an
outer cylindrical conductor |91 in which is fas
ear coordinate system known as the bipolarcoor
tened a perpendicular sleeve section |69 of equal
dinate system. It can be shown that, if the poles lO diameter. Supported within conductor |51 as by
of such a system are chosen to be th'e points rep
insulator |1| is a concentric inner conductor |13
resenting the characteristic impedance of a
which also has a perpendicular section |15 of
transmission line, and if an arbitrary impedance
equal size which is concentric with section |59.
value is selected, such as represented by point Z
A reducing end cap having tapered portion |11
on Fig. 11, and connected to varying lengths of 15 similar to |95 in Fig. '1 is provided for coupling
the transmission line, `then the net impedance,
looking from the remote end of the transmission
line to impedance Z, is represented by points
this device to a standard line or other impedance.
The diameter of the concentric line section form
ing the impedance transformer is made larger
than the line to which it may be coupled'in order
ZRiRz passing through Z. This impedance locus 20 to
increase eiiiciency of operation.
y
moving along the constant-coordinate circle
makes one complete rotation around Zu, back to
Z, for each half wave-length of line added. Thus
we see that, in order to tune impedance Z to reso
nance, enough line must be added to carry the
net impedance to point R1. This would give a
high resistance resonance condition. If more
line is added, we finally reach a low resistance
resonance point R2.
'
Sliding within sleeve |99 is a movable snorting
disc or plunger |19 moved by plunger rod | 8|.
The snorting disc |19 carries spring fingersY |83
which make good electrical contact with conduc
tors |69 and |15 while permitting sliding motion.
Sliding within sleeve _|51 is sleeve |85. Fastened
concentrically within sleeve |85, as by insulator
|81, is sleeve |89 which has an inner diameter
The above theory is used in the operation of
chosen to give sliding contact with rod |13. An
the device of Fig. 7. Let us assume, for illustra 30 end cap and tapered section |11 is also provided
tive purposes, that sleeve |39 and conductor |35
for this end of the device.
'
_ make up a '12 ohm line. It is desired to match a
Inner sleeve |89 ends one quarter of a wave
'12 ohm line to any arbitrary value of impedance,
length within the end of sleeve |85. The por
not necessarily purely resistive.Y The 72 ohm
tion of sleeve |85 not opposite sleeve |89 (that is,
line is connected to the left end of the impedance 35 the last quarter wave length) has a thickened
transformer, which it matches since it has been
assumed that this left end constitutes a 72 ohm
line.
The element having any arbitrary im
wall, formed in this instance by inserting sleeve
|9| permanently fastened to sleeve |85.
The
dimensions of conductors |91, |13, I 9|, |85 and
pedance value is connected to the right end of
|89 are so ch'osen `that the characteristic imped
the device. The length‘ of transmission line be 40 ance of the Lili-_|13 section of line is equal
tween the element of arbitrary impedance and
to the geometric mean of the vcharacteristic im
the beginning of eccentric sleeve |51 is then ad
pedances of the |51~|13 and |85-| 89 sections,
justed by sliding sleeve |49 within sleeve |4|
thereby avoiding‘reflectionsvat the sliding joint,
until the value of arbitrary impedance plus that
as discussed above.
of the line, looked at from the beginning of the 45
Accordingly, an impedance matching trans
eccentric sleeve |51, exhibits minimum resistive
former has thus been provided whereby any` pair'
impedance. This corresponds to transforming
of arbitrary impedance values may be matched
the point Z (Fig. 1l) to point R2 by adding a
by adjustment of the length of a section of con
length of line corresponding to th'e heavy arc
centric transmission line connected in cascade
ZRiRz. If we look to the left from the left edge 50 with one of the arbitrary impedance’ values and
of the eccentric~sleeve |51, there is also exhibited
by the subsequent adjustment of the length of
a pure resistance, since everything connected to
a short-circuited section of concentric transmis
the left end of the transformer is matched. This «
sion line connected in parallel with the cascade
resistance however, is not R2 but Zu. There-re
connected transmission line section.l It is under
mains the step of matching two purely resistive 65 stood that the order of these adjustments is
impedances of diiferent values. 'I'h'is is done by
immaterial.
f
rotating the eccentric sleeve |51 to the proper
The theory and method of operation of the
position, which will be that at which the quar
` V'device of Fig. 12 may be explained on the basis of
ter wave length line |51 exhibits a resistive im
a diagram similar to Fig. 1l, but wherein the co
pedance R3 equals \/Rz.Zo, i. e., the geo-metric 60 ordinate axes represent susceptance B and con
mean of the two impedances to be matched.
