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Патент USA US2406380

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Aug; 27,- 1946.
v’ ‘w. JOHNSTON, JR
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2,405,380
CINDER POT
Filed Nov.. 19, 1942
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~ 5 Sheets-Sheet 1
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{i7 qua/‘m, )3 9r
lNVENTOé
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77’.
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Aug. 27,1946.
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CINDER
2,406,380 ~
POT
Filed'Nov. 19', 1942
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' a-sheet-s-sneet'z 1/’
1110.121. ;
INVENTOR
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3,6204 ff; ,
Patented Aug. 27, 1946
A vv2,406,.tso
% \ UNI-TED STATES PATENT
2,406,380
xonvnnnro'r;
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f
William Johnston, Jr.,Wilkinsbm-g,ra_li
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1.
"Application November 19, 1942, Serial No. 466,095 ‘7 1 _ '
g ;
3 Claims.
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(01. 266—39)
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‘1.
"Jul:
This invention relates to cinder pot construc
tion.
against the inner surface of the cinder pot wall ‘in
this region, heat‘ transfer-through, the ,wall'is
to receive and convey slag and cinder from fur
naces used in processes that involve production of
extended period of time to permittheircontent
Bythe term “cinder- pot,” as herein used, I - further inhibited, When cinderpots, and par-‘j
‘ ticularly conical type cinder pots, stand for._an
mean a large vesselof iron or steel which is used
of Slag tosolidify, there is a “critical heat zone”
about two-thirds-of ‘the way up from the extreme
bottom , of the. cinder, pot, in which the tempera,
slag or cinder, such as metal-producing furnaces
‘of the blast, open hearth or smelting-types.
As the slag or’ cinder which the cinder pots re- I
tureof the cinderpot wall is high and may ‘for a
ceive is molten when delivered‘to them, and be 10 long period be as high as about 1700° F. to 1800?
cause they commonly are required to retain such
F. Such
at thehigh
inside
temperature;
of,thecinder-potwalh:
so 1ocalized,':lea'ds<»to
. '
material until ithas been conveyed by them to a
differences
in
expansion
and
contraction
between
slag-disposal yard, the cinderpots become high
the portion of the cinder pot wallin'theFcritical
ly heated. It is quite usual for cinder pots which
service open hearth furnaces to retain thejslag 15 heat, zone” and'the' adjacent substance of the ciniof the‘ slag includes a substantial proportion of
the slag in the cinder‘pot'
j
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. A v’
der pot wall. In simple,'unspecialized cinderpots,
inability. of the ‘trulyrcircularwall freely to ex
untiluthe crust, or “skull’? formedby solidi?cation
.pand' and contract leads to ?recracking . and
, . - ' -
checking. ,When the‘ cinder pot is supported ator
Inservicetthe high temperaturev acquiredby
the cinder potsand the relatively great weight of 2o, above the “critical heat'zone,” as by'engagement l’,
withlifting lugs or trunnions which project but‘- I
the cinder pots themselves and their, contents,
wardly' from the cinder pot wall, the weight ‘of
leads to various effects which tend to destroy the
the,
cinder .pot and its contents underlying the
shape or structure of the cinder‘ pots; "
' ‘
Zone. of engagement places the'cinder pot‘iwall
The original, or:primitive, cinder‘ pot ,of ‘conical
type has a circular side wall progressively in 25 underi‘tension from the region of its engagement.
