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Патент USA US2406375

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Patented Aug. 27, 1946
2,406,375 v
UNITED‘ STATES PATENT"lorries_7~
William N. Hoyte, Rosebank, ‘Staten Island, N. Y.,
assignor to Foster Wheeler, Corporation, New
York, N. Y., a corporati on of New York
Application December 11, 1942, Serial No. 468,670 4
9 Claims. ( Cl. 202-4161)
This invention relates to the fractional distil
lation of composite liquidssuch as hydrocarbon
oils and the like, and more particularly pertains
to the production and distribution of re?ux in
fractionating zones and apparatus.
The invention provides apparatus for the frac
tional distillation of composite liquids in which
of the column. The packing may be of any‘ suit
able height-in the column and is supported in
any convenient manner, as by a grating 19 which
is supported in, the column, by supports 20. It
will bevunderstood that the vapor tobe frac
tionated flows upwardly through the packing
counter-current to and in contact with re?ux
vapors, ?owing from the zone in which vapor and
which ?ows downwardly through the packing
liquid are brought into contact in fractionating
from layer to layer,
_
apparatus, are condensed and are distributed 10
Above
the
packing
I4,
the
column
is provided
substantially uniformly over the vapor and liquid
with a total vapor condenser in the form of a
contact devices at a controlled rate.
boiler 2| fora liquidboiling at a temperature be
The invention will be understood from the fol
,low that of the condensing temperature of the
lowing description when considered in connec
tion with the accompanying drawing forming a
vapors leaving the packing I4. The boiler 2| is
in spaced relationship to the packing I4 thereby
part thereof, and in which:
Fig. l is a more or less diagrammatic view,,in
vertical section, of fractionating apparatus em
bodying and operating in accordance with the
packing and the boiler. As shown, the boiler 2|
line 2-2 of Fig. 1.
small diameterand having extensions 24' with
forming a vapor Withdrawal zone betweenthe
comprises an upper tube sheet 22, and a lower
tube sheet 23 connected by a plurality of straight,
20 vertically-extending open tubes 24 of relatively
Fig. 2 is a transverse sectional view taken on
invention, and
-
The invention will be disclosed as applied to a
bevelled lower ends, as shown. As indicated in
Fig. 2, the tubes 24 are arranged so that the
fractionating tower having vapor and liquid con
tacting means of the character disclosed, in 25 same number of tubes are disposed above each
section I5 of the packing I4 in the column. More
United States Stedman Patent No. 2,047,444,
speci?cally, the tubes 24 are arranged so that
granted July 14, 1936, and in United States Bragg
three tubes are disposed; above’ each triangular
Patent No. 2,290,162,,granted July 21, 1942, but
section of the packing, with each tube disposed,
it will be understood that the invention is not
adjacent, and inwardly of, each apex of the tri
limited in its application to vapor and liquid con
tacting means of this type, but is capable of ap
plication generally to packed columns and to col
umns having other types of vapor and liquid con
tacting
means.
,
-
Referring to the drawing, reference character
I-O designates a fractionating column having a
vapor, or a vapor and liquid inlet H in its lower
portion, an outlet l2 for ?xed gases at its upper
portion, and an outlet l3 for liquid in its lower
portion. Above the inlet H, the column is pro
vided with a packing, designated generally I4,,of
capillary material in the form of metal wire
gauze provided with mesh openings which seal
the liquid under treatment. The packing com
prises a plurality of contiguous,’ equilateral tri
angular-shaped sections I5 arrangedin the form
of a hexagon, with each section consisting of a‘
plurality of superposed equilateral triangular
'30 angular section.
The low boiling liquid or con
densing medium indicated 25, is introducedinto
the boiler through a suitable connection; not
shown, and ?lls the space between the tubes '24
and the column ID to the desired level which
may be observed by a gauge glass 26. Preferably,
the liquid level in the boiler will be regulated to
provide a space above the liquid for the libera
tion of vapor derived from the boiling liquid.
The liquid 25 will be evaporated by heat trans
mitted to it from the vapors flowing through the
tubes 24.
