Патент USA US2406395код для вставки
Aug.. 21, 1946. W. A. NOEL ‘ 2,406,395 PRocEss or' DEHYDRATÍNG MEA'rs coNTAINING Furs 1N ‘A FLUID CURRENT Fnád oct.. 12.11945 ‘ 4 sheets-sheet 1 Wllliom A.Noe| » 52 ,La Aug. 21, 194s. 2,406,395 W. A. NOEL PROCÉ'SS OF DEHYDRATING MÈATS CONTAINING FATS IN A`FLUID CURRENT Filed Oct. 12. 1945 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 . _ __ __i|__ _ grwwrvkw William A.Noel_ Aug. 27, 1946. w, A, NQEL 2,406,395 Pnocnss or' DEHYDRATING'MEATS conTAmNe FATs In A FLUID vCURRENT ' Fned oct. 12,` 1945 d' .3. 4 sheets-sheet s _ „ .4. ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, „ 20 winulx’'.w 11 11,114, ’I William A.Noe| am, 4,4. @7M Aug. ‘27, 194s. 2,466,395 W. A. NOEL PROCESS OF DEHYDRATING BEATS CONTAINING FATS IN A FLUID CURRENT Filed 0st. 12. 1943 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 _êzëg u Il ,i ~ _5_ _„E_5 _~M lill . .. .. Í _ . 3mm/m William A.Noel ?n., m wl - ~ M Patented Aug. 27, 1946 2,406,395 , __ _TArNING'FATs IN A' FLUID CURRENT _ ' - William Alexander Noel, Washington, D; C., as _ _ signor to the United States of America, as rep -. _` resented by theîSecretary of Agriculture v Applicatlßn October 12, 1943, Sßl‘fßl N0. 505,939 » '_ ' islam. (01.34-1-19) _ '_ _ (Granted under` the act of March 3,1883, as _ amepaeanpni so, 192s; 37o o. G. 757) This application is made under the act of upwardly flaring tube, nearfits lowerend while ’_March 3, 1883, as amended by the act of April passing a stream of _drying gas upwardly through _the tube, iii-_ contact _with the materialat such velocity that it _carries the material upwardly, the grains of the material being vsuspended with v_30, 1928, and the invention herein described, if patented. may be manufactured and used byor `for the Government of the United_States of Americaifor governmental purposes without the y in _the stream of 'gasfduringudrying following payment to me of any royalty thereon. e which they are delivered out at the top of the tube with the flow of drying vgas and are then separated from it. At'its 4lower end,`_ the tubev ‘ticular reference to the dehydration of. ground 10 communicates with a plenum chamber and the 'meats containing fats using a flow of drying rfats separate from themeat during ¿the drying ` gas, such as heated air, for the dehydration. l and drain into the .plenum chamber from which This invention relates to a method of process ing materials and apparatus therefor, with par According to conventional methods, granular they are separately collected; _ ~ materials to be dehydrated are loaded on trays f Fora detailed explanation' of' the invention, and placed in a stream' of drying gas. Other 15 reference is made to the‘following description of methods involve the use of revolving drums, and the apparatus shown in the accompanying draw so forth, in which the materials being treated ings, in_which ' _ i _ are agitated. These methodsregulre the use of Figure 1 is a side elevation showing `two units elaborate equipment’ and considerable attend-4 of the apparatus, it being- understood that. any ance during operation. v .In the dehydration, the materials being proc essed lfrequently are in contact with metal parts, 20 desired number-of units may be used, al1 associ ated in the manner illustrated for the two. cer tain parts being broken away forv clearness in il such as tray floors, which are also subjected to the heated drying gas. This results in the metal Figure 2 is a top view of the apparatus as shown parts being heated substantially to the dry bulb 25 in Figure 1, except enlarged and omitting the ~ temperature of- the dryingr gas, which ordinarily unit shown at the left offFig-_ure 1; is considerably above the wet bulbl temperature. Figure 3 is a' view on linev3-j-3 of Figure 1, with In consequence, the dry bulb temperature must parts broken away; _ ~ be held suillciently low to prevent scorching of Figure 4 is a section on lined-4 of Figure 1; the material at the' points of Contact_with the 30 Figure 5 is a section on line 5-.5 ofy Figure 3; metal parts. This limit on the> permissible dry bulb temperature limits the rate of dehydration. Figure 6 is a diagrammatic illustration of» a The rate of` dehydration is also limited dueto I different arrangement~ of the units,A non-uniformityof vcontact of the ‘processing gas with all surfaces. of the grains of the material, and in addition, the‘vproducts-are not uniformly treated. Furthermore,- the time requiredl in load ingthe trays into a- tray-type -dehydrator con motor pulley. This provides mean fo feeding siderably reduces the overall capacity' vofy such- ' the ' material into »a- AVenturi;‘tuloe‘fli'ßV 'hrÍoughî apparatus; _ 40 suitable> aperture in itsÍ wall'ì‘ff' Dryingïegas- _flows This invention has among its objects a through the Venturi tube. and carries Athe ma_-; method of dehydrating meats containing fats terial upwardly into the upright processing tube' and removing the fats from the meats, andan ~ l1, which flares upwardly, resulting inY a lowering: lustration; and apparatus which requires little attendance in use, - rial at a maximum rate, and such- other objects - ' . ' 1- l i “ - _ _ of the velocity of the gas as it moves toward«fther.