Placing the most? highly heated region of the
cinder pot under @tension ‘causes the cinder pot
to “sag” from that region. That is, the cinder
creasing in diameter from a/ closed bottom to the
open upper end ofjthe cinder pot, so that in-veri
tical section the main portion of the. cinder :pot
wall is represented primarily by two straight'up
wardly-divergent lines. In cinder, pots‘ of .the
larger’ size,vsuch as cinder pots of Y400 cubic-foot
capacity the wall isfrom’ 2 inches to 3_inches‘in
thickness, and in conical cinder'pots of ‘the'primi
pot becomes unduly and irregularly elongated,
30 thus destroying the ‘proper contour :of its lower
tive sort the wall'does not deviate from a true cir
cle in cross section at any point above the rounded
bottom of the cinder pot.‘ ‘
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region. Another destructive effect encountered in
service is deformation of the .cinderpot by‘pinch
ing or squeezing in its most highly'heated region
when the-cinder pot-is lifted‘. iThat effect; which
causes cross-sectional‘ distortion in the Fupper
region of the cinder .pot, is in measure caused
even when specialized‘ :means areprovidedfor
supporting ,theV-cinder-pot from its lower. and less
' highly heated region. It iscaused in much greatL
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As a cinder pot stands with a load of molten
slag, heatis'dissipated vmost rapidly in the lower
region of the cinder pot in which‘the area of the
heat radiating surface is in high ratio with- respect 40 er order if the cylinder pot is lifted by engage
ment with‘ trunnions, or liftingflugs;éin.accord=
to the volume of hot slag which it ‘encloses, and in
the upper region of the, cinderspot in which heat ~~
is dissipated directly to the air as well asthrough
the wall of the cinder pot.; A relatively heavy
skull thus forms more rapidlyin the lower and
upper regions of the cinder pot than in its inter
mediate region, in. which’ region a substantial
body of slag tends persistently to remain at high
temperature. This. results from the formation of
ancewith'unspecialized.practice.‘
a They tendency of the cinder pot wall
' 1' .11 to'check
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and’ ?recrack in its most highlyv heated regionis
in great measure prevented by corrugating the
cinder-pot wall vertically, so that-l an accordion
effect is producediby tendency ‘of the wall to ex
pand or contract.
expedient: is‘, described in
‘detail in’ my prior‘ Patents No'."2,'05'7,528 and No. '
end of the cinder pot-so thatheat is ‘dissipated
through the cinder pot wall in a region in which
218L331, Means by’ which ,thewei'ght‘ of ‘the cin
der pot' iscarried from the lower regionlofthe'
‘cinder pot walL-Ito place the most highly heated
region of‘the cinder pot'wall under compression
the cross-sectional areaof'theeinder pot and'its
rather than tension ‘when’ ' the ' cinderipot ‘is lifted, ,
the thick crust, ‘or skull at the bottom ‘of the ci'n- "
der potand'more particularly at theopen upper
contents. is great. ‘ As a crust; tends to form 5
is describedin vmy priorjPatent ,No..2,198,252.
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. 2,406,380
3
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3 Means for limiting the extent of V the cross-sec
l and correspondingly the bene?t derived from ‘my
novel wall contour is greatest in cinder pots of
that general type. I have found, however, that
‘ tional distortion. caused by mechanical pinching
or squeezing is described in my prior Patent No.
cinder pots are susceptible of “creeping” even
though they are of ovate or otherwise non-circular cross-section, or if the bottoms of the cinder
pots be partially or wholly open, or if they in
‘ 2,301,880.
In the use of cinder pots there is a further de
. structive effect of high temperature, which is in
dependent of‘any of those above noted, which
1 causes cross-sectional distortion of the cinder pot,
clude both those departures from the structural
organization .of conical type .cinderpotaas in the
:and which .marXMJtimat'eIy lead of itself to fire
‘cracking .orjchec‘king. .This is‘ the tendency of .
the cinder pot wall in its most highly heated re
cinder pot disclosed in my~prior Patent No.
2,242,075; and'have found my' novel wallycon'tour
jgion‘to “creep” inwardly, caused by differences.
. effective to resist and retard creeping also in cin
‘in expansion and contraction of the inner and ‘ " der pots primarily so formed.
.outer portions of the pot wall, which di?eren‘ce's
.In the accompanying drawings I
occur ‘by reason of the greater temperaturerange
.to which the inner portion is ‘subjected “by ‘its '
Fig. Iis a plan view of a cinder pot embodying
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the j novel structure of my present invention,
which has its side wall corrugated in accordance
proximity to the slag charges. This inward '
1“creeping,” unlike the cross-sectional distortion
caused by mechanical pinching or squeezing, does
3not cause great irregularity in the cross-sectional
with my Patent No. 2,057,528, and which is still
ened against mechanical distortion by a split ring,
or plurality of compression elements at its open .