Suitable heat insulation or other de
vice, not shown, is applied to the external jacket
around the boiler 2| so that the temperature of
the liquid 25 will be substantially uniform across
the boiler. . The vapors of the low boiling liquid
will flow through vapor line 21 to a suitable con
denser 28,, to which cooling liquid is supplied
through a line 29 and is withdrawn through a
shaped layers or units I6, all enclosed in a hex
line 30. Condensate is returned to the boiler
agonal-shaped casing I‘! open at both ends. The
50 through-a condensate line 3|. , The condenser is
casing I 1 may be of any suitable construction for
provided with a- steam jet ejector 32 for produc
the purpose, but preferably'it is made in sections
ing vacuum initially in the condenser, and for
detachably secured together and supported in the
maintaining a vacuum should there be small air
column. The upper end of the casing I1 is ar
ranged to provide a seal l8 with the inner wall 55 leaks during operation. The condenser prefer
ably is located high enough with respect to the
2,406,375
,
3
.
condensing medium may be obtained with pres
.
.boiler to provide a suf?cient liquid head in the
sures in the boiler in excess of atmospheric pres
‘line 3| to ensure the return of the condensate
ifrom condenser 28 to the bottom of the boiler.
Product is withdrawn from the tower in the
= form of a vapor, between the packing l4 and the
sure.
With this arrangement and operation, heat is
extracted substantially uniformly over the entire
transverse area of the column from the vapors
iboiler 2| through va collector ring 33 positioned
; in the Withdrawal
?owing upwardly from the packing,v so that a sub
,zone which time has_ a plural
stantially equal-amount of; condensate is formed
1 ity of apertures-.34, ai'idis conducted through a
1 line 35 which is controlled by avalve‘36 to a suit
in each tube 24; and equal distributional the
reflux is provided over the top of the packing
10
which
cooling
liquid
is
sup:
"as the vapors are condensed. The temperature
3 able condenser 31 to
, plied through a line 38 and is withdrawn from a“ ‘ of the condensing medium and the quantity of
line 39. The product in liquid form, is conducted '
re?ux supplied to the packing may be controlled
readily, as previously described. Preferably, a
5from the condenser through a line 40 to storage
' or a point of use. In order to -_ob_tain sharp frac
' clean liquid is utilized as the condensing medium
; tionation there are preferably at least two-fsuch'
so that fouling of the heating surface of the boiler
in
operation
,
31 only'one of which is
' is avoided. Inasmuch as the boiler and condenser
; condensers
I at any time. At suitable "?out/points,” one con- ,
system is a closed system, no pumps are required.
[If desired, a steam jet booster may be employed
brought into service.
at
the outlet of boiler 2| and in line 21, to permit
Any suitable liquid which boils at a tempera~ 20 of a - closer approach to the temperature of the
ture below the condensing temperature of the va'e ‘
cooling water in condenser 28.- ,
1 por's-flowing to the boiler from the packing in the
‘Inasmuchas changes may be made in the form,
1 ‘column may be employed as the'condensing me‘
location, relative arrangement and materials of
, denser is shut off and another condenser. is ,
dium' in the-boileni' ‘For the fractionation of
‘ ‘composite liquids such as‘thydrocarbonf oils and
the like, water ' may be employed satisfactorily
as the low’ boiling liquid.‘ The boiling point of
Tthe-liquid'is adjusted by maintaining a constant
pressure, possibly sub-atmospheric, on the con
denser
28.
'
-
~
'
the apparatus disclosed» and the several parts
thereof, it will be understood that the invention
is not to be limited excepting by the scope of the,
appended claims.
