Патент USA US2406372код для вставки
AUS-'27,1946 _ ' w. w.‘HANsEN E-rAL I ’HIGHy FREQUENCY -'A_1=>P.I\RATU¿~: Filed May 17, 1_941 ‘ _ . 2,406,372 - _ 3 sheets-sheet v1 ' Il INVENTOR WILLIAM W. HANSEN «M JOHN R. WOODYARD ‘ ' ` Aug. l27', 1946. .` ’2,406,372 w. w. HANSEN ETAL HIGH FREQUENCY APPARATUS « File@ Mày 17, 1941 _5 Sheets-Sheet 2 \\\\\\\\\Y\\ \\\\\\ FIG». 6 Í .ÉÁ . INVENTOR WILLIAM W HANSEN dw( JOHN R. WOODYARD 'BY ' AugQ 27, _1946. HIGH FREQUENCY APPARATUS Y A fs Shee'çs-sheet s Filed >May 17', 41_94 5 7 Fll-r. . A INVENTORS WILLIAM W. HANSEN ` Y JQHN FLWOODYARD _' l THEIR ATTQN'Y.' _` Patented Aug. 27, 1946 2,406,372 UNITED STATES PATENT? »OFFICE ì 2,406,372 i ` HIGH-FREQUENCY APPARATUS William W. Hansen an d John R. Woodyard, Gar den City, N. Y., assignors to Sperry Gyroscope Company, Inc., Brooklyn, N. Y., a corporation of New York ‘ - Application May17, 1941, .Serial No. 393,868 24 Claims. (Cl. 17E-44) This invention relates, generally, to the art of high frequency energy transmission and appara tus related thereto, and has reference more par ticularly, -to novel improvements in` impedance matching and transforming devices adapted for use with this type of apparatus operating at ultra-high frequencies, of the order of 109 cycles per second. In transforming energy from one high fre quency device to another, it is Well known that the Value of the impedances of the respective de vices must be properly matched in order to avoid the production of standing waves with attendant increase in losses and decrease in the energy 2 section of an electron discharge tube structure adapted to be used in a high frequency transmit ting and/ or receiving system wherein the present invention may advantageously be included. y"An electron discharge tube of the indicated type is disclosed and claimed in a- copending divisional application filed in the names of the present in ventors and bearing Serial N o. 420,771; Fig. 2 lis a perspective view rof the fine tuning adjustment of the tube of Fig. 1; . Fig. 3 is a longitudinal sectional view of one typé of impedance matching device, or imped ance transformer; Fig. 4 shows a radio transmitting system incor transmitting capacity of the system. Further, porating the tube of Fig. 1 and the impedance for maximum» eillciency, it is known that the 15„ transformer of Fig. 3; impedance of a load or utilization «device must be properly transformed to match that of the source. . The present invention is principally directed toward the provision of improved impedance matching and transforming devices which are adapted to eflicien-tly couple and match the im pedance values of the circuit elements inter Y Fig. 5 is a view partly in section of a detail of Fig. 4; Fig. 6 is a sectional View. of the antenna and reflector of Fig. 4; ‘ Fig. 7 is a longitudinal section vof an alterna tive type of impedance transformer; Figs. 8, 9 and 10 are cross-sections of Fig. 7 taken along lines 8_8, 9_9 and Ill-I0 respec connected thereby with a minimum of adjust tively; ~ ment and a maximum of facility and efliciency. 25 Fig. 11 is a diagram explanatory of the opera In another of its aspects, the present inven tion of the device of Fig. 7; and tion is directed .toward a provision of a novel Fig. 12 is a longitudinal cross-section of a fur sliding joint utilizable in connection with the ther modification of impedance matching ‘trans above-mentioned impedance matching and former. transforming devices, or, which may be em 30 In the drawings, Fig. 1 shows an electron dis ployed generally in ultra-high-frequency cou charge tube structure I comprising an indirectly pling arrangements wherever adjustability and` heated cathode 2 having a heater 3, a modulat smoothness of transition are desired. ing grid 5 and spaced, cylindrical, resonators or A principal object of the present invention is to provide novel impedance matching means for 35 resonating chambers'l, 9, II. These resonators have rigid dished walls I3, I5, I1 and opposed matching the impedance of an apparatus of the ilexible walls I9, 2|, 23, respectively, the dished above character to that of other apparatus, such walls being centrally apertured and provided impedance matching means being designed for with grids. 'Flexible walls' I9 and 2l of resonators versatile operation in that it may efñciently con 'l and 9 are joined by a' drift tube 25 also having nect two impedance elements havingimpedances 40 grids at it-s ends opposite the grids of Walls I3 of different values with high elìciency of power and I5. This tube 25 has a central threaded por tion 21 for retaining'a thrust plate 29 thereon. A further object is to provied novel impedance The main body 33 of the tube I carries a flange matching means which is so designed as to ef 35 which has several threaded holes 3l, in this ñciently match both the resistive and reactive _ case shown, for illustrative purposes ~ only, as components of any two impedance elements hav three in number although only two are visible in ing generally different impedance values. \ the showing of Fig. 1. These threaded’holes 3l Another object is to provide novel and eilicient ilow therebetween. Y i . l sliding joints for telescoping concentric trans mission lines, whereby reflections and standing waves are prevented. A still further object is to provide a novel transmission line section having a cylindrical outer conductor and an eccentrically and adjust ably positioned inner conductor. Other objects and advantages will become ap parent from the specification taken in connec carry thrust screws 39, one end of each of which terminates in a shape suitable for the application of a Wrench for turning the screw, or in a'slot for receiving a screw driver, while the otherL end terminates in a socket adapted to receive the ball headsV of .thrust rods 4l, 43. The screws 39 also have lock nuts 45 for maintaining them in their set position. TheV other end of each of the - thrust rods 43 is placed'in a socket in the thrust plate 29 similar tothe sockets in screws 39._ The Fig. 1 is a view in side elevation ¿and partly in 60 plate 29 has rigidly fastened