ductance G rather than reactance X and resist
ance R so that the diagram represents admit
Since the sleeve |51 constitutes a quarter
tance Y rather than impedance Z. Such an ad-v
wave length line, its impedance will always be
mittance diagram would have the same bipolar
resistive. Rotating the sleeve will vary the posi
coordinate system as shown in Fig. 11, butthe
tion of the inner conductor |31 relative to the 65 poles
would be the characteristic admittance
outer conductor (sleeve |51) from that shown
in Fig. 8, which has maximum resistance, to that
shown in Fig. 9, which has Zero resistance. If
the eccentric sleeve'cpening is properly propor
tioned relative to the diameter of offset inner 70 instead of characteristic impedanceZo. VFor sim
plicity, Fig. 11 will be used again, it being under
conductor |31, the quarter wave length line can
stood that, wherever the symbol Y is used, the
exhibit any resistance from Zero to a value at
least as large as Zo, so that by properly position
admittance diagram is meant.
'
ing the sleeve, the required-resistance, such as 75 Now, if it _is desired to match two loads having
admittances Y1 and Y2, respectively, it will be
_
i121
may7 _be Amatched-.ley adjustment of the 4lengths of
necessary .to match :both ‘fthe fsuscentanccs and
conductances of these'îloads. YBySgrafduaílly sadd
said twosections.
' 1
_5. r¿in impedance ymatching transformer com'
pnising asection of »hollow transmission line hav
V ing _transmission sline .having .admittance sin to
load .Y1, the resulting.admittance'naries _counter
clockwise `around 'the .circle Yi,
"_By ¿adding
sufficient line, .the lresultant .admittance can «.be
inst la vfixed unitaryinner conductor, _means co
operating witha section of said inner conductor .
and therefore theimpedances, perfectly.
obtained by .varying
theîlengthiof Vstub‘line .I 69.-.- I 15,'-by1moving plung
for _providing a line section .of adjustable char
acteristic impedance, and means vfor axially >aclj_usting .the _position of said variable impedance '
section relative to said _inner conductor.
v_6. An impedance _matching transformer _com
prising `_a„transmission -line section of the coaxial
conductor type .having _an outer conductor made
er :|81 in I»or out to .add :the proper amount _of
up of va iìXedcentr-al section and _axiallyadjustá
made to be Y’,‘having the sameconductance .as
Y2 ¿but .diii’eren't -susceptance eBy ¿adding ¿pure
4Vsusceptance, we can match uthe :admittances 'iYl
and
' Such added susceptance is
susceptance v.in 4parallel lwith »the line .section
'ljBL-Jll'l-S. ïlfthe admittance Ya-shouldhetvholly
ableendsections, and an inner conductor of 'fixed
to l:the >right or left of the circle traveled êbyYi,
lengtnuextending between said end sections and
wherein said _inner conductor is formed with .an
thentit is merely necessary to ‘interchangeYl and '
intermediateeccentric portion.
Y2; .that is, Y2 would then ‘be connected to the
il. çAn.impedance‘transformerfor matchingany y
tightend ofithedevice vof Fig. =1’2.
two
.impedances comprising means yincluding ¿an
'From the above analysis, itis evident ¿that to 20 adjustable length section .-of «concentric trans
`use' ¿the 4device o'fîlïlig. 12, 'itis:merelyinecessaryto
mission `line connected fin .cascade »with ¿one of
connect Loneirnpeda'nce `-element kat Teach
then
said limpedances .for converting »the Éconductan_ce
vary-.the’îlength of ¿line at the sliding lio-int :until
of .said .one impedance .toga value v¿equal _to that
the .conductances’become matchedgand thenvary
of .said »,.other impedance, and ,means including
the `Ashorlting lplug =until the -susceptances .are
an _adjustable length .short-circuited »section ¿of
matched. Then the impedance values/of the »two
concentric vtransmission «line -`con-necterîi in par
impedance .elements will 'be matched.
allel with said ñrst section for adding suscepta-nce
As .many rchanges could ‘be'fmade îin v`the above
to said .converted impedance to 'fullymatch saidV
constructions :and many «apparently ‘widely ldif 30 twoimnedances.
f
„8. .An .impedance ‘matching »transformer com
Yferent »embodiments of this invention `:could ¿be
made without departing from -:the scope thereof,
prising .a .transmission Yline section of the _coaxial
it `is intended Ythat «all matter `conta-ined in ïthe
conductor ».type .and Íof .substantially invariant
above `description orïs‘hown -in the accompanying
over-all 'length having an l.outerYc_ondilctor :made
drawings shall l-be interpreted as illustrative and 35 up ,of _an .axially _adjustable :central `rsection ,hav
inga portionof-eccentricfbore and-relativelyyfi-xed
not in a 'limitingsense
"What'is claimed is:
-1. A »transformer device for matching `the ad
end „sections for telescopingly l‘receiving isaid cen
tral section .upon .adjustment jof said central sec
tion, .and ¿an inner .conductor cf `iixed :length :ex
mittances of any two` circuit elementscorn-aris-V
ing adjustable `means‘for »converting the » conduct
ancefof `one'of `said elements to a rvalue equal '-to
that `of :said »other element, land independent Aad
justable A»rneansffor adding substantially pure Äsus
ceptance 'to sa'id vconverted conductance to fully
match said Vtwo admittances.