What is claimed is;
'
‘
V 1. Apparatus for fractionally distilling com
30' posite liquids comprising a fractionating-column
' In operation, the vapor to vbe fractionated,
having an inlet, vapor and liquid contacting
means in the column comprising’ packing of
capillary material through which vapor of the.
liquid ?ows counter-current to re?ux, said con
Heat is transferred from the 35 tacting means having a plurality of separate
‘vapor in the tubes 24 to the low boiling liquid 25,
sections disposed adjacent each other in a hori
in consequence of which the vapor in thetubes is
zontal plane, vapor condensing means in - the
condensed and the low boiling liquid is evapo
column disposed above and in spaced relation
rated. The condensate in the tubes flows down
ship with said contacting means to form a cham
the inner walls of the tubes 24 andthe extensions
ber above and extending over said vapor and
24'; and falls onto the several sectionsof the
liquid contacting means, said condensing means
packing l4 and flows downwardly over the pack
having a plurality of vertically» extendingtubular
1ing 'as're?ux. The vapor produced by the boil
members distributed substantially uniformly
passes upwardly through the packing M counter
2current to and'in contactv with re?ux, and upon
leaving the packing, flows upwardly into the tubes
-in»gi‘of the liquid 25, ?ows through 1ine>21 to the 45 above said contacting means with an equal num
condenser 28, wherein the'vapors are‘ condensed,
ber of tubular members located above each of
‘and the condensate r'eturnsto the boiler through
said sections andiin communication with the
'-line?3 l_'~,_-~ 'Product-inv'apor'form is withdrawn from
‘chamber at one end of said members to receive
the column through collectorring 33 and is con
“densed in the condenser 31-, from which ‘the con
_
through line 40'.
' “densate is withdrawn
v‘vapor therefrom and return condensate thereto,
a condensing medium on the outside of said tubu
The 50 'lar members having a boiling temperature below
amount of (re?ux ?owing down through‘ the
‘packing [4- ‘will be controlled by ‘ the amount
the condensing temperature of the'vapor of- the
liquid, the arrangement'being such that vapor ‘of
the liquid is condensed in said tubular members
ofprddirctremoved from the'tower through the
collector ring 33, which in turn is controlled by
and the‘ condensate ?ows downwardly through
-‘manipulationvof valve 36. The temperature of 55 said chamber substantially uniformly-onto the
the condensing medium 25' is controlled by'vary
:vapor andliquid contacting means as reflux and
"ing' the-pressure maintained in the boiler and
the. condensing, medium is vaporized, meansfor
withdrawing vapor of the liquid from the column
densing' ‘medium, and supplying the water to
from the‘ chamber between the contacting and the
the boiler/at 100°
avacuum of 2'7 in. may 60 (condensing means, means for controlling the
readily be maintained in the system so that the
quantity of vapor of the liquid withdrawn from
temperature of the boiler water in the boiler
the column to control the quantity of vapor con
vwould be approximately 112° l1‘.v This tempera
densed and returned to the contacting means as
condenser system. 1 Using‘ water‘ as the con
ture will be sufficiently low to condense oil vapors
re?ux, means for condensing vapor of the con
leaving the packing, although in some instances 65 densing medium, and means'for returning con
itmay beinecessary to maintain pressure above
densate of the condensate medium to the con
atmospheric in the column I0. Any degree of
densing'medium on theoutside of said tubular
vacuum may be maintained so that the tempera
fractionally distilling" com
ture‘ of‘ the condensing medium may be varied
' 2. Apparatus for
'members.
_
'
"
'
from approximatelyl12° F. to 212‘? F. at atmos
“pheric pressure. "The vacuum may be regulated
‘by controlling the steam jet 32, or by varying the
.posite liquids comprising a
having an inlet,v vapor and ‘liquid contacting
‘amount of cooling water used for-the condenser
~capillary>material through which vapor of the
fractionating column '
,means in' the column comprising packing 'of
28} or by'admitting a' controlled amountof air to 75 liquid ?ows counteré-current to‘ re?ux, said con
‘the condenser->28; Higher temperatures‘. of ‘the
5
2,406,375
tacting‘ means having a ‘plurality ‘of separate
sections disposed adjacent each- other in'alhori
zontal plane, ivapor condensing means in the
column disposed above and in spaced relationship
with‘ said contacting means to form a chamber
above'and extending over‘ said vapor and liquid
contacting means, said condensing means having
a plurality of vertically extending tubular mem~
bers distributed substantially .uniformly above
6
ship‘ to. said packing to form' a chamber above
and‘ extending overthe packing,.said condensing
means'being inrcommunication with, said cham
ber through a plurality of openingsithrough which
openings‘ vapor from the chamber enters the con:
densingmeans' and condensate ?ows therefrom,
said openings being arranged substantially uni
formly above the packing so as to distribute the
condensate substantially uniformly .to said pack‘
said contacting means with an equal number of
tubular members located above each of said sec
ing, the arrangement being such that vapor of
the liquid is condensed in the condensing means
tions and in communication with the chamber
and the condensate ?ows downwardly through
. at one end of said members to receive vapor
said chamber and substantially uniformly onto
therefrom and return condensate thereto, a con
the packing as re?ux, and means for withdraws
densing medium on the outside of said tubular 15 ing vapor of said liquid from the column from
members having a boiling temperature belowthe
the chamber.