to it, as by screws 41„a resilient >cantilever leaf member 49. The tion with the accompanying drawings, wherein, 2,406,372 member 43 is fastened to plate 29 YatQone end only, in cantilever fashion. The unfastened end of cantilever ¿9 is adapted to be moved by the transmitted to the rigid wall I1 and the` flexible wall 23 of resonator ll to create-relative thrust therebetween. This thrust is opposed by the ac. tion of atmospheric pressure on the evacuated movable stem 5l Vof a micrometer arrangement. . ` chamber, which tends to collapse the flexible wall. 53 mounted as by bracket 55 on plate 29. Rota-l ' ' This> adjustment of screws 'Il' therefore causes tion of handle 51 results in transmission of thrustv to cantilever sà through ball 59, resulting in de flection of the resilient cantilever; ¿59. Thrust rod 4| is socketed at one end in the member êûmear the fastened end of this member,l and Yat the other end in its screw 39. _deformation of the flexible wall 23, thereby changing the resonating frequency of this res onating chamber- Once adjusted, the frequency may bemaintained by use of the lock nuts El to maintain screws 11 in desired position. Turning screwsY 55 will in like manner create Fig. 2 shows plate 2Q with rodsât and/¿Sdn relative thrust between the rigid and flexible walls their normal operating position. These rodsv are, of resonator 9 and causetuning of this resonator. held in position in the actual device by the oppo It will be noted that this tuning cannot affect the 15 sition to deformation of the rresonating chamber tuning of resonator > l-I, since »no thrust is` created . 'l' created largely by atmospheric >pressureacting between the rigid andA flexible walls `of thatnres on the evacuated casing 3%; as described below. onator by turning screws G5. At most, a slight HWhile> the cantilever ». tuning'v means has been motion ofthe Whole- resonator H occurs,- due- to shown` as applied only to the first> resonating deformation of »flexible Wall 2|v of resonator Si chamber, it is obvious that it could equally well InV the-same manner, the frequency 0f resonator be applied to anyof the others; 'l canf-bevadjustedßby screws 39; Here again', no lätesonatingY chambers 9 and il have-their rigid effect is produced on either of the otherlresona Walls I5, ll‘ connected‘together as by- peripheral tors. Itis obviousthat the tuning- of-each-'of the connection member Sl, which carries a flange E3 resonators» isindependent of anyl other,- andthe 25 similar to flange 35. Flange’ läß'carries screws 65 resonatorsmay be adjusted in anyY desired order; similar to screws 59, which transmit thrust In the case/of resonator 'I there-is further pro through thrust rods 61 to plate 29. Resonator ll vided the novel ñne cantilever- adjustment for has its flexible wall centrally aperturedA and car tuning above described.V y It willbe seen-that turn» ries a tube l l4 terminatinginiouter coolingfñns 13., ing micrometer handle 51 will createla- thrust on Mounted on this tube 'HV is another thrust plate 30 resilient cantilever ¿iii through ball' 5e: This l5 carrying thrust screws 'Fll bea-ring against thrust is transmitted'to rod ¿il >by theîcantilever thrust rods 'iS which in turn bear'against iiange actiony of member-:159- and thence to-~ resonator 63, the usual lock nuts 8| beingprovided. chamber l. A dual refinement of tuning-isch' Eachy of theresonating chambers l, 9, l-lI has >tained by this means. First, there is `the reiine-l 35 provided means for, supplying or abstracting‘high ment by use of a micrometer screw insteadïofthe frequency energy in the form of concentric line ordinary screws Se. Thereis a secondgreflnee terminal posts ßâwhose inner conductorstermi ment in tuning by use'of the cantilever arrange nate in coupling or pick-up loops 815. ment, even over an ordinary rigidA lever, arrange- ‘ In operation, electrons emitted by the‘ cathode ' ment. AIf an- ordinary lever were used, pivoted-‘at f , 2 forma beam which `may be modulated bysupa 40 screws lil', the/motion of rod 4I would‘bereduced . plying suitable potentials togrid'ö'.; The electrons relative to that of micrometer rod' âtby aI factor are accelerated by the potentialI diiïerenceibe which is proportional to the ratio- of their rela tween cathode 2, usually maintained; at a high negative potential, and'rigid" wall I3; which acts tive distances from the pivot. The novel method here used-obtains a further reiinement'overl such 45 as . an accelerating electrode and is `usually a pivoted lever arrangement, since thereduction grounded; As is well known, thepassing ofthe in Adeflectionoírod 4l, using the` cantileveriar' beam. throughA the ñrst resonating chamber T, rangementv and` neglecting the` opposing; force knownA as the “buncher” effects recurrentchanges created by rod El, is‘by ar factor‘roughly'propor invelocity ofthe electrons, ofthe beam. Passage 5.0 tionalvto thev square of the ratio> of the' relative of electronsthrough the drift tube 25’ permits the distances, sincethe cantilevenassumesa roughly electronsto'bunch, and to give up their energy parabolic-shape. Furthermore, the effect'ot'the upon passage through the secondresonator 9, opposition'of rod> ¿i to being moved bythe appli known as the “catcheri’ Output energy cannbe obtained from the resonator 9. However, morder to prevent theabstraction of energy from affect’ ing the frequency characteristics ofresonator il and- of resonator l, which may,> in someY applica cation of> force to the endof _'the; cantilever tg'is to further reduce'therelative motion, van'd‘toíeffe'ct further ' refinement`4 of tuning. .From another , point of View, thisl results in-further curvature of the cantilever spring, makingjfthe d’eilectionv of tions of the device, be coupled to resonator'ß,v the rod-_ ¿il proportional «to .the appliedlmotionby a electron beam, now “bunched,” is allowed to pass factor which is inversely proportional to> .even 60 through the further resonator I l, and output en higher powers ofthe distance ratio than thesec ergy is` obtained.»from Vthis resonator, whichlcan ond power; It~willbe seen thusV that’ extremely