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Патент USA US2406384

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Aug. 27, 1946,
` 2,406,384
Filed Nov. 5, 1942
,3 Sheets-Sheet l
v E. N. SMIT/'l
Aug. 27, '1946.
Filed Nov. 5,'1942
2,406,384 ,_
z sheets-sheet 2
. Aug. 27, 1946.`-
' ’ l2,406,384
Filed Nov. 5,' 1942
s sheets-sheet s
2302292282 7
F. S. Kil/READ,
F. J. sum-e
a. e. c
Patented Aug. 27, 1946
Fullerton S. Kinkead, deceased, late of New York,4
N. Y., by Rita S. Kìnkead, admînistratrix, Tru- -
dan, N. Y., Lawrence E. Melhuish, Glen Ridge
N. J., Fred J. Singer, Rockville Centre, N. Y, and
Edward M. Smith, Montclair, N. J., assignors to
Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated,
New York, N. Y., a corporation of New Yorkv,"4
Application November 5, 1942, Serial No.'464,564
5 Claims. (Cl. 177-351)
'I‘his invention pertains to a system for instan
taneously and continuously transmitting elec
trical impulses corresponding to a multidigit
number from a ñrst station to a second station.
The multidigit number may correspond to data
readings at one station. The multidigit number
may also designate a called subscriber’s station
in a switching system such as a communication
system, for instance.
The multidigit number
digit number and requiring the employment of all
five conducting elements so as to separately con
trol apparatus individual to the `single -digit
number and apparatus individual to the two
digit number. t
Another feature of'this _invention is the dis
abling of the apparatus controlled in response
to the signal elements deñning the single digit
number when signal impulses intended for the
may represent gradations of shade in a picture. 10 control of apparatus responsive to ~the two-digit
In fact, the multidigit number may represent a
number are transmitted and vice Versa. These
very wide variety of things and conditions de
and other features of the invention will become
pendent upon the system Where the invention
apparent from the following detailed descrip
herein is applied.
tion when read with reference to the associated
An object of this invention is the improvement '
of systems for transmitting data such as date, rep
resented by plural digit numbers from a ñrst
station to a second station.
p Another object of the invention herein is the
drawings in which:
Fig. 1 represents a drawing in schematic form
showing two observing stations which are as
sumed to be located at points Where observations
are made and translated into data to be trans
instantaneous transmission of electrical impulses
corresponding to multidigit numbers which may,
for instance, represent observed data from a first
mitted over direct current telegraph circuits
station to a second station.
A further object of this invention is the re
duction in the number of channels required to
Fig. 2 shows the apparatus and wiring at a
single observing station used in observing data
at the observing station and transmitting elec
trical impulses corresponding to the data to the
transmit electrical impulses corresponding to
multidigit numbers instantaneously from a first
station to a second station.
A feature of this invention is the dividing of
multidigit numbers representing data to be trans
mitted between stations into a plurality of sub
groups of digits` the number of digits in each
subgroup and Ithe number of subgroups being
chosen in such manner as to minimize the num
ber of channels required for the instantaneous
transmission of impulse in accordance with a
permutation code to identify the multidigît num
A further feature of this invention is the sepa
connecting each observation circuit with a cen
tral station;
central station;
Fig. 3 shows one set of apparatus at the Ycen
tral station which is required to decode and re- ~
cord the data transmitted from one observing
Figs. 4, 5 and 6 are code chartsA used in ex
plaining the operation of the apparatus per Fig.
2 and Fig. 3.
In one of its applications, the invention herein
may be used in a 4data transmission system for
observing data at one point and instantaneous
ration of a multidigit number into a plurality of 40 ly translating the data into electrical impulses
subgroups of digits, the assigning of a separate
permutation code to each subgroup and the as
signing of a separate channel comprising a
number of separate conducting elements corre
sponding lto the number of elements in each
permutation code for each channel so as to per
mit the transmission of electrical impulses cor
responding to the multidigit number instanta
neously between stations.
which areinstantly transmitted to a central sta
tion. Such systems may be used, for instance,
in determining the range and angular position
of a target. In one system of range ñnding, two
4observing stations are located at the extremities
of a base line of known length, The target vis
sighted'through a rotatable telescope rigidly se
cured to a >rotatable ring, the position of which
with respect to a fixed point is indicated on a
Another feature of this invention is a channel 50 scale in terms of degrees and hundredths of a
comprising ñve conducting elements for the
degree. A reference line such as arnorth-south
transmission at different times of permutation
line and having a iixed angular relation to the
codes deñning a single digit number and em
base line at each observing station, fixes the
ploying only four of the ñve conducting ele
position of the ñxed Apoint at zero. The angular
ments and at other times of codes defining-a two
displacement of the Átelescope when directed at
the target establishes the line of direction of the
target with respect to the base line. The inter
section of the lines of sight at the two observingr
stations fixesthe, position of the-target..
2ll8,'while revolving about spindle 266'as a cen- ’ ter, rotatesalso about its own center.
rotatesl about, its, own axis.. once while , revolving
through, twenty degrees, about the vertical axis
In thejnvention-.herein it is possiblelto trans- Y
of the telescope. Secured to shaft 258 are 5-de
gree cams 2|! to 215, inclusive. The five cams
mit instantaneously and continuously from each
observing station to the central station electricalV -
control five followers 225 to 22%, inclusive, which
>when. actuated by their respective cams supply
ground through individual contacts. The 5-de
impulses corresponding to >any number from 0
to 2000 to represent any one of twothousand
positions within a ZO-degreeangle., Inthissys
tem, the'circle atthe center of!wlbiclreach.ob-> _
serving telescope is fixed is dividedinto eighteeny
equal segments, each consistingfof: twenty de
The ratio '
of the gear 2m to gear 209 is such that shaft 208
gree cams> 2| ll to ‘M5 are arranged to close their
' individual contacts'in accordance with a permuf
grees. When the telescopeisldirectedzali antan-l
get, the particular ZO-degree zone3 within which.
the target is located will ñrst be determined by2
the attendant visually and the~nu1r1beroipar-fl
ticular 20-degrees Zone will be transmitted to
the central station over some complementary
i Y facility,
as a telephone circuit or a separate
The:Y particular? degree and`
taticn code- sol as to transmit twenty Ydiiferent
combinations of- impulses for each rotation of
shaft' Ziißi to. identify each of the S20-degree di
visions within each of the eighteen sectors into
whichA the circleÍ is assumed to be divided. Each
of cams 2| l to 2l5 therefore is divided into twen-`
ty equal.' segments arranged yto either open or
close its respective Contact to provide twenty different, combinatiensfor each Vrevolution- of `shaft
to define each~ of theftwenty- degrees as; indi- Y
hundredthsfoff;'avdeglieef posi-tionsv Withi-n- eac-trv
ZQed‘egreer-segmenuas determined bythe lineîef
n Fig. 6. Mounted on the‘v horizontalì
cated in.crank-shaft are: ñvefcanisfnumbered, 221: tof2125,y
sig-ht@ ofîthe- telescope; directedfat theA .targetv jwi-ll be automatically translated into electrical-f im;--- '--' inclusiva. lî‘our,` of these. cam-s: 22l- tov 224:, in
clusive, aren used I~in ltransmit-ting»` impulses correpulses; whichf are- transmitted3 instantaneously «to
central jstattlon-l where.- the;.impulsesL are des» Y spendingL tothe tenths of a degree' within'each'
degree.v »Theñfth cam„cam 2.2%; is »used irroper.-`
coded andzthodatafindicated.