a
,
-
condensing temperature of thevapor of the liquid,
5. Apparatus for fractionally distilling come
the arrangement being such that vapor of the
posite liquids comprising a fractionating column,
liquid is condensed in said tubular-members and
packing in the column through which vapor of
the condensate ?ows downwardly through said 20 the ?uid ?ows counter-current to and in‘ con
chamber substantially uniformly onto the vapor
tact with re?ux, vapor condensing means in the
and liquid contacting means, as re?ux and the
column disposed above and in spaced relation‘
condensing medium is vaporized‘, means for with
ship to said packing to form a chamber aboveand
drawing vapor of the liquid from the column from
extending. over the packing, said condensing
the chamber between the contacting and the 1
means being in communication withsaid cham
condensing means, means for controlling the
ber through a plurality of openings through which
quantity of vapor of the liquid withdrawn from
openings vapor from the chamber enters the
the column to control the quantity of vapor con~
densed and returned to thecontacting means as
condensing means and condensate ‘?ows there
from, said openings being‘ arranged substantially
re?ux, means for maintaining sub-atmospheric 30 uniformly above the packing so as to distribute
pressure on the condensing mediumin the column,
the condensate substantially uniformly to said
means for condensing vapor ofthe condensing
packing, the arrangement being such that vapor
medium, and means for returning condensate of
of the liquid is condensed in the condensing means
the condensate medium to the condensing medium
and the condensate ?ows downwardly‘ through
on the outside of said tubular members.»
said chamber and substantiallyuniformly onto
3. Apparatus for fractionally distilling com
the packing as re?ux, means for withdrawing
posite liquids comprising a fractionating column
vapor of said liquid from the column from the
having an inlet, vapor and liquid contacting
chamber, and means for controlling the quantity
means in the column comprising packing of ca
of vapor of said liquid withdrawn from the
pillary material through which vapor of the ?uid 40 column to control the quantity of vapor condensed
?ows counter-current to re?ux, said contacting
and returned to the packing as re?ux. '
means having a plurality of separate, contiguous,
6. Apparatus for fractionally distilling com~
lateral triangular-shaped sections arranged in
posite liquids comprising a fractionating column,
the form of a hexagon, each section consisting
packing in the column through which vapor of
of a plurality of equilateral triangular-shaped 45 the ?uid ?ows counter-current to and in con
layers disposed in superposed horizontal planes,
tact with re?ux, vapor condensing means in the
vapor condensing means in the column disposed
column disposed above and in spaced relationship
above and in spaced relationship with said con
to said packing to form a chamber above and ex
tacting means to form a chamber above and
tending over the packing, said condensing means ,
extending over said vapor and liquid contacting 50 having a condensing medium with a boiling tem
means, said condensing means having a plurality
perature below the condensing temperature of
of vertically extending tubular members dis
the vapor and being in communication with said
tributed substantially uniformly above each sec
chamber through a plurality of openings through
tion of said contacting means with an equal num
which openings vapor from the chamber enters
ber of tubular members located above each of said 55 the condensing means and condensate ?ows
sections and in communication with the chamber
therefrom, said openings being arranged sub
at one end of said members to receive vapor there
stantially uniformly above the packing so as to
from and return condensate thereto, a condensing
distribute the condensate substantially uniformly
medium on the outside of said tubular members
to said packing, the arrangement being such that
having a boiling temperature below the con 60 vapor of the liquid is condensed in the condens
densing temperature of the vapor of the liquid,
ing means and the condensate ?ows downwardly
the arrangement being such that vapor of the
through said chamber and substantially uniformly
liquid is condensed in said tubular members and
onto the packing as re?ux, means for withdraw
the condensate ?ows downwardly through said
ing vapor of said liquid from the column from
chamber substantially uniformly onto the vapor 65 the chamber, means for condensing vapor of the
and liquid contacting means as re?ux, and means
condensing medium, and means for returning
for withdrawing vapor of said liquid from the
condensate of the condensing medium’ to the
column between the contacting and condensing
condensing medium in heat exchange relationship ‘
means.