not reflect back into4 the other resonators 'i and 9 ñne andv sensitive tuning adjustments can. be Y to change their frequency characteristics since made, which is essential forv successful operation, it' is coupled tothe other resonators only by the especially in small tubes operating'athighfre- , electronbeam. The novel tube of this invention quency, >where the slightest. change in size Yand thereby includes a buffer. stage or resonator, as shape produces extremelyA _large changes in res well as the “buncher” and “catcher” stages or onating , frequency. ' f Fig.Y 3 shows a‘ concentric ,line impedance ' resonators. .Asis well known, the frequency of ‘operation of matching device or, transformer ß'ï'suitableÍfor such devices as the present depends onthesize 70 connectingthe tube of Fig. líto any load and ,with and shape of the resonating chambers; The pres maximum effect. Such a. connection is shown in ent invention providesl means for'adjusting’v the , Fig. 4.-, which shows the tube connected to an frequency of~each~of the/resonators. Thus, it is cleary that turning _screws 'H will» create a-thrust between plate ‘l5 and ilange E3, kwhich Willbe 75 Ér'iten'na BS-byimeans of»V impedance transformer 2,406,379 The transformer 81 is illustrated as comprising ' a central sleeve 9| in which are mounted the ends of spaced concentric transmission lines 93, 95 Whose outer conductors are permanently con nected to sleeve 9| and whose inner conductors 6 by means of phase adjuster I | 1, impedance trans' former 81‘and transmission line |I5, to a load shown as antenna 89. This figure shows an elec tron discharge tube | of the type described above, coupled to an antenna 89 by means of transmis sion lines II3 and II5, phase adjuster |I1 and impedance transformer 81. In tube I, resonator 9 is shown coupled back to resonator 1 by line I I 2, to provide oscillations. Transformer 81 and phase extend radially inwardly of this sleeve 9|. These lines may be open stub lines or terminal posts having their remote ends adapted for connection to other transmission lines or loads. .Two cy lindrical end members 91, 99 are carried by or 10 adjuster` || 1, which is of the sliding joint type formed in sleeve 9 I. The members 91, 99 are bored further described below, are shown as mounted to a suitable diameter for receiving a slidable on a base I I9 by means of bracket I 2| which holds snorting plug |0| carrying a reduced rod |03. the impedance transformer 81 and the ñxed part The size of the bore in member 99 and the di 93 of the phase adjuster II1. The movable part ameter of rod I 03 are suitably chosen to form an 15 ||4 of the phase adjuster I|1 is connected to eiìcíent concentric transmission line. The re screw |23 by a member |25. The screw |23 is mote end of rod |03, shown reduced, is threaded . threaded into the bracket |2| , so that rotation of as at |05. Upon this threaded portion is screwed the screw | 23 will produce relative motion be snorting plug |01, which ñts snugly but slidably tween the two parts of the phase adjuster I I1. in the bore of member 91 and has an enlarged 20 Transmission line I I3 is connected directly tothe portion |09 serving as a knobwhereby the dis buffer stage output of tube I `and is connected to tance between the inner faces of plugs |0| and the input of impedance`transformer 81 by means |01 may be varied by turning knob |09, and the of the sliding joint of phase adjuster |I1 more entire unit composed of plugs |0I and |01 and rod fully described in connection with Fig. 5. As an |03 may be slid back and forth longitudinally illustrative example, let us take the output im within outer members 91, 99 and sleeve 9|, by lon gitudinal translational motion of knob |09. Rod |03 slides within a fixed sleeve | I I, whose pedance of the tube I to be 30 ohms. Then, trans mission line I|3 may be modified by the variable section of phase adjuster |I1 to' be a, half-wave outer diameter is so selected that it bears the (or multiple of a half-wave) line, so that thek im-~ same ratio to the inner diameter of sleeve 9| as pedance at the input of the transformer, looking the diameter of rod |03 does to the bore of mem 30 back at the tube, will also be 30 ohms. The trans bers 91, 99. Sleeve I |I is permanently connected former is then adjusted to transform this value to the inner conductorsof transmission lines 93, of impedance to some value such .as '72 ohms,jand 95 and is therefore immobile with respect to sleeve then a 'Z2-ohm line (i. e. line I I5)L is connected to the output of the transformer. This 'l2-ohm line 9| and members 91, 99. Sleeve |II tapers down to the size of rod |03 at its end proportions, as shown. Members 91, 99 have a corresponding internal taper. These tapers are s0 chosen as to maintain constant the ratio of the sizes of outer I I5 is then shown connected to a :S6-ohm quarter wave antenna 89 by means of a matching section |33 shown more in detail in Fig. . . ' The sliding joint phase adjuster of Fig. 5 has a diameter of the inner conductor to that of the 40 lixed part 93, with inner conductor I 3 I, and a slid inner diameter of the outer conductor, thereby ing part I I4, with inner conductor |29, and rela preserving substantially constant characteristic tively movable by means of screw |23. With the impedance for all sections of this concentric line ordinary type of sliding joint it is almost impossi element. . »l ble to avoid Iwave reflection because of the discon The method of operation is as follows: knob |09 tinuities involved. The joint of Fig. 5 is designed is turned until the distance between the inner to avoid these reflections. The inner conductor faces oi shorting plugs |0| and |01 is approxi |29, which slides over the inner conductor I3I, is mately one-half wave length at‘the operating extended one-quarter wave length beyond its frequency. rl‘hen the whole inner portion, com outer conductor II4. Furthermore, the relative prising rod |03 and plugs IOI and |01, is slid back 50 dimensions of conductors |29 and 93 are so chosen, and forth until the proper match is obtained. At that the section of line between