ating»l a,~ switch the primary function offwhichfis Y
In this'system, it: isto‘be understood, asfrnenf
tionedfabove; thatsonef observilzlgfvv station; and one 30 to keep Ythe degreeI information separateffrom the
tenths of,v a> degree information. The »manner in“>
setgofîequipment-«sucn as Fig,-v 2,-wállfbee1ocatedfat
which this functions will» loefV explained in' detail
eaohfendïofgthe-baseline.. rE‘wo sets otfequipment
below. At this,L point, however; attention is
suclnas- »F‘igp4 3_»fwzi'11 bolo atedfatrthecentralfstaff
called to the fact that the same live-»conductors
tionf; The. equipment;at:` eachI` observing@stationi
226.119.23ü, inclusive, which, tal;en-»,-together, con
a: channel arrangedY to,- transmit> inst-anw,
ing;Vv andi recording the; impulses-f~ received Vfrom
taneously impulses defining, any» of thirtyetwo
each observing stationfis identical.V In the-de
numbers is used at separate times- to; transmit:
scription-to' follow; the- mannerf in_fwhich»v one, set,A
impulses. defining any' of‘ the twentyf degrees
ot observingP equipment: at. one-V end of»` a,` basewithin
aiparticular sector. and anu» oftheftenth'sf
liney functionsv anda the *manner in whichè one-set
of, ai degree within; each degree. IL ‘sf pointed'
ot-deco ding-and.- ;recordingequinment at ,thecerr-V
outthat in order- tc- transmit twenty-A different'
tral stations functions will be described.`> Itfisf tof
sets of impulses corresponding; ‘to-twenty dif.
be understood?thatn the; equipment.- at theî-second
ferent degreesi-and ten different-.sets ofyimpulses
observing4 stations andfth'e corresponding* decode
ing;A andïrecording equipiment@V at tlcefcentral.sta'-«A 'f corresponding to` the tenths of-'a degree within
each degree, if -it is to be» d-onefi-neach instance.-v
tion functionsinfthe »identicalfmannen ,
instantaneously, a channel >can,able» providing;
Refer now to Fig. 2. -A telescopeg` zal is «ii-f.
for the transmission of thirty'diifferent sets/,_ of;
rested», at the-target; The particular'ZOsdegree
impulses mustbe »provided The live-conductor
Zone-within` which thef line ,-isfloeatedfisf made;
channel comprising'Y conductor-sf 2v2-esto; Zâ‘it; inf`
known,:totheattendantî at the,- central stationêby@
is identical. The equipment required for decod
clusive, can transmitY instantaneeuslyyanyi one of“
2.5 or thirty-two different sets
impulses to
means of a separate telephone or telegraph-_.ciri-`
cuit. Once ïthertargetfislsighted th'ef'telescope 2,0 I
istcon-tinuously directedat the targeteby thefob'»
define thirty-two numbers. Daly: thirty ofrthese.vv
willV be? employed, however. Twenty» of theseF
server who will turn the Vernier crajnls‘ 2&2» in»
sets Àof i impulses: willfdefrne twenty» equal 'steps Áin
such manner as to maintain Ithe line of sight --
through the telescope on the target.
‘theV rotation ofv `cam-s 2H» to 21e; inclusive;
through each 20.-degree zone. Tenof thefchar
acters will deñne ten equal divisions in one rota'
As the
Vernier cranktís.; turned;l the telescope isgrotated
by »meansf of ,fworvmû_433rr which Vengagesz with; worm»
is- rigidly secured Ilov~r1rleans of spindle 265.; One
complete frotation.. of` the Vernier ' shaft; turnsftl'ieY
telescopev through one degree through’ gearing
havingya ratioY of 369 to 1-. Aspthef'telescope is
rotatedr the l»radiah horizontal arml 2_01 isIn rotated`
tion ofvernier crankshaft 252. Crankl 2-íâ‘2wi-ne’ohe
complete rotation turns- telescope'ßßt through
"one degree. Theten divisions areequal,A each- de-`
lining aßtenth of- a degree.
A separate channel isvclevo‘tedtor the transmis
sion~ of impulses defining the tenons-hundredths
of. a» .degree in each tenth- of a- deg-ree;
with it.,` ’Ifh‘ey outer \ endgof radiali arm Í20'!r forms`
a` bearing and support-'for-vertical shaft 203._ A
pinionf 2119.~ is- secured f-to «shaft 208.' inl position.'V to»
engage ring-.gearA 2 I il: whichfis-rigidlyg- securedî-t-o a»,
tripod (notshowrr) usedfto support theobserving
instrument and 4its aassociated mechanisms.A
As thefvernier. crank„ isr turned; the disc or
platform. Zlìâfsupporting the telescope- 2M vis ro.
tated.. Radialv arm 2911s rotated revolving the
venticaLshatt 20.8.4 As?y ther shaft 2118i. reveil/fes,Y
pinionliiä,` engages ringî gear 2li). Th'us shaft
channel comprises- four conductorsf'Zé-iiito` 2319; in
By» means` of the four? conductors,,_it“,r
would be; possible to transmit instantaneouslyÍ
any of sixteen different sets-'oñ'impulses defining-_
OnlyY teni of
sixteen numbers cr characters».>
these are requiredtotransmit impuisegdeñning»
ten=different hundredths offaïdegree.A Ascranlt-v
sh'ait 2&3#h rotates through cnet-tenth. cii a-.rev.olu-.„V
tion, ten different setsi of impulses, each»deñn:-«=
' = ing> a diiîerent'hundredth ofc-a `degreaare transf»
mitted over conductorsl 236 to 239, inclusive,
through the operation of cams-23| to 234, in
clusive, each of which actuates its individual
follower to close an individual contact to ground
in accordance with the assigned code.
Attention is particularly called to the fact that
one complete revolution of Vernier crank 202 I'o
tates telescope 20| through one degree. It would
appear desirable, therefore, in coupling a shaft
through gearing to the Vernier shaft for con
trolling the transmission of impulses to deñne
each of ten-hundredths of a degree to provide
gearing having a ratio of ten to one so that the
hundredths of a degree shaft would make ten
revolutions for each revolution of the Vernier
shaft. For reasons which will be made appar
ent below, the shaft on which the hundredths of
degree cams are mounted is coupled to the ver
same as in the tenth position. This may be seen
from reference to the tenth and eleventh lines
from the top in Fig. 4, The cam cuttings in the
twelfth position instead of being the same as in
the second position are the same as in the ninth,
etc. The cuttings of the ñrst position are not re
peated until the- twentieth position is reached.
The reason for this will be made apparent below.
Transmission of hundredths of a degree
The manner in which the hundredths of a de
gree information is transmitted from the observ
ing station to the central station will first be de
When cam 23| raises its follower, a circuit is
» closed from groundthrough contact 24|, conduc
nier shaft through gearing having a ratio of but
tor 23E and the winding of relay 30| to battery
operating the relay 30| to engage its M contact.
five to one so that the hundredths of a degree
shaft revolves but five instead of ten times for
each revolution of the Vernier shaft. For each
revolution of the hundredths of a degree shaft,
closed from ground through contact 242, conduc
When cam 232 raises its follower a circuit is
tor 231 and the winding of relay 332 to battery, i
operating the armature of relay 302 to engage its
therefore, the vernier shaft rotates through
M contact. The winding of relay 30B is connect- f
twenty one-hundredths of a degree. During this .
ed in parallel with the Winding of relay 302. Its
operation will be described below. When cam
233 raises its follower a circuit is established from
interval, twenty sets of impulses, each defining
a different one-hundredth of a degree, are trans
mitted over conductors 236 to 239, inclusive.
While the hundredths of a degree shaft 240 ro
tates through the first half of a revolution, which
corresponds to ten one-hundredths of a degree,
ten different sets of impulses, each defining ten
different one-hundredths of a degree, are trans
mitted over conductors 236 to 239, inclusive.
While shaft 243 turns through the second half
of a single rotation, ten more sets of impulses
each defining ten different hundredths o-f a de
gree are transmitted, making a total of twenty
hundredths of a degree.