‘shape I of ‘the i-po't in the ;zone - of its occurrence. ‘It
uppenedge' in accordance ‘with my Patent No.
does, 'howeverfproduce "a 'fairly' regular inward
2,361,880.‘
bendgor reverse-bulge, extended as a band around
‘ the cinder-pot wall. "This causes great di?iculty
removal !of' slag from ‘the cinder pot after a
I
- Fig. ‘II is a vertical sectional view through ‘the
cinder pot of‘ Fig. I taken in the plane‘ of the sec
tion line II—II-o'f Fig. I.
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skull has formed, requiring that the. slag be
broken %up in the cinder vv‘pot ‘itself; ultimately re.
duces the capacity of the cinder‘pot‘substantially;
to Fig. 1II,vshovv§ing a‘ cinder pot comp-rising’ all
and greatly Jdecreas'es the'iuseful life 1 of ‘the ' cinder
and-II, ‘and additionally equipped with lifting,
pot..%"'
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<- ‘FigJIII is aigvertical sectional View, analogou
the features'of'the cinder ‘pot shown in Figs. I
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arms enea‘g'ed'with the ‘outer surface‘ of the cinder
I It has been zattemptedeto'irétard this :“creep
pot adjacent its bottom and engaging a lifting ‘
ring” ‘by makif'ngxthe'iside'wall of ‘the cinder pot of
yariedithickness =in idi?erent regions vertically of
the-lcinderjpotp 'l-‘hus it'has been proposed to
increasel'thefwall "thickness 'in‘th‘e critical heat "- .
.zone.'-:"-0n'e wayilof :so doing :is ‘to form the outer
lsurface'of the-cinderipot :on a'line which curves
ring, so that the‘ weight of ‘the cinder pot and its
‘contents-is taken‘in a‘lower region of Ithe‘cinder
pet and is transmitted to the'llifting ring,
EigfIV is ‘a‘simpli?edfvertical sectional view '
through a cinder "pot otherwise of unspecialized ' _
conical" type, -' showing
lvertica'lly' of the cinder ‘pot, ibut retaining a
without
complicating
structure the contour of’ ‘the cinder pot wall in
straight-?ne contour of the interior‘ surface.‘ :One
which {my ‘present invention resides and‘ which
- .surface'ofsthe cinder-"pot "wall rather than ‘the .430 'is 'includedwith features'of prior invention in
- cinderpotrwall“itself‘being outwardly curved, the
the showing of Figs. '1, jII and III; ‘this ?gure of
'e?ect :isjregio‘nally to'i-ncrease the wal'lthickness. , the drawings showing the ‘radii on which the
Regional thickening of the binder :pot"'w'all by -.
bottom and'the-siddWall respectively of cinder
itself has :been. found *ine‘iiiective substantially to
, retard .bodilyjinwardzgereeping of the ‘wall, and 4:VI.
an unduly’increased wall/thickness tends to ‘pro
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of 5myinlven'tioir'
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'iFig. vis 1a plan view of a cinder-pot of'open;
bottom type having sidewall outwardly curved
mote .ifirecracking and checking '»of the wall 4-be
cause itcacts' to retard heat radiation from'tthe
.cinder‘pot.
pots are‘ v‘developed-inv obtaining the advantages
inaccordanc'e
"Fig."VI ‘is a with-myinvention'
vertical il'ong'itudina‘lly'
v~ central view
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' j- . -I have ‘succeeded in. retarding the destructive
taken- throughthe open-ibottom cinder pot in
eifectzof v“creepingf’by utilizing a novel wall con
‘ the plane of the section’line VI_—'VI of Fig. V.