¿._ _ which is _simple _in construction, using but few 45 movable-parts, which treatsally grains of the meats uniformly, and which treats such mate « _ upper end of the tube.v _ ' Assume a constant, properly regulated‘veloeityf- _ of a drying gas entering the processing chamber ‘ and a moisture containing granular materialîito' as are apparent from the following‘des'cription be dehydrated. The material is'carriedY upwardly and claim. a fractional distance within the processing; tube: until it reaches a region where the air force'tend-ç ing to move it upwardly `is in equilibriumV with».Y the force ofgravity tending to move itldown v In general, vaccording to this invention», the meat in granular form is subjected toY a stream of dryinggas in such manner that the individ-` ual particles areseparated from each> other. and suspended within the gas stream» substantially out of contact with heatedparts of the apparatus, _and are' conveyed through the-treating apparatus _ by tli‘e ilow of the gas.- This _is accomplished', in _ wardly. The grains of'rmaterialïare suspendedà .. within. this region, and are continuously tumbledësr" aboutVbeing ñrst bounced upwardly beyon‘clï.thef~'___v` level of equilibrium dueto, their momentum, and’vv _ then falling somewhat below the level, repeatedly. As a result, the grains are dried uniformly on all'` scribed, by feeding the granulated meat into an 60 surfaces. As the material dries it is usually so the embodiments ofthe apparatus herein de 2,406,395 altered that it is carried upwardly against the ' gases being exhausted to the outside after passing through the processing chamber and‘collector. force of gravity morev easily by a constant ve If blanching is desired, a blanching steam ad locity of the processinggas. This may be due- to mission pipe 55 communicating with the process change in its specific gravity, in_the dimensions , ofthe grains, in the surface resistance to flow .5 ing tube Il near its lower end may be used. Also, pipe 5B may beemployed to\admit steam in case of gas, or to a combination of these changes. the processing gas is too dry. _ Therefore, the material moves upwardly in the A hot water or steam admission pipe 56 may processing tube as it is being dehydrated until\ be additionally provided for cleaning purposes. finally it is delivered out at the top through exit conduit Il. Regulation of the velocity of the 10 All that is' necessary to clean and sterilize the apparatus is to turn in steamv or hot water and> gas with other factors constant determines the circulate the hot air until the parts are thor time that the materialfis dried.. ‘ oughIy clean and sterile. The resulting wash The dried material and drying gas then passl tangently into a cyclone collector 25 for separat water runs down the processing tube into the ing the processedlmaterial from the gas. The Al5 plenum chamber, from which it is readily collector hasa cylindrical wall 2i mergingl into drained. " ' .The description thus far relates to but one unit. Sucha unit may be used by itself either a funnel-shaped bottom 22. As the gas and ma- _ terial whirl about in the collector, the material falls into the funnel-shaped botthm. passing in a continuous process, as described above, or around the edge of a centrally disposed baille 23 2li in'a batch process. In the latter case (which -may be necessary if the nature of the material " located beneath the open end of gas exit tube 24. being processed is such that it is not altered 'I'he material. is delivered from the collector suillciently while being treated to cause it to be through' delivery conduit 25, either to the out carriedv over with the processing gas, as, for side. if desired, 'or to‘further processing units, a laterwill be explained. a. 25 example, in case of cooking meat at 100 percent relative humidity), a batch is loaded »into the From sas exit tube 24 the drying gas passes processing tube and after a desired interval of , into conduit 23, through heater 2l, through cori--` treatment, while suspended in the tube, _the gas duit 2l, into blower 29, which is preferably pow velocity is increased to blow the batch over into ered with a variable speed motor 30 and arranged $0 the cyclone collector. to have variable speed belting coupling with the bloweras by stepped pulleys 3| _and 32, and from the blower through plenum ~chamber 33, return ing to Venturi tube II, the plenum chamber be ing in communication _with the Venturi tube at - By the >batch method, if there is some degree of alteration, as is usually the case, it is also possible to separate fractions of the material which are altered the more rapidly from the other 35 fractions, since they can be passed into the col the lower end of the tube. a _ lector before materials which are altered the The heater, which may be of any desired type, less rapidly. In case‘of dehydration of ground is here shown 'as a steam radiator 35 having an meats of non-uniform sizes of the particles, for outlet pipe 36, and a steam inlet pipe 31 equipped example, the smaller particles collect' iìrst. with an air-operated valve 38 regulated by 'a thermostat 33, placed in the plenum chamber. 