points P and Q the optimum point, the device connected to line 93 in parallel with the short circuited stub line to the left 0f the connecting point of line 93 is matched, over the section of line between the con necting point of 93 and that of 95, to the device has a characteristic impedance which is the geo _ metric mean of the impedances of each-of lines 55 93 and II4. Methods for calculating the di mensions of transmission lines to obtaina given impedance are taught in standard textbooks, such ’ connected to line 95 in parallel with the short cir as “Radio Engineering,” by F. E. Terman (2d cuited stub line to the right of the connecintg edition, p. 698). In this Way, the extended por point of 95. tion of conductor |29 forms with the outer con The impedance transformer of Fig. 3 will match, 60 ductor 93 a quarter-wave matching line which with certain limitations, a device o-f any imped causes lines 93 and II4 to be matched perfectly ance value to another device of any impedance value connected therethrough. It lis perfectly without reflections occuring. Fig. 6 shows a tapered line section |33 for symmetrical in action; that is, when a lower im pedance Value is to be matched to a higher im 65 matching the line II5 to the quarter-wave an tenna 89. In the example used above, this line pedance value, the device having either one may be connected to either terminal of the impedance transformer. section |33 would have to match the 'l2-ohm line II5 to the 36-ohm antenna 89. This section |33 is one-half wave length long, and has an expo Fig. 4 shows an arrangement using the above nential variation of impedance with length. impedance transformer in which resonator 9 is coupled back to resonator 1, as by transmission 70 Thereforagthe diameter of theinner conductor varies as an exponential function of an exponen line I I2, thereby causing tube | to generate oscil tial function of the distance along the line` seclations. The output of tube I is taken from buffer tion. resonator I I by means of transmission line II3 to preserve stability of oscillation, and is connected, The variation of inner-diameter shown in Fig. 6 is that needed for matching in the illustrative ' anode-7.a example .useda For matching -other- value'soiïixn pedancethe proñle of the inner conductor! may bef-concave', instead of `convert as shown', or'may heb-oth`> concave and convex> With a poi-etici in-r 8 |49? isi similarly arrange'd‘ï.- 'Within sleeve,` MI.f Sleeves |4‘5fand. i’ßâ'fhave thin-Walled sectionsf |514 and will extending away.' frornî the center of: the device: These? thinew‘alled, sections are exactly fiection‘, dependingi on theparticulair valuesof one-_quarter'wave length long andso dimensioned that. anale-gunste: thedevice of Fig;r 5, the thin impedanceto »be matched. walledï sections' act as quarter-Wave matching ’ 'The' explanation of the-l operation of> thisnline section to. prevent" reflections andstanding waves 1ines-=between=the terminalline and the line corn~ posedof’ sleeveï Ilia (or SL19) and conductor' |35, is'similar'to that'v of. the usual quarter Wave line the'chara'cteristic impedance of these matching 10 section. InI such a: quarter wavesectiom a trave line'sibeingequalto. the. geometric mean of the elingl Wave will seti un a> reilection> at the' begin impedances'r of the‘lines immediately connected ningv of the-section. Theunreflected portion will thereby» Each of these sleeves |45 and' HiB has travel quarter-Wave length furtherr and set `up a= tapered-portion |51 which may be slotted ax , a second reñected vvave‘at-> thev discontinuity at the end of the section. This ksecond. >reflected'vlave Y' W-ill travel back quarter-wave length‘and Will then the'r ñrst- reiie'cted ' Wave and .' be out' of' phase with hence“ thev two reilect'ed waves* will»` neutralize', provided»4 the proper amplitude relations are:ob« served.' This is insured by having the characteristic impedance'of the. quarter-Wave length sec tion equal the geometricme'an' of the two in1~ pedances to «be matched. _ The present half-Wave length> sectionv operates iallyï. FixedlyI attachedl to sleev‘es‘lêä-4 and m9,' are threaded.. ring-s` |5ë'.. These- engagewvvith clamping rings' `l 552 havingéa taperedk portion mat' ing'»` with tapered portion §52', I~`whereby, upon threading-clamping ring lñäen ring lëâ; the~ta~ pered- portion.. l5 if’ isi' clamped> againstÍ sleeve M5 or M9, servingct'o keep rings ¿Saandv M5, orgie-i and M9, in_their‘y adjusted- positio'ns. SleevesA M25 and |49 are joined, by an eccentric yokev mern~ ber» |511 Sleeves lllô'andjlêâïmay have flanged ends'asfat m91 Yoke |5’i‘isprovid'ed WiththreadM in a similar‘manner; that is, the reflectedwave 25 edV portions» lîìl‘ cooperate withfrings itâ at'the end |23 of- the‘half-Wave length section to prevent-sleeves |655k andi |69 from‘any relative |33îis' used to neutralize the Wave setup. ati the axialmotiom While'leaving. yoke iâlfree tor beginning |39 of the section §33. One impor tate.Y rIîhe'por-tio'n ofî yoke lä’i'whic‘h-cooperates tant difference »exists here: in the case ofy the with offset portion. |31 or“V the inner conductor is so ordinary quarterèwave lengtliisection“, the change in impedance» at'the'v points of discontinuity is in the- same directionl at both'. en'dg of' the line section; that is", both-have increasing impedance values or botnfh‘ave decreasing-> impedance values. In the case of'the present section. §33, the types of discontinuity are opposite; that is, thereisa break' from constant" impedance to: varying im» pedance at mi, and then a' sec'ondlbreak' from \ exactlyfoneäquarterfWave length long. ,_ Inner conductor.'A |35' and Isleeve |39 (or ISH) may have' any relative: sizes', but arefpreferably so proportioned as tof constitute one of-the usual concentric transmission line sizes.V The portion of the; transmission; line: formed by the offset inner conductor i3? and sleeve |45 (or |59) is proportioned >t'o--lo'zwathe same impedance asthe Y, porti-on of lin'e'.- constituted` by.