tour 'for Ecinder pots whichnresists the distorting
.e?ects thatarise "from the unequal‘ expansion and
contraction “of the inner and outer portions of
the wall :under the'rdiiiereiit itemperature ranges
.to'which'they are’ su'biec‘ted. "This novelwallcon;
tohriis'sétpplicable to 'cinder pots'which-otherwise
'iFigi'PVII isv a‘ “vertical ‘cross-sectional view
through ‘the cinder‘ pot ?taken_? in “a v plane
pendicularftothe plane of Fig. 'VI. " i i
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‘perv
‘ Referring initiallyto ‘Fig. IV of ‘the drawings,
it is to be understood that the cinder ‘pot therein
shown is fundamentally not only of the least
are of"conventional"*unspecialized-conical type; p
specialized vconical type; but that there also‘are ‘
but it.is:applicablealsoto con‘ical’type cinder pots
‘ omitted-from the showing such conventional ac
having corrugated Z'sid-e walls, ‘to cinder‘ pots s0 so :cessories vas feet and lifting lugs.
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organized'that v{the weight of the cinder pot and
:In
'Fig.
IV,
the
extreme
bottom
I
of
the
cin
its contents is carried'from the lower ‘region of the
Ider pot‘is shown as developed ‘on a ‘short radius
der spot, with cinder ‘pots ‘organized to prevent
1' .Ilying ‘along the ‘vertical ‘axis of the cinder pot.
crossésectional distortion ‘by mechanical ‘pinching
An intermediate wall region la'of "the cinder pot,
orjsqueezing',"and'with cinder ‘pots organized with 63 developed on the radius r’blends) theextreme
.anycombinationof those specialized features;
bottom- l of the cinder pot with its side wall 2.
. gThe bene?cial effect of my'inovel ‘wall contour
Previously in cinder pots,'both of uncorrugated
is‘. not :rest?ctedztO‘coni-cal type cinder pots 'hav; '
and» otherwise 'unsp'ecial'ized sort and of the sort
i-ng jspherical-‘bofttcms. it is: had ‘nonetheless if
‘in which the side w‘allris corrugated vvertically
the; bottom 'of'the‘zcinder not “be ‘concave rather "5 ‘ofithe cinder pot, the‘ sidewall forms a straight
‘than convex, if it @be but slightly :convex, 'or ap- '
taper, no substantial curvature-"being followed
‘proximately ?at- It "is true ‘that "the eire'ct of ' '
“creeping” is most marked in conical cinder pots '
having closed bottoms; and the sidewall of which
iS".icil',Cl;l1ar , in z'crossesection tlrroughout‘iits height,
from‘the‘bottom of the cinder pot ‘to the edge of
the "wallet jthejupper open end: of ‘the cinder
pet; In ‘accordancelw‘ith‘ my present invention,
: however, the sidewall ‘:2 of- the cinder possum
.
2,406,380
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not corrugated, no substantial advantage would
be gained from utiliziing the specialized rein
the region of. blending with the bottom curves
outwardly away from the vertical axis of the cin- _
der pot. This outward curvature resists the tend
ency of highly heated metallic containers to
forcing ring or rim of my Patent No. 2,301,880,
and ring or rim II is accordingly a simple con
creep inwardly in service, and accords with a
tinuous body of metal.
heating stoves but which is novel in application
to cinder pots.
I
Referring now to Figs. I and II of the draw
ings, the novel contour of the cinder pot side wall
substantially as shown in Fig. IV is made a fea
ture of a cinder pot the side wall 211 of which is
principle which has been used with advantage in
'
It is, as has been noted above, common prac
tice to retain the slag in the cinder pots until 10 corrugated vertically of the cinder pot into alter
nating outward bows 3 and inward bows 4. The
it has formed at least a substantial crust, or skull,
advantage of a side wall curved outwardly of the
around a center which still may be molten. Be
cinder pot in oifering resistance to inward creep
cause there is at least partial solidi?cation of the
ing is thus obtained in that cinder pot in con
' slag, it is necessary in order to discharge it from
the cinder pot without previously breaking it up 15 junction with the increased freedom thermally to
expand and contract which is provided by the
that the maximum diameter of the cinder pot
corrugations.
be at its extreme upper end. To reconcile with
The cinder pot of Figs. I and III also associates
this requirement the advantageous. outward
curvature of the cinder pot side wall, I develop
the side wall of the cinder pot on a radius R 20
which is relatively long with respect to the height
of .the cinder pot, and which centers at a point
named resistance results from the inclusion of a
0 at least as high .as the upper end of the cinder
pot.