with thecondensing surface.
4. Apparatus for fractionally distilling com 70
'7. Apparatus for fractionally distilling com
posite liquids comprising a fractionating column,
posite liquids comprising a fractionating column,
packing in the column through which vapor of
packing in the column through which vapor of
the ?uid ?ows counter-current to and in contact
the ?uid ?ows counter-current to and in contact
with re?ux, vapor condensing means in the
with re?ux, vapor condensing means in the
column disposed above and in spaced relation 75 column disposed above and in spaced relation
£2,406,375
'
,
7
8
Y
ship to ‘said packing to form a chamber above
and extending over the'packing, said condens
ing means having a plurality of generally ver
'
.
therefrom, said openingsbeing arranged sub;
stantially‘ uniformly above-xthe packing so as to ,
distribute the condensate substantially uniformly
to said packing, the arrangement being such that
tically extending tubular members distributed
vapor
of the liquid is condensed in the condens
substantially uniformly above said packing, the Cl
ing means and the condensate flows downwardly
tubular members being in- communication at one
through'said chamber and substantially uniformly
end thereof with said chamber to receive vapor
therefrom and return condensate thereto, a con
densing medium outside of said tubular members
onto the packing as re?ux,'and means for with- 7
drawing vapor of said liquid from the column from
'
'
.
and in indirect heat exchange relationship there 10 the chamber.
9. Apparatus for fractionally. distilling com
with the arrangement being such that vapor of
posite liquids comprising a fractionating column
the liquid is condensed in said tubular members
having an inlet, vapor and liquid contacting
and the condensate ?ows downwardly through
means in the column through which vapor of the
said chamber substantially uniformly onto the‘
packing as re?ux,‘ and means for withdrawing 15 ?uid ?ows counter-current to re?ux, said con
tacting means having a plurality of separate
vaporof said liquid from the column from the
sections disposed adjacent each other in'a hori
zontal plane, each section having a plurality of
8. Apparatus for fractionally distilling com
sides disposed so that the section may be placed
posite liquids comprising a fractionating column
having an inlet, vapor and liquid contacting 20 contiguous to other like-sections with contiguous
sides of contiguous sections parallel, vapor con-V
means in‘the column through which vapor of
densing means in the column disposed above and
the ?uid ?ows counter-current to re?ux, said
in
spaced relationship with said contacting means
‘ vapor and liquid contacting means comprising
to form a chamber above and extending over said
capillary material, the capillary openings of which
vapor and liquid contacting means, said condens
seal with liquid under treatment, arranged‘ to pro
ing means having a plurality-of vertically ex
vide a plurality of cells disposed in superposed
chamber.
’
Y
'
‘
" I relationship with adjacent cells in engagement,
each cell extending throughout substantially the
entire flow area of the device, vapor condensing
tending tubular members distributed substantially
uniformly above each section of said contacting
means, the arrangement being such that vapor
means in the column disposed _~, above and in 80 of the liquid is condensed in thecondensing means
and the condensate ?ows downwardly through
spaced relationship with said contacting means
to form a chamber above and extending over said
vapor and liquid contacting means, said con
densing means being in communication with said
chamber through a plurality of openings through 85
which openings vapor from the chamber enters
the condensing means and condensate ?ows
said chamber and substantially uniformly onto
the packing as re?ux, and means for withdrawing
vapor of said liquid from the column from the
chamber.
‘
~
WILLIAM N. HOYTI'E.
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