Each of cams 23| to
ground through contact 243, conductor 238,
winding of relay 303 and the left-hand winding
of relay 305 to battery, operating the armature
of relays 303 and 305 to engage their respective M
zontacts. Relay 305 is not directly involved in
the transmission of hundredths of a degree in
formation and its function will be described more
fully later. When cam 234 raises its follower, a
circuit is established from ground through con
tact 244, conductor 239 and the winding of relay
304 to battery, operating the armature of relay
334 to engage its M-contact. A parallel circuit is
234 is divided into twenty equal segments. 40 also established extending through the winding
Each segment will either raise its respective cam
of relay 301 to the S contact of relay` 308, the
follower to close its contact or permit it to re
function of which will be explained below.
main in the’ lowered position. By means of the
Relays 30|, 302, 303 and 304 control the selec
four conductors 233 to 239 and the four sets of
cams 23| to 234 it would be possible to transmit
instantaneously any one of 24 or sixteen combi
nations of signal impulses resulting from the
open or closed conditions of each of the four
contacts. It is necessary to make use of only
ten of these sixteen possible combinations to de
tive connection of battery 309 through a fan cir
cuit extending through the armatures and con
tacts of relays «30|, 302, 303 and 304 to ten con
ductors, numbered 3|| to 320, inclusive. Each of
conductors 3|| to 320 has ten parallel branches,
each extending to the top terminal of a lamp.
The lamps are arranged in ten banks of ten.
fine each of ten-hundredths of a degree. As
Each of the ten conductors has one branch ex
shaft 240 turns through the ñrst half of each rev
tending into one lamp in each group of ten lamps.
olution its fo-ur cams 23| to 234 set up ten differ
As thus arranged, as cams 23| to 234 actuate their
ent combinations of closed and open contacts to
followers in accordance with the ten codes in the
deñne ten different hundredths of a degree as rvr top ten lines of Fig. 4, relays 30| to 304 will be
indicated in the code chart per Fig. 4 in the vtop
ten lines of the box. As indicated in the first
line for the first position, all contacts are open
since none of the four rectangles in the first line
is cross-hatched. For the second position, when
operated or released correspondingly to connect
battery 309 in turn to the ten different conduc
tors 3|| to 320 and through each of the ten dif
ferent conductors simultaneously to the top ter
minal of each of ten lamps connected inv parallel
shaft 240 has turned through one-twentieth of
to each conductor. One lamp in each bank of
a revolution contact 242 closes. When shaft 240
ten lamps will thus have battery connected to its
turns through another twentieth revolution, con
top terminal for each of the ten codes during the
tact 243 also closes. As shaft 240 turns through
first half revolution of shaft 240, The same lamp
each successive twentieth of a revolution, con
in each bank of ten lamps will also have battery
tacts 24| to 244 close or open as indicated in Fig.
connected to its top terminal as shaft 240 turns
4. It is particularly pointed out that only ten
through the second half of its revolution and
distinctive code combinations are employed.
actuates cams 24| to 244 in accordance with the
Each of the ten combinations which is` employed
same code in reverse order. ‘It is particularly
is used twice to define each of twenty-hun 70 pointed out that batteryy is supplied to the top
dredths of a degree. It is further pointed out
terminals of each of the hundred lamps twice
that when the combinations are repeated they
during one complete revolution of shaft y240 and
are repeated in reverse order.
That is to say,
the cam cuttings in the eleventh position instead
of being the same as in the first position are the
that if a steady ground were connected to the
opposite terminal of each lamp, one lamp in each
'bank of ten would light simultaneously. Ten
appear; opposite the top ten lines numbered5, 6,
lamps, one in` each bank ofV ten,_would first light.
7, 8, 9, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 indicating» that lamps 975,96,
9'7, 98, 99, 199,191, 102, 103Y and 104are. controlled
Then as they code changed ten other lamps, one
in each. bank of ten, would light until each of
theten lamps in each group of ten had lighted
as shaft 249 rotated `through one-half revolution.
Then .the operation would be repeated, so that-if
a direct. ground „were connected to the bottom
lamps,.there would be two hundred lamp light
in sequence by cam cuttings, arranged in accord»
ance with the pattern in the first ten positions
in sequence on cams 23| to 234. Numbers 15-24,
35-44, 55-64 and 'l5 to 84 opposite the same top
ten> lines indicate that lamps so numbered areV
also so controlled. Numbers 05-l4, 25-34, Ll5-.54,
Vone lamp at a time, to define twenty one-hun
positions on cams 23| to 234.
terminals of all of the hundredths of a degree
and 85-94 opposite the bottom ten horizon
ing operations as Yshaft 2.4tlïturned through one 10 65,-'74
tal‘lînes in Fig. 4 indicate that lamps so num
revolution representing twenty-hundredths of a
beredare controlled by. cam cuttings arranged inV
deg-ree. Only twenty> lamps are- in fact lighted,
accordance with the pattern in the second ten
dredths of a degree change for each revolution
of shaft 246, This is performed by connecting
ground selectively to theY proper group of tens
lamps in each bank, under control of cams 22|
to 224', which define the Ytenths of a degree. The
manner in which this is performed will be ex
plained below.
Refer now to the code indicated by the top line
of Fig. 4. No raised surfaces are indicated for
any cam. Relays 39| to 394 are all released. For
this condition all of their armatures engage their
respective S contacts. A circuit may therefore
20 be traced from battery 339 through the S contact
of relay 2h34, S contact of Arelay 393, VIS contact
The chain circuits through the contacts of re
1lay 39| to 304 corresponding to various codes per
Fig. 4 will now be traced. It is assumed that the
armature of relays 39| to 394 are actuated to their
respective M contacts when -cam vcontacts 24| to
244 are closed andthat the contacts are closed
by raised surfaces on cams 23| to 234 inthe cross-V
« hatched positions- in Fig. 4.
It is assumed that
the armatures of relays 30| to 304 are open and
thatl the contacts are openY by depressed surfaces 30
on cams 23| to 234 where'positions are not cross
hatched in Fig. 4.
In Fig. 4 four vertical rows from left to right
represent the condition of cam contacts 24| to
244, respectively, whether open or closed. There
are twenty horizontal rows in Fig. 4 correspond
of‘relay 332 and 3S contact of relay 30|V to con
ductor 3i@ which connects to lamp 95.V
The'next code requires the operation of relay
392' andi the release of 39|, 3.33 and 394. The cir
cuitîinay be traced from battery 399 through the
S contact of relay 394, S contactof relay 303,
IM Contact. of relay 392 and the 2S contact of
relay 33t to conductor'îâl‘t. This connects to
lamp 96.
The code shown in the third line of Fig. 4 calls
for the operation of relays SSZ'and 303 and the
release of relays 39| and 394. VA circuit may be
traced from battery 339 through the S contact
.o: Ur of' relay 394, M contact of relay 333, and the IS
contact of relay 39! to conductor 3|2 which con
nects» to lamp 97. If the circuits corresponding
t0 the remainder of the codes indicated in the
ing to the twenty equal segments into which the
peripheries of cams 23| to 234 are divided. Innext seven lines in sequence are traced they will
stead ofbeingnumbered from 0 to 9 and then
seen to connect battery 399 to the top termi
repeatingfrom 0 to 9 the horizontal rows are
nalof lamps 9S to 04 in sequence.
. numbered 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0, l, 2, 3, 4, 5: .6: 7: 8: 9:> 0s
During the interval while shaft 249 is rotating
l, 2, 3, 4. The reason for this, as will become more
the ñrst half of its first revolution it will
apparent below, is thatthe code for the degrees,
be shown below that a common ground is con
controlled by contacts 2|6 to 22D is transmitted
,from the observation station'during the interval
while the hundredths cams are in the zero region
and' it lessens the danger of- interference if no
changes in the ground connections, to the ten
banks of ten lamps, underl control of camsv 22|
to 224 are made in the zero region. Therefore
the hundred lamps are separated into groups of
ten, as indicated in Fig. 3, between 04 and 05, 14
and l5, etc., to 94 and 95.