- innerconductor varying impedance to’ constant impedance at‘ |28. This introduces an additional?.v 180 degrees'phase shift between the two reflected Waves. Hence, for neutralization, the lin’e must be half-Wave length (or 180 electrical degrees) long,- softhat adding up the phase shifts caused by the" direct wavetravel time, the reiiection, and the reflect ed Wave travel rtime will result inzphase' opposi tion; The proper amplitude' relations" are ob servedby having an exponential variation ofim' effect oi- offsettingfthe inner conductor of a con centric transmission line is to increase its» ca ` pacitanceîand.'therefore- to decrease its character-v pedancealong'the section |33. Since impedance portion' ofíthelinner conductor is reduc’edby the |35 and outer conductor ist: (or Ml), so that no losses or.' reflections.. Will be encountered at the junctions of offset andregular portions; The ‘ istie’ impedance'ì TheY effect of decreasing. the ‘diameter ofthe inner conductor oi" a concentric variesfasßth'e~ logarithm of the ratio ofîioiuter"con-V . ductor diameter to' inner conductor diameter, and since the outer conductor- |331’ is constant` inrdi ameter, this necessitates a doublyu exponential Variation of the diametericftheinner conductor V|3121' v Figs. 7- to 10 show» an alternativeïforrn of i1n- pedanceltra‘nsformer'Whichwilloperate to trans fo‘rxn or matchf the impedance of a fixed> impe'. dance element into any‘desired‘ impedance value. It’ mayi serve' to match a device' having an'arbi trary impedance value with that of a particular concentric transmission: line. This matching transformer' has an` inner conductoríiSS which has an intermediate. onset portion i3?` at'.- least three-«quartersïci a Wave length long. Fixed to the. inner conductorv |35.- are two sleeveportions |39,. |4| xedly joined to theinner _conductor |35 byinsulati'ngimember's |43. Slidably, mount transmissioníline is to increase its characteristic impedance'ìl Hence', the diameterr of the offset amount necessary; to compensate for the de creasedïch’aracteristic impedance caused by oil”- Y setting,V leavingithenet impedance the same. The diameter of theßeccentric opening‘in yoke |51r is adjusted so that‘at the most eccentric po sition of". the rotation of yoke Eâï, the yoke just touch‘estheî offset' innerf conductor- I3?, as shown in Fig.` 9,' and at` theV other extrerneof rotation the inner conductor |31 is concentricWith-thc sleeve opening, as’shovvnl in Fig. 8. For other'de g-rees` of»A rotation there will be spacings' of inner 'conductor lßï'with respect toy yo-ke'riâ’l varyingY l front-thatrshown in'Fig.y 9 to that shown in Fig. S. Endcaps andV adapters |65 for connectingv the device 'toi standardl concentric transmissionlines are.' provided, usingl the proportional taper ex plained; in connection with Fig. 3. The operation of the device of Fig: 7 can best be explained'on the basis ofthe diagram- of Fig. ed-Within sleeve |39> and -outside of conductor 11; This‘i‘lguren shows', on animpedance-dia |351 is va- conducting sleeve iñä'rnaintained elec>~ 70 grani WhoseI coordinate aXes represent resistance trically'separate from conductor |35l byinsulat and reactanœ, the constant-coordinate lines of ing member HW.'Y Theinsulating member |51 slides on conductor |35 >and is iiXed to sleeve Iëë. Obviously, member IM couldijust a's-‘vvellbefñxed to? conductor |35 andi sliderv invsleeve-Iv | ¿45. Y- A-sleeve 75 aibip’olar coordinating system'having poles such asfZo.v Onlyf the right half of this diagram is shown», the left. half. beinga mirror image oflïthe 2,406,372v 9 right. 'I‘hese constant-coordinate lines form two families of circles, one family with centers on the X-axis (axis of reactance) and passing through both poles and the other family having centers on the R-axis (axis of resistance) such’ that each circle of one family crosses every cir cle of the other family at right angles. This system, therefore, forms an orthogonal curvilin l0 R3 (Fig. 11) can easily be obtained, providing substantially perfect matching. Fig. 12 shows another embodiment of imped ance transformer which also can match .the im pedance of any impedance element to th'at of » any other impedance element. This embodiment comprises a concentric line device having an outer cylindrical conductor |91 in which is fas ear coordinate system known as the bipolarcoor tened a perpendicular sleeve section |69 of equal dinate system. It can be shown that, if the poles lO diameter. Supported within conductor |51 as by of such a system are chosen to be th'e points rep insulator |1| is a concentric inner conductor |13 resenting the characteristic impedance of a which also has a perpendicular section |15 of transmission line, and if an arbitrary impedance equal size which is concentric with section |59. value is selected, such as represented by point Z A reducing end cap having tapered portion |11 on Fig. 11, and connected to varying lengths of 15 similar to |95 in Fig. '1 is provided for coupling the transmission line, `then the net impedance, looking from the remote end of the transmission line to impedance Z, is represented by points this device to a standard line or other impedance. The diameter of the concentric line section form ing the impedance transformer is made larger than the line to which it may be coupled'in order ZRiRz passing through Z. This impedance locus 20 to increase eiiiciency of operation. y moving along the constant-coordinate circle makes one complete rotation around Zu, back to Z, for each half wave-length of line added. Thus we see that, in order to tune impedance Z to reso nance, enough line must be added to carry the net impedance to point R1. This would give a high resistance resonance condition. If more line is added, we finally reach a low resistance resonance point R2. ' Sliding within sleeve |99 is a movable snorting disc or plunger |19 moved by plunger rod | 8|. The snorting disc |19 carries spring fingersY |83 which make good electrical contact with conduc tors |69 and |15 while permitting sliding motion. Sliding within sleeve _|51 is sleeve |85. Fastened concentrically within sleeve |85, as by insulator |81, is sleeve |89 which has an inner diameter The above theory is