divided ring, designated generally by reference
As shown, the length of radius R is ap
numeral 5, as part of the cinder pot wall at the
upper open end of the cinder pot. This divided
ring desirably is formed as an integral casting
with the cinder pot wall, and consists of a plu
proximately twice the height of the‘ cinder pot;
but it may bear either a lesser or greater rela
tion to the cinder pot height in accordance with
the ratio between the diameter of the cinder
pot at its bottom and the diameter of the cinder
pot at its open upper end. As shown in Fig. IV,
withv the resistance to thermal creeping provided
by the contour of its side wall 2a resistance to
mechanical pinching or squeezing of the most
highly heated region of that side wall; That last
30
the radius on which the interior surface of the
cinder pot wall is formed centers substantially
above the upper end of the cinder pot. It will
be seen in the drawings, and is particularly clear
in Fig. IV, that the cinder pot wall has a curved
interior surface representing such small portion
of the circumference of a circle of large radius,
in vertical section through the cinder pot, that
the cross-sectional area of the cinder pot wall
increases progressively from the bottom to-the 40
upper end of the cinder’ ‘pot.
Otherwise ex
pressed, each vertical half of .the cinder pot side
wall 2, as it appears in Fig. IV of the drawings,
approximates in its curvature half or less than
half of a catenary.
Following such rule in forming the side wall
of the cinder pot, no difliculty is experienced
in discharging a solidi?ed body of slag from the
cinder pot; and the resistance to inward creep
presented by the outward curvature of the cinder
pot wall substantially retards distortion from
that cause.
The side wall as a whole is thus
curved outwardly, away from the vertical axis
of the cinder pot, and the interior surface of the
cinder pot wall is so curved that the cinder pot
cavity increases progressively in cross-sectional
rality of segmental compression members 6
blending with the outward bowsl of the cinder
pot wall and separated from each‘ other in the
regions lying outwardly of the inward bows 4 by
intervals or lines of division ‘I which leave adja
cent ends of the compression elements very
closely spaced with respect to each other. Be
cause of the division of the ring 5 into segments,
the segments move radially outward and inward
with the outward bows as the cinder pot Wall ex
pands and contracts.
Because of their close
spacing, they come into contact to inhibit cross
sectional distortion of the cinder pot upon merely
negligible distortion produced [mechanically in
the highly heated and expanded region lying
closely below the upper end of the cinder pot.
The cinder pot shown in Fig, III of the drawings
primarily is identical with the cinder pot shown
in Figs. I and II, but in it the novel wall contour
of my present invention is associated with’ yet
another feature functioning to retard destructive
distortion of the cinder pot. This cinder pot has
lugs, or webs 8, projecting from the cinder pot
wall at spaced intervals around the periphery of
the wall and slightly above the rounded bottom
I of the cinder pot. Supporting arms 9 are piv
otally engaged with lugs 8, and extend upwardly
outer surfaces so formed that the wall is of uni
in several of the inward corrugations 4 of the
outwardly curved side wall 2a. In their upper
regions th'ese pivoted supporting arms 9 engage
with a lifting ring l0 which embraces the‘ cinder
as provided with a rim H at its upper end, as it
the cinder pot therein shown is in accordance
is preferable although not necessary that the
outwardly curved side wall should spring from a
stiifening body of metal at both its upper and its
lower end. Because the cinder pot of Fig. IV is 75
ovate or ellipsoidal in its cross-sectional confor
mation and being open at its lower as well as its
area up to its open upper end. It is not neces
sary that the cinder pot ‘wall have its inner and
form thickness throughout the length of its 00 pot. This organization, by carrying the cinder
pot from a cooler region below that in which the
curvature. If so desired, the cinder pot wall may
cinder pot is embraced by lifting ring I0, places
regionally be thickened by providing a relatively
the
more highly heated region of the cinder pot
greater curvature (shorter radius) for its outer
wall under compression, and prevents sagging of
surface up to a point at which heat radiation is
retarded seriously, or if desired may be made (L7) the cinder pot wall under the weight of the cinder
pot and its contents. This also is structurally
regionally thinner by forming the outer surface
compatible with the outward curvature of the
on a lesser curvature (greater radius) up to a
cinder pot side wall in accordance with my pres
point at which wall strength is unduly de
ent invention.