As indicated in Fig. 3', the ñrst groupof ten
nected, as a result of the operation ofthe tenth
degree cams, to lamp bank 95 to 04 in parallel, so
that each of these lamps lights in sequence,
iter conipieting the first half of the ñrst revo
lution, when shaft 249 rotates into the eleventh
position of its twenty positions for the ñrst cam
Vsetting‘for the second half of its rotation, refer
ence to Fig. 4 indicates thatv there is no change in
the settings of the cams from the settings for the
tenth position.
In the tenth position contact
lampsy are numbered from 95"to 04. It will be 55 24| only is closed. The other contacts are open. Y
Relay 39| only is oœrated in the tenth position.
shown that ground is connected to this bank of
Thecircuit for this conditionV may be traced from
ten lamps when cams 22| to 224 are in the position
battery 399 through cont-act S of relay 304, con
tact S of relay 393, contact ViS of relay 392 and
tacts associated with cams 22| to 224 are all open,
contact 3M of relay 39| to conductor 355. Con
the ¿tenth degree’relays 32| to 324 controlled by
ductor 3|5 connects to lamp-04 in the first bank
these cams are in such condition that ground is
of ten lamps. The setting of the hundredth de
connected to lamp bank numbered 95 to 04.
gree cams, as indicated in Fig. 4, does not change
Therefore during the first half ofthe first >revo
between the tenth and eleventh position of the
lution of shaft 24|), ground is connected to lamp
bank’y 95 to04. During the second half of the 65 twenty positions on cams 23| to 234. Battery will
therefore remain connected toY conductor 3|5 for
revolution of' cam shaft 249, ground will be con
each transition between the tenth and eleventh
nected to thebank of lamps numbered 05 to 14.
settings of the camsas the cam settings are the
Duringthe ñrst half of the second revolution of
saine and do not change in any way. As aresult
Lshaft' 240 ground will be connected to lamps 15 to
' 24. During the> second half of the second revolu 70 of this, it is necessary to change the ground con
nections only on changes from 04 to 05, 14 to l5,
tion, ground will be connected to lamps 25 to‘ 34,
24 t0 25, 34. t0 35, 44 t0 45, 54 t0 55, 64 to 65, "I4
etc. Relays`32| toY 3,25 will be operated under
indicated in Fig. 2. Y That is to say, when the con
control of cams 22| to 224 in accordance with the
code indicated in Fig. 5 to effect these changes.
to 75, 34 to 85, and 94 to 95.
The bottom line in Fig. 4 shows- thatV the code
At theleft of iFilg". 41 therefore the numbers 95.-()4' 75 for. lampsî14, 34, 54, 74 and 94V requires thatall
four of relays 30| to 304 be released. If the path
no matter what the condition of relay 305 or 306,
relay 308 will be released for this condition. Ref
erence to relay 308 shows that battery is perma
nently connected to the left-hand terminal of its
winding. To operate the relay ground must be
supplied through the chain circuit to the right
hand terminal of the winding. When relay 308 is
for this condition is traced it may be seen to
extend from battery 309 through contact 304s,
contact 303S, contact IS of relay 302 and con
tact 3S of relay 30| to conductor 3|6. The top
line in Fig. 4 shows that the code for lamps 15,
35, 55, 75 and 95 and therefore the setting of the
relays and the connection of battery to the con
ductor is the same as that for lamps 14, 34, 54, ’74
and 94. Conductor 3I5 is shown connected to
lamps 14 and 15, 34 and 35, 54 and 55, 74 and 75,
and 94 and 95. Reference to Fig. 3 shows that
lamps 14, 34, 54, 74 and 94 are each the last lamps
in various banks of ten, while lamps l5, 35, 55, 75
and 95 are each the first lamps in corresponding
succeeding banks of ten. No change therefore is
required in the settings of the relays and in the
chain circuits from battery to the top terminal
of each of these lamps for transitions between
them. The transition requires a change in the
ground connection only between the common con
ductors connected in multiple to the bottom ter
minals of the particular groups of ten lamps af
fected by the transition.
Operation of circuit for indicating transition be
released, ground is supplied through its upper
armature and S contact through conductor 340
to lamps 95-04 in parallel.
While ground is connected in paralle1 to lamps
95-04, each of these lamps will be lighted in se
quence as the Vernier is turned through corre
spending positions for each degree.
. „
Reference t'o the second lineV of Fig. 5 shows
that for the second tenth-degree Zone, that is, for
the ten of a degree beginning at live-hundredths
of a degree and ending at fourteen-hundredths of
a degree, or 05-14, cam 22| operates relay 32|.
20 Relays 322, 323, 324 and 325 are released. Relay
306 is released during the transition from 04 to
05 because, as shown in lines 10 and 11 of Fig. 4
the periphery of cam 232 is depressed during this
interval.l Therefore ground is connected through
tween tenths of a degree
`the S contact of relay 306, S contact of relay 325,
S contact of relay 324, IS contact of relay 323,
2S contact of relay 322 and the 4M contact of re
Transitions between tenths of a degree effect
changes in the settings of contacts individual to
cams 22| to 224 in accordance with Fig. 5. The
table at the left of Fig. 4 indicates the tenth de
gree zones deiined by cam settings in the corre
lay 32I, which is the only operated relay in the
chain, to aparallel circuit. >One branch of the
parallel circuit is connected in parallel through
32| to 325 to battery.
through bottom contact 308M, right-hand wind
ing of relay 305 and the right-hand winding of
relay 3|0, operating the armatures >oi” relays 305
conductor 34| to the bottom terminals of lamps
05-14. The other branch is connected through
resistance 33| and the-winding of relay 308 to
sponding ten lines of Fig. 5. Instead ofrdividing
battery, operating relay 308. When battery is
the tenth degree zones between 99 and 100,9 and
10, etc. the zones are divided between 94 and 95, 35 connected to the bottom terminal of lamps 0.5-14
each of these lamps is lighted in sequence as the
04 and 05, etc. as indicated in the table to corre
spond with the lamp groupings described above.
Vernier rotates through corresponding positions.
The operation of relay- 308 disconnects ground
As cam contacts 22| to 224 are closed and
from its top S contact and conductor 340 which ~
opened, in accordance with the codes per Fig. 5,
relays 32| to 325 are- operated and released from 40 prevents the lighting of any of lamps 95-04 while
the Vernier is rotating from O5-14. vThe operation
ground through the cam contacts, conductors 228
>of relay 308 also established a circuit from battery
to 229, respectively and the windings of the relays
Attention is called to the fact that conductors
226 to 229 are only four conducting elements of
a channel consisting of five conducting elements.
The ñfth conducting element, conductor 230, is
and 3I0 to engage their respective M contacts.
It is particularly pointed out that relay 308 is
released only during the interval While the Vernier
is in the region between 95> and 04. For each
right-hand Vertical column in Fig. 5 discloses that 50 other tenths degree combination relay-308 is op
erated from ground supplied from relay 305A or
the fifth conductor, conductor 230, remains in the
306 through an individual path through the fan
open condition for each of the codes assigned to
circuit extending through the contacts of relays
the tenths of a degree. Codes requiring the clos
32| to 325, inclusive and some one of the re
ing of conductor 230 are assigned only to degrees.