used in the operation of chosen to give sliding contact with rod |13. An the device of Fig. 7. Let us assume, for illustra 30 end cap and tapered section |11 is also provided tive purposes, that sleeve |39 and conductor |35 for this end of the device. ' _ make up a '12 ohm line. It is desired to match a Inner sleeve |89 ends one quarter of a wave '12 ohm line to any arbitrary value of impedance, length within the end of sleeve |85. The por not necessarily purely resistive.Y The 72 ohm tion of sleeve |85 not opposite sleeve |89 (that is, line is connected to the left end of the impedance 35 the last quarter wave length) has a thickened transformer, which it matches since it has been assumed that this left end constitutes a 72 ohm line. The element having any arbitrary im wall, formed in this instance by inserting sleeve |9| permanently fastened to sleeve |85. The dimensions of conductors |91, |13, I 9|, |85 and pedance value is connected to the right end of |89 are so ch'osen `that the characteristic imped the device. The length‘ of transmission line be 40 ance of the Lili-_|13 section of line is equal tween the element of arbitrary impedance and to the geometric mean of the vcharacteristic im the beginning of eccentric sleeve |51 is then ad pedances of the |51~|13 and |85-| 89 sections, justed by sliding sleeve |49 within sleeve |4| thereby avoiding‘reflectionsvat the sliding joint, until the value of arbitrary impedance plus that as discussed above. of the line, looked at from the beginning of the 45 Accordingly, an impedance matching trans eccentric sleeve |51, exhibits minimum resistive former has thus been provided whereby any` pair' impedance. This corresponds to transforming of arbitrary impedance values may be matched the point Z (Fig. 1l) to point R2 by adding a by adjustment of the length of a section of con length of line corresponding to th'e heavy arc centric transmission line connected in cascade ZRiRz. If we look to the left from the left edge 50 with one of the arbitrary impedance’ values and of the eccentric~sleeve |51, there is also exhibited by the subsequent adjustment of the length of a pure resistance, since everything connected to a short-circuited section of concentric transmis the left end of the transformer is matched. This « sion line connected in parallel with the cascade resistance however, is not R2 but Zu. There-re connected transmission line section.l It is under mains the step of matching two purely resistive 65 stood that the order of these adjustments is impedances of diiferent values. 'I'h'is is done by immaterial. f rotating the eccentric sleeve |51 to the proper The theory and method of operation of the position, which will be that at which the quar ` V'device of Fig. 12 may be explained on the basis of ter wave length line |51 exhibits a resistive im a diagram similar to Fig. 1l, but wherein the co pedance R3 equals \/Rz.Zo, i. e., the geo-metric 60 ordinate axes represent susceptance B and con mean of the two impedances to be matched. ductance G rather than reactance X and resist ance R so that the diagram represents admit Since the sleeve |51 constitutes a quarter tance Y rather than impedance Z. Such an ad-v wave length line, its impedance will always be mittance diagram would have the same bipolar resistive. Rotating the sleeve will vary the posi coordinate system as shown in Fig. 11, butthe tion of the inner conductor |31 relative to the 65 poles would be the characteristic admittance outer conductor (sleeve |51) from that shown in Fig. 8, which has maximum resistance, to that shown in Fig. 9, which has Zero resistance. If the eccentric sleeve'cpening is properly propor tioned relative to the diameter of offset inner 70 instead of characteristic impedanceZo. VFor sim plicity, Fig. 11 will be used again, it being under conductor |31, the quarter wave length line can stood that, wherever the symbol Y is used, the exhibit any resistance from Zero to a value at least as large as Zo, so that by properly position admittance diagram is meant. ' ing the sleeve, the required-resistance, such as 75 Now, if it _is desired to match two loads having admittances Y1 and Y2, respectively, it will be _ i121 may7 _be Amatched-.ley adjustment of the 4lengths of necessary .to match :both ‘fthe fsuscentanccs and conductances of these'îloads. YBySgrafduaílly sadd said twosections. ' 1 _5. r¿in impedance ymatching transformer com' pnising asection of »hollow transmission line hav V ing _transmission sline .having .admittance sin to load .Y1, the resulting.admittance'naries _counter clockwise `around 'the .circle Yi, "_By ¿adding sufficient line, .the lresultant .admittance can «.be inst la vfixed unitaryinner conductor, _means co operating witha section of said inner conductor . and therefore theimpedances, perfectly. obtained by .varying theîlengthiof Vstub‘line .I 69.-.- I 15,'-by1moving plung for _providing a line section .of adjustable char acteristic impedance, and means vfor axially >aclj_usting .the _position of said variable impedance ' section relative to said _inner conductor. v_6. An impedance _matching transformer _com prising `_a„transmission -line section of the coaxial conductor type .having _an outer conductor made er :|81 in I»or out to .add :the proper amount _of up of va iìXedcentr-al section and _axiallyadjustá made to be Y’,‘having the sameconductance .as Y2 ¿but .diii’eren't -susceptance eBy ¿adding ¿pure 4Vsusceptance, we can match uthe :admittances 'iYl and ' Such added susceptance is susceptance v.in 4parallel lwith »the line .section 'ljBL-Jll'l-S. ïlfthe admittance Ya-shouldhetvholly ableendsections, and an inner conductor of 'fixed to l:the >right or left of the circle traveled êbyYi, lengtnuextending between said end sections and wherein said _inner conductor is formed with .an thentit is merely necessary to ‘interchangeYl and ' intermediateeccentric portion. Y2; .that is, Y2 would then ‘be connected to the il. çAn.impedance‘transformerfor matchingany y tightend ofithedevice vof Fig. =1’2. two .impedances comprising means yincluding ¿an 'From the above analysis, itis evident ¿that to 20 adjustable length section .