»
‘
40 tendingfbetweenandñxed tosaidfend sections.Y '
_9. Apparatus for .transforming »any :arbitrary
impedance value .to another vvimpedance -val-_ue
comprising a ñ-xed lengthofvcoaxial type tra-ns-`
_míssion -line .having input and output terminal
‘portions and :adapted .to .be »connectedsat one of
.
#2. VJ'Apparatus for matching twocircuit-elements
having any admittance `Vvalues Vcomprising ja »sec
tionof-:transmissionîline o'f the-coaxial conductor
said portions .toa circuitelemerrt havingsaidgar
bitrialjyimnedance value, _adjustable transmission
line means .having variable _characteristic _imped->
anGe „coupled ,in .Cascade .between said 'termina-l
portions and .mutually zcooperable means ateach
type xadapted for :connection between «said -circuit
elements, ~means Alion-varying the length of --said
' line'section for making ¿the conductance offene «
Oìf ...Said .terminal portions for _simultaneously
equally and .Qiënositely .varying the length offline
cfßsaidicircuit elements equal to the conductance '
of theother circuit element, and ffurther means
fromy one _of . said terminal'portions »to vsaid»variable
for .adding .substantially =pure suseeptance --to one
of fsaid :circuit >elements until 'ïboth circuit yele
' 3. An impedance transformer for transformingV
characteristic :impedance «means and »the length
of Y.line „from .the ,other of .said terminal portions
to .said variable :characteristic ~impedance means.
1_0. _A_n Aimpedance `matching »transformer «for
an arbitrary y‘impedance value to fanotherjar
matching la transmission line to any load, -com
ments have fthe same values-»of susceptance. Y
bitrary yalue, comprising _an adjustable 'length
section of concentric transmission 'line 'adapted
to `be connected Ain cascade ’to said arbitralîyfim
prising means, includingV an adjustable ,section
of transmission line having _a _telescopi-ng .cylin
drical louter conductor and _a .concentric inner
conductor vwith Van off-set .eccentric portion, .for
converting the impedance _of said load to _a Pure
resistance, >and further means, including a quarter
pedance value, and an adjustable 'length _ofs‘hort _
circuited .section .of concentric A_transmissiondine
connected 1in shunt `,to said first sectioninter
mediate the ends thereof, whereby ,said .other
Ul
wave section of transmission line having ysaid
arbitrary impedance value .may fbe .obtained `.by v
eccentric conductor as inner conductor and Àa
adjustment of the lengths of said two sections.
4. An impedance transformer for matching the
impedances of two -circuit elements having` any
rotatable Aouter-conductor with a circular bore
eccentrictto said cylindrical »outer conductor, for
matching'said resistance to the characteristic fim
`saiditransmissioniine.
impedance values, comprising an >adjustable 70 pedancefof
1:1. An iimpedance transfer-mer .comprising 'a
length _section _of 'transmission line _adapted to loe
pairk of :fixed coaxial 'outer ¿conductor w end -nieces,
connected in cascadebetween .said elements, fand _. an .innerfconductor çinsulatingly :fixed to said ¿pair
an adjustable length section of .transmission lin-e
of Y_end ¿nieces :and _having ¿an off-set vportion ¿ec
connected .in_shunt Atosaid_.ñrst,s_ectdon _intermedi 75 centric :to .saidtend pieces, and a :sliding :member 1
ate the ends thereof, whereby saidl impedanccs
13
2,406,372
comprising a quarter wave section of conductor
having a bore eccentric to and surrounding said
olf-set eccentric portion and rotatably ñxed be
tween a pair of outer conductor sections slidably
engaging said end pieces, whereby, by translation
17. A transmission line comprising e. hollow
tubular outer conductor, a ñrst section of inner
conductor substantially concentrically mounted
within said outer conductor, a seco-nd section of
inner conductor comprising a continuation of said
first section but eccentric to said outer conduc
tor, and a rotatable portion of said o-uter con
ductor having a bore eccentric to the remainder
of said sliding member, the reactance of one con
centric transmission line, connected to one of
said end pieces and said inner conductor, may be
matched to that of second »concentric transmis
sion line, connected to the other of said end pieces 10 of said outer conductor, said bore being disposed
about said eccentric inner conductor section.