This may be seen in the right-'hand vertical col 55 sistances 33| to 339, inclusive to the right-hand
terminal'of relay 30S. A corresponding bank of
umn of Fig. 6.
tenr lamps will be lighted through some one of
A number of the circuits established by the op
conductors 34| to 340. For instance, for the tenth
eration of the tenth degree cams will now be
degree zone beginning at 15 hundredths and end
The top line in Fig. 5 indicates that all of cam 60 ing at 24 hundredths in each degree as indicated
in Fig. 5, the contacts of camsl 22| and 222 will
contacts 22| to 224 are open for the tenth degree
be closed and the contactsY of cams 223, 224 will
zone starting at each ninety-fifth hundredth of a
be open. A circuit may therefore be tracedl from
degree and ending at each fourth hundredths of
ground through contact 305M, contact 325s, con
a degree or 95-04 as indicated in Fig. 5. When
not employed in transmitting any of the codes y
for the tenths of a degree. Reference to the
,ever tenth of a degree codes are transmitted con 65 tact 324s, contact IS of relay 323, contact 2M of '
relay 322 and contact 3M of relay 32| which con
ductor 230 is open as indicated in the right-hand
nects in parallel through resistance 332 to the
column of Fig. 5. Why it is open will become
right-hand terminal of relay 4308 and through
more apparent below. For this condition there
conductor 342 to lamp banks 15 to 24. For the
fore relays 32| to 325 are released. When all of
these relays are released, the' path leading from 70 tenth -degree Zone beginning at Vernier position
25 and ending at Verniereposition 34, as'indicated
the parallel branches connected to the M contact
in line 4 of Fig. 4, relay 322 is the only chain >relay
of relay 305 and the S contact of relay 306 and
operated. The circuit will therefore extend from
extending through’contact 325s; contact 324S,
ground through contact 305M, contact 325s,
contact IS of relay 323 andgcontact 2S of relay
322 is open at the 4S contact of relay 32|. So
_contact 324S,- contact IS of- relay 323,:V con
¿> annessi
308, which relay remains released. v No Llamp- 'in
any bank can »therefore be aiiected »by the'trans
mission of the degree information.
In the description above it was explained that
all ofthe contacts of cams 221 to 22d are open
>tact 2M of relay 322Y and >contact 3S of -relay
32E to resistance 333 and conductor 343 in parallel»
Relay '358 remains operated and the bottom ter
minals `of lamps in 'the bank 25-34 are supplied
with ground. For Vernier positions 3544, 45-54,
55-64, 65-74, 'T5-84 and 85-94, if relays 32|-’25
when the code for the tenths of a degree zone,
starting at 95 hundredths and ending at 04 hun
dredths', is transmitted. This is indicated in the
corresponding line in Fig. 5 is cross-hatched and
top line of Fig. 5. It was also explained that dur
i released where a position is blank, circuits may be
traced from ground through contact 355Mr and 10 ing this interval relay 333 remained released and
that ground was supplied to the bottom terminal
through an individual paththrough .contacts of
of lamps 95 to 04 through the top S contact oiV
relays 32| to 325 for each relay group setting
relay .338 instead of from the M contact of relay
indicated by the particular line in Fig. 5 to a single
335 or the S contact of relay 395. It is not nec»
group often llamps correspondingly numbered.
Relay 308 Vwill be maintained operated simul 15 essary therefore to supply ground from relays 335
or 355 to any of the lamps orto the right-hand
" taneously from ground supplied -through resist~
terminal of relay 338 for the tenths zone begin
ances 333 to 339.
ning at 95 and ending at 04. The ground from
`Only one bank often lamps will have battery
relays 395 andr355 is therefore disconnected from
supplied `to its bottom terminals at any one time.V
Relay 338 is released only Vwhile the Vernier is in 20 the chain circuit for anumber of theV positions
of the Vernier in the Zero hundredths regionrwhile
the teeth of a degree position between 95 hun
the degree f code information is transmitted.
dredths and 04 hundredths. Therefore ground
Therefore, ino matter whether or notV relays 326
will be supplied to lamp bank 95-04 only during
to 325 are operated or released in response to the
this interval. During the interval while relay 398
degree'codes, the lamp banks corresponding to
is operated while the Vernier is in the other 90
the hundredths of a degree are not aifected in
hundredths of a degree positions, ground can be
connected to only one bank of ten lamps for each
Normally switch '245 is open. VSwitch. 245 has
of the settings indicated in the nine bottom groups
ñve separate contacts. It is under control of cam
of codes of lFig.'5. Reference to the various pos
sible circuíts through‘relays 32| to 325 will dis 30 225, mounted onV Vernier shaft 1292. Cam 225
operates switch 245 to close the 'five .circuits fromY
close that' it is not possible to establish more than
cam contacts 2l5 te 223 through the rive arma
one closed path through their contacts simul
tures of switch 245, conductors 22S-to 239 and
taneously for any of the operate and'release con
the windings of relays 325 to 330 `and 3,2! to 325
ditions of relays 32| and 325'indicated in any of
Vare assumed to be operated Where a position in a
-the eode'condítions of Fig. 5. 1
` Y
The manner in which the mechanism functions
cams actually set vtheir respective contacts, which
40 thereafter remain set for each degreelcode, while
the Vernier is moving between 45 and 50. This is Y
approximately one-half vdegree in advance of the
position of the Vernier at which the codes setup
Transmission of degree information `
to transmit degree information, will now be de
tion 96.5 to 03.5. Only during this interval cor
responding to seven' one-hundredths of a degree
can degree ycodes be transmitted.V The `degree'
selection of each of the lamps by the hundredths
ting of the Vernier.
V35 in 'parallel to battery,iwhile the Vernier is in posi
_ The cooperationA of the apparatus governing the
of a degree mechanism and vthe tenth of a de
gree mechanism therefore will result in the light
ing of one lamp only for each one-hundredth set
during the-45 to 50 interval are actually trans
45 mitted. . The reason for this is toV insure that the
degree cams’ contacts are actually at rest in their
proper positions when they are connected to their
It has been explained that as shaft V‘2138 revolves
through twenty , degrees about Vspindle 206, it
respective conductors 22B to 239, to reduce the
i possibility'for mutilation due to possible bouncing
»rotates once von'its own aXis, turning each of
cams 2| I'to 2i5 through a single rotation. Dur 50 of the contacts, etc., when closed or opened, if
they 'were >closed and opened at about the time
ingthis single rotation contacts 2|6 -to ‘223 are
set in Vtwenty diiîerent combinations totransmit
that they ywere vconnected to their conductors.
There is another protective feature in the in
twenty different combinations of impulses tode
vention designed vto guard against mutilation dur-ifine twenty diiîerent degrees as shown in Fig. 6.
ing the closing and opening of the contacts of
YSince the same channel consisting 'of individ-V
, switch 245. In ther two Vernier positions in which
ual conducting elements 225 to '235 is used to
the position of switch 245 actually changes the
Ytransmit both tenths of a degree informationV as
well as degree information, provision is made, in Y positions of its ñve contacts, namely at 96 and
. an important feature of this invention, to> pre
03, whether to open or close the switch, depend
vent interference in operation between the mech 60 ing upon the ldirection of rotation of the Vernier
on either increasingA or decreasing . azimuth,
anism employed to »transmit and record this in
formation. A separate set of recording relays
326 to 330 isprovided to record the degree in
formation. Conductors 223 to 230 inclusive‘are
ground is ydisconnected from the- fan circuit
through relays 32| to 325 to the hundredths lamps.
Reference to the second line from the top in Fig. 4
Y extended through the bottom windings of relays 65 shows that at position'96 of the Vernier, contact
325 to 339, respectively. Relays 325 to 333 re- ~
242 only is voperated. by hundredths of a degree
cam 232. This connects ground through conduc»
spend to the code of the degree information. The
degree impulses are transmitted while the Vernier
tor 231 to thetop terminal of relaytûë. Since
is in the portion offthe'95 to 04 tenths zone be
relay 393 is’released for Vthe 95 tolle tenths of a
degree zone, battery is connected fromY bottom
tween 98 and l0l. Relays `32| to 325' for the
contact '3988 tothe bottom terminalof- relay 395 '
tenths of degrees respond to the degree codes
roperating relay 335 in this position. The_arma
and change the circuits through their contacts
turev of relay 355 is in engagement with its M con
i but in no case is a circuit continuous from ground
through the contacts'of relays
32! to 325 toany Y tact so that no ground islconnect'ed through theV '
of the banksof lamps orto the Ywinding of--relay 1'IIS >fan >circuit of relays 324 to 325 froin‘relay 306 `
for this condition.' Both windings of relay 305
are deenergized for this condition because bat
tery is disconnected from the bottom M contact
of relay 308 so that the right-hand winding of
relay 305 is deenergized andicontact 243 is open
so that the left-hand winding of.relay305 is de~
energized, The armature of -relay 305 is on its
S contact. No ground therefore can be con
nected to the fan circuit through relays 32| to
325 from relay 305 either. So ground is dis
connected from the fan circuit through relays 32!
to 325 for position 96 in each degree.