-of «concentric trans `use' ¿the 4device o'fîlïlig. 12, 'itis:merelyinecessaryto mission `line connected fin .cascade »with ¿one of connect Loneirnpeda'nce `-element kat Teach then said limpedances .for converting »the Éconductan_ce vary-.the’îlength of ¿line at the sliding lio-int :until of .said .one impedance .toga value v¿equal _to that the .conductances’become matchedgand thenvary of .said »,.other impedance, and ,means including the `Ashorlting lplug =until the -susceptances .are an _adjustable length .short-circuited »section ¿of matched. Then the impedance values/of the »two concentric vtransmission «line -`con-necterîi in par impedance .elements will 'be matched. allel with said ñrst section for adding suscepta-nce As .many rchanges could ‘be'fmade îin v`the above to said .converted impedance to 'fullymatch saidV constructions :and many «apparently ‘widely ldif 30 twoimnedances. f „8. .An .impedance ‘matching »transformer com Yferent »embodiments of this invention `:could ¿be made without departing from -:the scope thereof, prising .a .transmission Yline section of the _coaxial it `is intended Ythat «all matter `conta-ined in ïthe conductor ».type .and Íof .substantially invariant above `description orïs‘hown -in the accompanying over-all 'length having an l.outerYc_ondilctor :made drawings shall l-be interpreted as illustrative and 35 up ,of _an .axially _adjustable :central `rsection ,hav inga portionof-eccentricfbore and-relativelyyfi-xed not in a 'limitingsense "What'is claimed is: -1. A »transformer device for matching `the ad end „sections for telescopingly l‘receiving isaid cen tral section .upon .adjustment jof said central sec tion, .and ¿an inner .conductor cf `iixed :length :ex mittances of any two` circuit elementscorn-aris-V ing adjustable `means‘for »converting the » conduct ancefof `one'of `said elements to a rvalue equal '-to that `of :said »other element, land independent Aad justable A»rneansffor adding substantially pure Äsus ceptance 'to sa'id vconverted conductance to fully match said Vtwo admittances. » ‘ 40 tendingfbetweenandñxed tosaidfend sections.Y ' _9. Apparatus for .transforming »any :arbitrary impedance value .to another vvimpedance -val-_ue comprising a ñ-xed lengthofvcoaxial type tra-ns-` _míssion -line .having input and output terminal ‘portions and :adapted .to .be »connectedsat one of . #2. VJ'Apparatus for matching twocircuit-elements having any admittance `Vvalues Vcomprising ja »sec tionof-:transmissionîline o'f the-coaxial conductor said portions .toa circuitelemerrt havingsaidgar bitrialjyimnedance value, _adjustable transmission line means .having variable _characteristic _imped-> anGe „coupled ,in .Cascade .between said 'termina-l portions and .mutually zcooperable means ateach type xadapted for :connection between «said -circuit elements, ~means Alion-varying the length of --said ' line'section for making ¿the conductance offene « Oìf ...Said .terminal portions for _simultaneously equally and .Qiënositely .varying the length offline cfßsaidicircuit elements equal to the conductance ' of theother circuit element, and ffurther means fromy one _of . said terminal'portions »to vsaid»variable for .adding .substantially =pure suseeptance --to one of fsaid :circuit >elements until 'ïboth circuit yele ' 3. An impedance transformer for transformingV characteristic :impedance «means and »the length of Y.line „from .the ,other of .said terminal portions to .said variable :characteristic ~impedance means. 1_0. _A_n Aimpedance `matching »transformer «for an arbitrary y‘impedance value to fanotherjar matching la transmission line to any load, -com ments have fthe same values-»of susceptance. Y bitrary yalue, comprising _an adjustable 'length section of concentric transmission 'line 'adapted to `be connected Ain cascade ’to said arbitralîyfim prising means, includingV an adjustable ,section of transmission line having _a _telescopi-ng .cylin drical louter conductor and _a .concentric inner conductor vwith Van off-set .eccentric portion, .for converting the impedance _of said load to _a Pure resistance, >and further means, including a quarter pedance value, and an adjustable 'length _ofs‘hort _ circuited .section .of concentric A_transmissiondine connected 1in shunt `,to said first sectioninter mediate the ends thereof, whereby ,said .other Ul wave section of transmission line having ysaid arbitrary impedance value .may fbe .obtained `.by v eccentric conductor as inner conductor and Àa adjustment of the lengths of said two sections. 4. An impedance transformer for matching the impedances of two -circuit elements having` any rotatable Aouter-conductor with a circular bore eccentrictto said cylindrical »outer conductor, for matching'said resistance to the characteristic fim `saiditransmissioniine. impedance values, comprising an >adjustable 70 pedancefof 1:1. An iimpedance transfer-mer .comprising 'a length _section _of 'transmission line _adapted to loe pairk of :fixed coaxial 'outer ¿conductor w end -nieces, connected in cascadebetween .said elements, fand _. an .innerfconductor çinsulatingly :fixed to said ¿pair an adjustable length section of .transmission lin-e of Y_end ¿nieces :and _having ¿an off-set vportion ¿ec connected .in_shunt Atosaid_.