‘
creased.
Turning to Figs. V, VI and VII of the drawings,
The unspecialized cinder pot of Fig. IV is shown
primarily with the open-bottom cinder pot shown
in my prior Patent No. 2,242,075, being roughly
2,406,380
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upper ‘end. Instead :of :being formed on‘ a
straight tapen'however, the cinder _.pot side Wall
2b is outwardly curved and has its interior sur
face formed, .on a radius R’ which is relatively
long with respect to the cinder pot height, and
which centers in a point 0’ located at least as
high as the upper end of the cinderpot. Prefer
ably, as shown, the cinder pot wall 2b springs
8
in shown, and the scope vof my invention prope
erly is ‘restricted only by the limitations imposed
by thev de?nition :of the appended claims.
I‘claim as myinven-tiorr:
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. 1. A conical type cinder pot having _a closed
bottom and an open upper end and having-a
side wall curved vertically of the cinder pot ‘out
wardly away from the vertical axislof the cinder
from a stiifening ring or rim -| 2 atthe upper end
pot; the interior surface .of the said side wall
of the :cinder pot and from a stiffening ring or 10 being developed on a radius of such length and
rim I 3 at the .lower end of ‘the cinder pot. In
so .centeredat a level at least :as high as the
this stiffening effect the lower ring or .rim l3
upper end of the ‘cinder pet that the cross-sec
takes't'he place of the closed bottom shown in
tional area of the cinder pot vcavity increases
other ?gures of the drawings.
progressively upwardly of the said side wall to
It thus appears that the novel .feature .of curv 15 a maximum at .the open upper end of the cinder
ing the side wall .of a cinder pot outwardly in
pot.
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1 such manner that the cross-sectional area of the
2. A cinder pot having an-open upperendqand
cinder pot cavity increases progressively from the
having a side wall curved'vertically of the cinder
1 bottom of the cinder pot to its open upper end
pot outwardly away from the vertical axis :of the
is applicable to otherwise unspecialized cinder 20 cinder ‘pot; the interior surface of vthe said side
‘ pots, and also is applicable to cinder pots com
wall being developed on a radius vof such length
prising any one or more of the specialized fea
tures which serve to lessen .or prevent the noted
and so centered at a level at least as high as the
upper end of the cinder pot that the cross-sec
undesirable e?ects which promote deterioration
tional area of the cinder pot cavity increases
1 of the cinder pot. It thus is possible to resist
25 progressively upwardly of the said side Wall -:to .a
and substantially to retard thermal inward creep
maximum at the open upper end of the cinde
‘ ing. of the cinder pot wall without sacri?cing
pot.
V
‘
other features desirable in cinder pot construc
tion or organization. It is, however, to be under
3. A cinder pot having an open upper end and
having a side wall curved vertically of the cinder
1 stood. that the invention herein resides Wholly in
pot away from the vertical ‘axis of the cinder
providing the cinder pot side wall with an out 30 pot and which springs fromaa .sti?ening body
‘ ward curvature so ‘arranged vertically of the cin_
of metal both at the lower and at the 'upperqend
‘ der pot'that the cross-sectional area of the cinder
potcavity increases progressively to its open up- . ‘
per end.
It'is to be understood that the illustration and
description of cinder gpots made in accordance
with my invention as herein given is exemplary
The incorporation of the
‘ and not restrictive.
‘ novel structure constituting my present invention 40
‘ is not limited to cinder pots constructed ashere
of the cinder pot; the interior surface of the said
side Wall being developed on a radius of such
length and so centered at a level at least as high
as the upper end of the cinder pot that thecrosse
sectional area of the cinder .pot cavity increases
progressively upwardly of the said side ‘wall to
a maximum at the open upper end of the vcinder
pot.
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WILLIAM JOHNSTON, JR.
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