Reference to the ninth line from the topin
Fig. ‘ll for the 03 position of the Vernier indi
only. Reference to the top vten code groups ol
Fig. 4' shows that during this interval cam 234
closes contact 244 in positions 98, 99, 00 and 01.
Relay 301, therefore, is operated only while the
Vernier is in the four positions 98, 99, 00 and 01.
Relay 310 is released and relays 326 to 330 are in
fcondition to respond to degree codes therefore
only while the Vernier is i-n positions 98, 99, 00 and
01. , During the other ninety-six positions of the
`Vernier relay 301 is released and ground is 'con
nected through contact 3015 and the left-hand
fwinding of relay 310 operating relay 3I0. The
operation of relay 3 I 0 for the ninety-six positions '
of the Vernier from 02 to _97 opens the operating
cates that the positions of cams 232 and 233 is un 15 paths through each of relays 326 to 330. The
changed from that for Vernier position 95 de
operation of relay 3I0 also locks those of relays
scribed above. Relays 395 and 306 are in the same
326 to 330 which have been operated by the code
condition as described above and ground is dis
connected from the fan circuit for this position
Relays 326 to 330 are operated or released in
also. As a result of this even though a perfect 20 accordance with the degree codes. The >top ar
simultaneous closing or opening of all of the
mature of any of these relays Which is operated
contacts of switch 245 in Vernier positions 96 and
is actuated to engage its M contact. Relay 310
03 is not effected, the banks‘oi the hundredth
is fast in operating and operates before any one
degree lamps will be unaffected as no ground, is
of relays 326 to 330 which has been operated can
connected through the fan circuit of relays 32'! 25 released. This established a locking path from
to 325 for either of these Vernier positions. The
battery through contact 3l0M top windings of
contacts will assume a proper final position, how
relays 326 to 330, armatures of relays 326 to 330
ever, whether open or closed before the Vernier'
and to ground through the top M contact of any
I has moved into the succeeding position.
To return now to a consideration of the opera
relay which has been operated, locking each op
30 erated relay.' Relays which are not operated in
tion of relays 326 to 330 which record the degree
accordance with the received code, of course, re- »
settings, these relays are normally in positions
main in their normal released positions. The
corresponding to the code last recorded by them.
paths from the degree cam contacts to conductors
Relays which have been last operated by the code
226 to 230 remain open, due to the operation of
are locked operated. Relays 326 to 330 are neu 35 cam 225 and the opening of switch 245, until the
tral relays. Relay 3|0 functions to unlock those
.change in setting of the azimuth requires a
of them which have been locked in the operated
change in setting of the degree relays. Relay 3 I0
position by the impulses of the previous code and
remains operated during this interval and the
to connect them to conductors 226 to 230 only
settings of relays 326 to 330 remain unchanged.
while the Vernier is in a few positions in the zero 40
If the telescope 20| were not required to be
region. This will be fully explained below. The
rotated in more than one direction, such as clock
relays are set in accordance with the code for
wise, it would be necessary to provide only twenty
the new degree cam setting. Then relays 326 to
individual degree lamp selecting circuits, one for
330 are disconnected from conductors 226 to 239
each of the twenty degree lamps. One such se
so that their settings will not be mutilated by the 45 lecting circuit would be established by the oper
codes for tenths of a degree. Since relays 326 to
ation and release of relays 326 to 330 for each of
330 are neutral relays those of them which have
the twenty codes indicated in Fig. 6. The tele
been operated by the particular degree code must
scope 20| must be rotatable in either the clock
be locked in the operated position between the re-wise or counter-clockwise direction, however, to
ception of degree codes. This is eiîected by a lock 50 follow a target the movement of which is unre
ing circuit through each of their top windings
under control of relay 3H).
Let it be assumed that the position of the tele
It was shown above that relay 308 is operated
scope is in the neighborhood of 18.25 degrees and
for ninety of the one hundred Vernier positions
that the azimuth is increasing. As the Vernier
namely from positions 05 to 94. During this in
passes through 18.45 degrees to 18.50 degrees a
terval, as explained above, the armature of `relay
new code is set up by cams 2l l to 2 I5. The code
308 remains in engagement with its M contact
will be stored on >the contacts and will not be
which establishes a circuit heretofore traced from \
transmitted to relays 326 to 330 for recording un
battery through contact 308M and the right-hand
til the Vernier is in’position 18.98- degrees. Let it
windings of relays 30E-and 3|0. Relay 310 re 60 be assumed that, in response to these, the 19#
mains operated over this path and its armature
degree lamp is lighted when the Vernier crosses
therefore remains in engagement with its M con
19.00 degrees. If the azimuth continues to in
tact while the Vernier is in any of the ninety
crease there is no difñculty. Suppose, however,
positions from 05 to 94. As may be observed,
that the telescope must be rotated in the oppo
there is a second winding on relay 310. The left
site direction back into the 18-degree zone. Since
hand winding is under control of relay 301. The
the cam settings for the degree codewill not again
left-hand winding of relay 3|'0 is energized while
change until the azimuth is in the 18.50 degree
relay 301 is released. Relay 301 is under dual
to 18.45 degree zone, some provision must be made
control. I In order to energize relay 301, relay 308
to record the change back into the l'ß-degree zone.
must be released to connect battery to the bottom
70 ` In order to do this two selecting circuits are
terminal of relay 301 and cam 234 must close
` established through the contacts of relays 326 to
contact 244 to connect ground‘to the top terminal
330 for each of the twenty diiferent degree codes
of relay 301. Battery is connected to the bottom
shown in Fig. 6.: Relays 326 to 330 are each
terminal of relay 301l as has been shown, while
equipped with forty sets of bottomV contacts.
the Vernier is in the ten positions from 95 to 04 75 Only three sets are actually shown. Two'identi-é
Lcalîchain circuits areles'tabli'shedthroughï the Vcon
Íta'ctsïof relaysßîä Ítoj 330 'for each of ‘the twenty
.di'ñerent »codes There .iis 'one chain Aëcircuitv ’for
increasingland another ¿for decreasing .yer-.nier for
.each degree. .Each-'such pair .of fch'ain circuits‘i’s
v-conn'ectable through a »lamp >tobattery. There
'.isibutone lampi foreach degree camsetting. “The
' opposite endsëloiieach.fchaineîrcuit is connectable
V:toig'round .through »the 'opposed contacts :and ar
matures Vof 4polar relay .350. The polar relay :fis
.controlledeby thezhundredthsdegree.cams iir'such
V.manner that whentheivernierlpass'es throug'hipo- .
.sitioïn 19.00 'degrees onincreas'ing .azimuth :one :of
y‘the .chain circuitsxcontrolledby .the *code for‘nin‘e
fteen degrees and :designated ¿the 11S-'degree »ad
‘Vance chain :will .be .iconnectedîto ground to >light
lanrp :19. When 'the Vernier >'passes .through .posi
tion 19.00 on decreasing azimuth the otherî-of ‘two
. Á:chainfcircuits controlled .by the code fornineteen
Relay 350 is’proVided-with two locking circuits.
One extends from battery ‘through the top‘wind
ing .of relay 359, through resistance 35| kvtotheM
contact of relay 350.
The other extends from
.battery through the Vbottom winding of» relay 35|',
through resistance "35.2 to the S yContact of relay
359. When the armature 'of'relay "359 is fon its
M contact. current suñicient to hold the .arma
ture in engagement with the M >contact ñoWs
through the top winding ‘provided full current
does not flow through the bottom Winding.