ñrst,s_ectdon _intermedi 75 centric :to .saidtend pieces, and a :sliding :member 1 ate the ends thereof, whereby saidl impedanccs 13 2,406,372 comprising a quarter wave section of conductor having a bore eccentric to and surrounding said olf-set eccentric portion and rotatably ñxed be tween a pair of outer conductor sections slidably engaging said end pieces, whereby, by translation 17. A transmission line comprising e. hollow tubular outer conductor, a ñrst section of inner conductor substantially concentrically mounted within said outer conductor, a seco-nd section of inner conductor comprising a continuation of said first section but eccentric to said outer conduc tor, and a rotatable portion of said o-uter con ductor having a bore eccentric to the remainder of said sliding member, the reactance of one con centric transmission line, connected to one of said end pieces and said inner conductor, may be matched to that of second »concentric transmis sion line, connected to the other of said end pieces 10 of said outer conductor, said bore being disposed about said eccentric inner conductor section. and said inner conductor, and by rotation of said 18. An impedance matching transmission line eccentric quarter wave lsection the resistances of device comprising a hollow outer conductor made said reactance matched line may also be matched. up of a central portion and telescoping tubes 12. An impedance transformer as in claim 11 providing end portions adjustable in length, a wherein the diameter of said off-set portion of 15 substantially concentric inner conductor having said inner conductor is reduced by the amount an intermediate section eccentric with saidouter necessary to match the impedance of the line conductor, and a rotatable section of said> central formed by said concentric inner conductor and portion of said outer conductor having a bore said outer conductor section to the impedance of eccentric to said outer conductor and disposed the line formed by said eccentric inner conductor about said eccentric inner conductor portion. and said outer conductor section. 19. A reflection eliminating> transmission line 13. An impedance transformer as in claim 11 joint comprising two sections of transmission line further including means for preventing reflec of the coaxial conductor type, means intercon tions at said sliding joints, comprising a changed necting said sections for relative axial adjust inner diameter of the inner one of said slidingly ment, and means comprising an impedance engaged conductors for la quarter wavelength matching section in said line between said'two from said joint, said changed diameter being of sections, said matching section having a ratio of the proper amount to make the characteristic im diameters of inner and outer conductors different pedance of the line section comprising said from that of said other two sections, and said changed diameter of a value substantially equal C13 O matching section having a ñxed axial- length sub to the geometric mean ofthe characteristic im stantially equal to a multiple including unity of pedances of the neighboring sections of concen a quarter of a wavelength of the operating fre tric transmission line. quency, which ñxed length is maintained 'during 14. An adjustable concentric transmission line all positions of relative adjustment of said two comprising a iirst section having an inner con sections. ductor and a concentric outer conductor, a sec ond section having ,an outer conductor adapted to slidingly engage the outer conductor of said 20. A reflection eliminating transmission line joint comprising two sections of transmission line iirst section, and having an inner conductor ‘ of the coaxial conductor type, means telescopical `wave length of the operating frequency beyond I ratio of diameters of inner and outer conductors the other of said conductors of said second sec tion, whereby a portion of said line is formed said matching section comprising the terminal adapted to slidingly engage the inner conductor 40 ly interconnecting the outer conductors of said sections for relative axial adjustment, and means of said iirst section, one ofV said conductors of providing an'impedance matching section in said said second section extending a Vdistance equal line between said two sections, and having a to a multiple including unityof a quarter of a by one conductor from each of said sections, the dimensions of said inner and outer conductors being so chosen that the characteristic imped different from that of said other two sections, portion of one conductor of one of said two sec tions extended coextensive with the correspond ing other conductor of the other of said two sections, and said terminal portion having a ñxed ance of said portion has a value equal to the axial length of one-quarter of the wavelength at geometric mean of the characteristic impedances operating frequency, or a multiple thereof, which of said two sections. fixed length is maintained during all positions of 15. The transmission line deñned in claim 14, relative adjustment of said outer conductors. wherein the inner conductor of said second sec 21. The transmission line joint deñned in claim tion extends said distance beyond the outer con 55 20, wherein said terminal portion is an Vextension ductor of said second Sectio . ' of one'of said outer conductors. 16. An adjustable concentric transmission line 22. The transmission line joint defined in claim comprising an inner conductor, a first sleeve sur- ` 20, wherein said two sections have substantially rounding said inner conductor, a second sleeve surrounding said inner conductor and slidingly 60 common inner conductor means, and said ter»minal portion is an extension of one of said outer iitting said first sleeve, the inner diameter of the conductors. end portion of the inner of said sleeves being 23. The transmission line joint defined in claim different from the inner diameter of the adjacent 20, wherein the inner conductors of said two sec portion of said inner sleeve for a iixed distance tions are slidably engaged, and said terminal por of substantially one quarter wave length of the tion is an extension of one of said inner conduc operating frequency, the inner diameters of said tors beyond its associated outer conductor. sleeves and the outer‘diameter of said inner con 24. The transmision line joint dei-ined in claim ductor being so chosen that the characteristic 20, wherein the inner conductors of said two sec impedance of the section of concentric transmis tions are slidably engaged, and said terminal por# sion line which includes said end portion has a value equal to the geometric mean of the values of the characteristic impedances formed by said two sleeves and said inner conductor, whereby no 'wave reflections are obtained at said sliding joint. tion is an extension of one o ductors. said outer con ~ WILLIAM W. HANSEN. JOHN R. WOODYARD.