and said inner conductor, and by rotation of said
18. An impedance matching transmission line
eccentric quarter wave lsection the resistances of
device
comprising a hollow outer conductor made
said reactance matched line may also be matched.
up of a central portion and telescoping tubes
12. An impedance transformer as in claim 11
providing end portions adjustable in length, a
wherein the diameter of said off-set portion of 15
substantially
concentric inner conductor having
said inner conductor is reduced by the amount
an
intermediate
section eccentric with saidouter
necessary to match the impedance of the line
conductor, and a rotatable section of said> central
formed by said concentric inner conductor and
portion of said outer conductor having a bore
said outer conductor section to the impedance of
eccentric
to said outer conductor and disposed
the line formed by said eccentric inner conductor
about said eccentric inner conductor portion.
and said outer conductor section.
19. A reflection eliminating> transmission line
13. An impedance transformer as in claim 11
joint comprising two sections of transmission line
further including means for preventing reflec
of the coaxial conductor type, means intercon
tions at said sliding joints, comprising a changed
necting said sections for relative axial adjust
inner diameter of the inner one of said slidingly
ment, and means comprising an impedance
engaged conductors for la quarter wavelength
matching section in said line between said'two
from said joint, said changed diameter being of
sections, said matching section having a ratio of
the proper amount to make the characteristic im
diameters of inner and outer conductors different
pedance of the line section comprising said
from that of said other two sections, and said
changed diameter of a value substantially equal C13 O matching
section having a ñxed axial- length sub
to the geometric mean ofthe characteristic im
stantially
equal to a multiple including unity of
pedances of the neighboring sections of concen
a
quarter
of a wavelength of the operating fre
tric transmission line.
quency, which ñxed length is maintained 'during
14. An adjustable concentric transmission line
all positions of relative adjustment of said two
comprising a iirst section having an inner con
sections.
ductor and a concentric outer conductor, a sec
ond section having ,an outer conductor adapted
to slidingly engage the outer conductor of said
20. A reflection eliminating transmission line
joint comprising two sections of transmission line
iirst section, and having an inner conductor
‘ of the coaxial conductor type, means telescopical
`wave length of the operating frequency beyond
I ratio of diameters of inner and outer conductors
the other of said conductors of said second sec
tion, whereby a portion of said line is formed
said matching section comprising the terminal
adapted to slidingly engage the inner conductor 40 ly interconnecting the outer conductors of said
sections for relative axial adjustment, and means
of said iirst section, one ofV said conductors of
providing
an'impedance matching section in said
said second section extending a Vdistance equal
line
between
said two sections, and having a
to a multiple including unityof a quarter of a
by one conductor from each of said sections, the
dimensions of said inner and outer conductors
being so chosen that the characteristic imped
different from that of said other two sections,
portion of one conductor of one of said two sec
tions extended coextensive with the correspond
ing other conductor of the other of said two
sections, and said terminal portion having a ñxed
ance of said portion has a value equal to the
axial length of one-quarter of the wavelength at
geometric mean of the characteristic impedances
operating frequency, or a multiple thereof, which
of said two sections.
fixed
length is maintained during all positions of
15. The transmission line deñned in claim 14,
relative adjustment of said outer conductors.
wherein the inner conductor of said second sec
21. The transmission line joint deñned in claim
tion extends said distance beyond the outer con 55
20, wherein said terminal portion is an Vextension
ductor of said second Sectio .
'
of one'of said outer conductors.
16. An adjustable concentric transmission line
22. The transmission line joint defined in claim
comprising an inner conductor, a first sleeve sur- `
20,
wherein said two sections have substantially
rounding said inner conductor, a second sleeve
surrounding said inner conductor and slidingly 60 common inner conductor means, and said ter»minal portion is an extension of one of said outer
iitting said first sleeve, the inner diameter of the
conductors.
end portion of the inner of said sleeves being
23. The transmission line joint defined in claim
different from the inner diameter of the adjacent
20, wherein the inner conductors of said two sec
portion of said inner sleeve for a iixed distance
tions are slidably engaged, and said terminal por
of substantially one quarter wave length of the
tion is an extension of one of said inner conduc
operating frequency, the inner diameters of said
tors beyond its associated outer conductor.
sleeves and the outer‘diameter of said inner con
24. The transmision line joint dei-ined in claim
ductor being so chosen that the characteristic
20, wherein the inner conductors of said two sec
impedance of the section of concentric transmis
tions are slidably engaged, and said terminal por#
sion line which includes said end portion has a
value equal to the geometric mean of the values
of the characteristic impedances formed by said
two sleeves and said inner conductor, whereby no
'wave reflections are obtained at said sliding joint.
tion is an extension of one o
ductors.
said outer con
~
WILLIAM W. HANSEN.
JOHN R. WOODYARD.
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