When‘the armature of relay '350 'is on its S con
tact, current suflicient to holdíthe armature in
engagement with its S Contact vflows 'through 'the
bottom winding provided full'current doesfn'ot
flow through the `top winding. VIn ninety-’six of
the hundred Vernier positions in each degree the»
armature oi relay 35i! will be held in engagement. Y
The manner in-‘Whichït‘heftwentypairs of .chain
with either its S or its .M contact .by either ofit's
locking windings. The contact on which 'the :ar
mature is held is the contact toV which it was‘lasty
actuated by relay 39! 'while the Vernier ¿was in y'the
.circuits correspondingßto' Atwenty ‘codes such'as
four Vernier -positions 98, 99, 100 ai‘ihd 01 and
ple. . The '.circuitfor 19--^degree .advance may be
Yit is locked to its M'contact ïby current ‘ilowing
from 'battery .through the filament of the 18-de-
Switch 295 is open 'so the degreecode is nottrans
mìtted at this time. YThe code for 'the tenths
degrees butidesignated 118-'deg'r'ee retrogre's's lamp
'be Yenergized to 'light :lamp 18.
.ground was supplied from the M contact :of ‘relay
indicatedzin Fig.. '6 Vmay îb‘e established through
forty sets ici contaet's of vthe ñve relays 326 to §33!) 25 301.
'Let it be assumed that the armature of relay
>shouldf'lo'e obvious ’from lreference 'to the three
350 is in engagement with its M contact and that
chain circuits which ïarîe shown by way of examm
from battery through the top Vwinding of 'relay
»traced >frornïîoattery "through’fth'e ñlarnent of the
.lâ-:degree 'advance .lamp through the :front con 30 350, ‘through resistance 351 and the 'M Contact of .
relay ’350 through 'itsV armature rto ground. -"'L’et
tact of relay 2330 fand through the ìbreak Vcontacts
it be assumed that telescope >20! ‘is in position '
of «relays 3219, ‘328, 321 land 3291in sequence; the
18.30 degrees and that the azimuth lis increasing.V
settings -o-‘f ‘all >of which relays -c'orlrespc'md to 'the
When the Vernier- moves l'i'.l-irou'g’h positions '1T8Í45
`ciode lfor .nineteen Vshown iin the bottom line of
degrees to 18.50 degrees thefl'Q ‘code Willi'be'seît
flîig. 6.,'.to Ythe M.»contaot of relay 2350. 'The circuit
up on contacts Ziô to 220'by cams` 21C! to 215.
for 'the ¿1d-degree retrogress lamp 'may be traced
.greerretrogress lamp through .the `front `Contact
oi relay§330 and >through the back ‘contacts ’of re
'lays;32'9, :328,f321fa‘nd 329 to the ¿S Contact vof -re
Y lay 350. Attention is .called Vto the îfact ‘that 'the
position vo1" the yrelay contacts in :the> chain cir
‘cufits through Arelays ‘3.2.6 to >Sâiìris the same `for
:both 'of ¿these lamps. Both'o'f these rchaincircuits
were established ¿by the same setting of the de- ;‘
îgree cams, namely the cam `settings "established
»when the azimuthèpassed -betwe'ffen 18.45 degrees
to"1r~8;50 degrees and bdthïcorr'espond to the Yset
ting lindicatedï‘r‘lß” ¿in the Í-bottoin Vli'rïiïe "of Fig. i3.
and hundredths of Va degree are trfansmïitted'con~
tinuo'usly by the action of 'cams-22|' to 224 _and
2.3i to 234. W'hen the Vernier reaches position
18.95 degrees relay '398 releases.
the yer
nier reaches 18.965 degrees switch 2545 closes”.
When the Vernier reaches 18.98 degrees relay 39'!
operates. Relay 3 l0 which has‘been locked vre«
leased. T,The particular relays ot the degreeV cod
ing relays 326 to 3-30 which were operated in ‘re
sponse to the _last code »signals which were -`receiv'ed will be unlocked. The code'for thenin'e
to teen position vwill beV impressed on relays '325
to 330. In response to this they will establish
gress is lighted will depend upon the direction ‘of
-the‘imoye’ment foi the Vernier ’and the operation
two circuits as has been e?älola'ined from battery
Ätlln‘òugh the 19 Vadvance lamp» and from "battery `
of the :hundredths .of ia 'de'gree'cams in response
¿thro gh the >1_`8 retrofg‘ressV lamp, Áthrol'igh two
thereto. This will now be'ex’rfila'ined in detail.
Relay 350 is under contröi of relays 301> 'and »
in'i dïual chain circuits extending through Vthe
arxr'i'atu-res~ of relays 325" to 338', to the larmature
:39.7, ¿Inorder ‘to move the `armature o‘f're1ay‘3'50
l350. When relay '39"' -Opfer-¿ttes at 18.793
in either‘direction, ground must be supplied from
relay 301. `It has been shown Vvabove -tl'iat ‘relay
ide rees 'it conlrrects> ground kto its 'M contact.
As 'ndic'at'ed lin the i'lrst column of Fig. "4 during
.3,91 .is operated 'Ífor l‘each degree in only 'four of
the hundred positions (if the Íve'rrii'e'r. These po '00 this interval relay 39! is in the released condi-V
tion. 'l‘hefoperat'ionof relay’3û'7 at '18.98 degrees,
sitions, it was 'shown Weref98', 99, U0 and T01. .The
while 'relay '30! 'is released, establishes. a circuit
ground is ~suppliedir`om vrelay Sill thròughits ar
trom v"ground through relay contact ‘Silit/l, through
mature and M fc'ontac't andr 'through either con
relay VContact of relay 30 IV and the 4loottoih Wind
tact 6M of relay 130i., when-relay 30| `is operated,
î totbïattery through -the‘t'op Winding of relay 350, _
or through contact '5S of 'relay ’3701, “when relay
3G! is released, toY battery through the bottom
:winding ¿of .relayf3‘5û~ The position of relay 39|
while the'vernier is lin V1co‘sit'ions’98', 99,> 00 'and 0l
determines which .of'zthe 4windings of relay 350 is
energized'by the ground from relay £301. YThis in
turn'ádeterrnines in 'which d-îre’ctîo‘n'the armature
ing 'of relay 350. Full current ñows in this >>~path.
The arîrnatur'e of relay 35B vwill'berop'erate‘d to en
'gage its 'S contact.
` '
This condition will obtain
during lt-lïr'e- transition Vinterval' while the 'Vernier
is inihosi‘tions 98 and _99. 'Wheh'th'e YVernier ino'ves
irit‘o ‘_oo'sitich '1.9.00 degrees, V4as indicated in the
Y sixth ence groeperen@ refr-'ilaria temine office.
Y of A*relay 359 willbe .actuated and Y'which of the
4 Vrelay sa: remains oper-atea arida-'relay .3a-i f epee
at'es. This establishes -a lci‘rcuit from ground
twoßl‘am'prcirciiits' set upîby such degree Ícode will
through remy Contact scrivi, ¿thelist/i cent-’act Ver
be "closed, '
relay 305| ¿and the ¿top Winding Oî lrèláy ¿350 to
teryfv The armature of relay 350 will be actuated
to its M contact. This will close the circuit of
the 19 advance lamp and it will light. As the
30| remains released and at 18.97 degrees relay
301 releases. This disconnects direct ground from
the bottom winding of relay 359 butthe armature
of relay 350 is maintained on its S contact by its
Vernier continues to increase there is no change in
the condition of relays 301 or 30| until, as indicat
ed in the right-hand Vertical colinnn in the eighth
holding circuit.
The release Y oi relay 301 at
Vernier position 97 reoperates relay 3|0. This
again disconnects relays 325 to 330 from con
code group from the top for the 19.93 degree posi
ductors 226 to2-39 and reestablishes the locking
tion of the Vernier relay 301 releases. This dis
path for those of the relays which have been op
connects direct ground from the top winding of
relay 350. But the armature of relay 350 is locked 10 erated by the degree code. -"At 96.5 switch 245
again reopens. At 95 relay 308 again releases.
to its M contact by its locking path. The release
The circuit forthe 18 lamp is locked lighted until
of relay 301 operated relay 3|0. This discon
the next cycle.
' `
nects relays 325 to 339 from conductors 225 to
What is claimedis:
230. Relay 3|0 also locks those of relays 325
1. In a ~data transmission system, an observing
which are operated by the 19 code. Those relays 15
station, a receiving station, means at said observ
of relays 325 to 330 which have remained unop
ing station -for making measurements, means at
erated by the Y19 code maintain their released
said observing station for translating said meas
positions, of course, without locking. When the
urements into a four-_digit number, means at said
Vernier reaches positions 19.035 degrees, switch
observing station for translating each of the` ten
245 opens. When Vernier position 19.05 degrees
possible numerals in the units'place in said num
is reached relay 308 operates supplying an ad
ber into a particular one of ten of sixteen possible
ditional locking path for relay 3 | 0 and preventing
code combinations of electrical impulses in ac
the reep-eration of relay 351 on Vernier settings
cordance with a four-element permutation code,
other han 98 to 02. The circuit for the v|9 lamp
is therefore locked and the 19 lamp remains 25 means at `said observing station for impressing
said combination of impulses simultaneously
on four conductors comprising a ñrst channel
Let it be assumed that the azimuth continues to
interconnecting said stations, means at said ob
increase for a time while cams 22| to 224 and 23|
serving station for translating each of the ten
to 234 control the hundredths of a degree lamps to
correspond. Let it be assumed that the azimuth 30 possible numerals in the tens place in said number into-a particular one of ten of'thirty-two
passes through 19.45 degrees to 19.50 degrees and
possible code combinations of electrical impulses
to 19.60 degrees. As the azimuth passed through
in accordance with a iive-element'permutation
19,45 degrees to 19.50 degrees the 20 code shown
code, means at said observing station for im
as the zero code in Fig. 6 would be set up on con
pressing said electrical impulses, de?ining the
tacts 2|@ to 220 by cams 2!! to 255.
numeral in the tens positions, simultaneously,
Let it be assumed that starting at 19.50 de
at a ñrst time, on four of iive other conducting
grees the Vernier is turned backwards. The 20
elements comprising a second channel inter
code would not be transmitted because, as has
connecting said stations, means at said observing
been shown. the Vernier would have to be ro
station for translating each of the numerals
tated to 19.965 degrees before switch 245 is even
in the combined hundreds and thousands posi
closed. As the Vernier is rotated so a-s to lower
tions in said number into code combinations of
its reading when the Vernier passes through 19.50
electrical impulses other than assigned` for said
degrees to 19.45 degrees, the 2O code would be
numerals in the tens positions in accordance with
wiped out and the 19 code would be reestablished.
said five-element code and means at said observ
When the Vernier position 19.04 degrees is reached
ing station for impressing simultaneously at a
relay 300 again releases unlocking the right-hand
second time signal impulses defining said com-'
locking path of relay 310. When Vernier position
bined numerals in said hundreds and said thou
19.035 degrees is reached switch 245 recloses.
sands positions in said number on said iive con
Relay 30|, as indicated in the left-hand column
of Fig. 4, is operated at this time but it is inef 50 ducting elements comprising said second channel.
fectual because relay 301 is released, as shown in
the right-hand column of Fig. 4. At Vernier posi.
2. In a data transmission system, a transmis
sion channel, iive separate independent conduct
ing elements in said channel corresponding to íive
tion 19.01 degrees relay 301 reoperates. This un»
elements in a permutation code, means connected
locks the left-hand winding of relay 3 | 9 which re
leases its armature to S in turn unlocking relays 55 to said channel for translating any numeral in the
units place »l in a three-digit number into signal
326 to 330. The code for I9 is impressed on re
impulses in accordance with combinations in said
lays 325 to 339. This will involve no change in
live-element code requiring for transmissionV
the settings of the relays as the code is the same
changes in the conditions of four of said con
as last sent. With the armatures of both relays
30| and 391 operated to engage their M contacts 60 ducting elements only, while said fifth conduct
ing element remains unchanged in one of its two
a circuit is established through the top Winding
possible conditions, and means for translating
of relay 359. This continues to hold the arma
ture of relay 350 on M momentarily. At position I combined -digits in the tens and hundreds places
99 of the Vernier, corresponding to position 18.99 ‘ in said number into single code combinations re
degrees, as shown in the iifth code group from 65 quiring changes in the conditions of all of said
.ñve conducting elements.
the top in the left-hand column of Fig. 4, relay
3. In a data transmission system, an observ- 'y
30| releases. Relay 301 remains operated as indi
ing station, a receiving station, La plurality of
cated in the fifth code group from the top of the
separate independent transmitting channels con
right-hand column of Fig. 4. This >establishes
a circuit through the bottom winding of relay 70 necting said stations, a plurality of separate inde
pendent conducting elements in each of said
350. Full current flows through the bottom wind
channels, means, responsive to the setting of a
ing, preponderating over the holding current in
measuring instrument to make a measurement,
the top winding of relay 350 and the armature of
for simultaneously impressing on said channels
relay 350 is actuated to engage its S contact.
This closes the circuit through the 18 lamp. Relay 75 signal impulses in accordance with separate per- .
mutation codes toî identify separate portions oi*
tion code combinations Yreceived over said- chan
a: multidigit` number instantaneously a plurality
of decoding devices' at said receiving station con «»
neltoWhicli it is-connected.
Ynectedy individually to'` Sa'id channels, locking
v,means and» unlocking means for a -first of'said'
sta-tion,y a i‘lrs-t-` group of relays thereatv selectively"
responsive to the reception at said- receiving sta--`
devices, a plurality o'i indicators connected indi-r
vidually to said devices, mean-s connected to- said
locking means `for locking said first of sa'i‘d devices>
' in response to- the reception of a first particular
f5. In a-‘ data transmission system, a'rec‘eiving '
tion of combinations of signa-limpulses in accord
ance with a ii'rst permutation code, a second
group of relays at said station, independent of
said ñrst group of relays, selectively responsive
` code combination by `a second of saidde‘vices, 10 to the reception at said receiving station oi com
binations of signal impulses in accordance with
and» means; connected to said' unlocking means,
a secondI permutation code, independent' of said
¿for unlocking'sai'd’ first of said devices in response
to the reception of a second( particular codecom
first permutation code, a si'ngle'measuring means
at a transmitting' station connected to- said relays,
Vbination by said second of saidv devices.
. 41 In a data transmission system, an' observing
` station, an indicating station, a plurality of sepa
rate independent transmission channels inter-'
connecting said stations, a plurality of electrical
a single common permutation codey signal con,
trol means connected to s‘aid‘ ineasuring'means,
for controlling the generation of combinations
of impulses in accordance with both of said' codes
simultaneously'to~ control said relays, means. inter
contacts, connected to»- each of said channels ar
ranged ' for the instantaneous transmission of 20 connecting said ñrst and saidY second relay groups,
responsive to the reception of‘ a first particular'
multiel'e‘ment signal impulses in accordance with
separate independent permutation codes' denning“
signal code combination by’ said ñrst group; Yfor
locking the relays of said second group, and
separateportions ofv a multidigit number, .a single
means responsive to the reception of a second
control means common to’ all of said Cormactgv for
establishing signal' co’mbinations.~ in accordance 25 particular signal codev combination by said first
,with said codes; av plurality of> separate indegroup forv unlocking the relays of said'sec‘o’nd'
pendentI indicating devices at said indicating station fory indicating said portions simultaneously,
relay decoding circuits individual tot each of said'
indicating devices, intermedia-te said indicating 30
devices' and said channels, two' of said; decoding
Administratriœ of the Estate of Fullerton S.
circuits connected to one of said channels, and'
means for conditioning oney of's'ai'd’two decoding
Kinkead, Deceased.
circuits to respond only to particu1ar'permutagroup;
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