40 Also,.with a single unit the same materials may be given separate processing steps in the batch Compressed air is supplied through a tube 40 con method. For example, a batch of the granular nected between the thermostat and the valve and material may be introduced intothe processing air supply tube 4l connected to the thermostat tube, be given a nrst treatment-with sulphur in a known manner. This yprovides f_or automatic regulation of the dry bulb temperature of the 45 dioxide gas, a second treatment with blanching steam, and successive treatments'4 with dehydrat gas. . 'l ing gas‘at varying relative humidities- and tem Thewet bulb temperature is regulated by ad peratures. Finally, the treated materials may mitting outside dry air through port 42 controlled be fractionatedV as above explained. . by damper valve43 linked to the damper motor '44, which in turn is automatically controlled in 50 In dehydration in this apparatus of meats, liquids, such as fats, separate from the meats, a known manner by a hygrostat 45`also placed and drain- into the plenum chamber. In order in the plenum chamber and connected to the to collect and remove them, the plenum chamber damper motor by a tube 45 and to the supply tube 41. - - is arranged on a decline, in the manner illustrated - Excess air is exhausted through port 48 con 55 in Figure 1. VThe liquid materials iiow toward the left-hand end or the chamber and are drained trolled by a damper valve 49 manually set by therefrom through a conventional U-tube trap operating rod 50. ' ' ` . 6U which is of suflicient length to prevent blow Due to the location of ports 42 and 48 on op ing the processing gas out through the U-tube. posite sides of the radiator 35, only the port 42 need be closely'regulated to provide the desired 60 Thence, the liquids may be collected or returned to the dehydrated materials, as desired. ` wet bulb temperature. The radiator creates suf Incase of cleaning the apparatus, the wash ñcient resistance to-the flow of airso that, upon water is also drained out through the U-tube opening the valve 43, air enters at this p01` . trap, or through- a suitable gate 6i, as shown at and any approximate opening. of port 48 w ch will allow -escape of the replaced air is sui’li ient. >65 the left-hand‘end of the plenum‘chamber in Figure 1. ' _ Adjustment of the air ñow other than by The Venturi tube I_6 isprovided toform a varying the blower speed is provided by shut-oil valves 5| and 52 located in conduit 28 and bei ï suction inlet at the point of admission of mate tween the plenum chamber 33 andl Venturi tube _, rial from the conveyor I2, and also provides a ' ,'70 ,means of increasing the velocity of 'the gas at _this point. It is not necessary to provide a' If it be desired to treat the materials with I3, respectively. , _ f _ _ , „ a other gases, such as. sulphur dioxide or flue gases, ’ these may be admitted through port 42. In case waste hot ñue gases are available, these may be ' Venturi tube -in all instances. For example, by terminating the screw of the conveyor short of the exit end of its enclosing pipe in a manner used for drying without use of the heater, the 7_5 illustrated in Figure 1, with many materials a _ . ' 2,406,395 packing eiïect is obtained at the exit end of the pipe which prevents blowing of the processing gas back through the conveyor. However, it is desirable to provide a restricted passage for the - the processing chamber of the second unit. _De tails of the .several units are similar to details heretofore described in reference to Figures 1-5. The parts of the apparatus may be constructed gas at this point in order to obtain a gas velocity = GFI from any suitable material, stainless steel or sumcient to carry the material introduced therein upwardly into the processing chamber. Any number of supplemental units may be em ployed, depending on the ¿capacity desired. One enameled iron being preferable from the stand point of cleanliness. As shown, opposite walls of the processing tubes are provided with inspection windows 10 in order to observe the materials such supplemental unit is illustrated in Figure. 1, 10 therein. However, a more desirable construction and is similar to the unit above described, similar ' would be the `use of a transparent material for parts being given similar characters except at least two opposite walls. , primed. As shown, the supplementary unit is ar -As an example of the method using a single ranged in such manner to use thesame blower unitwlth this type of apparatus having a process and heater, being connected in parallel with the 15 ing chamber 11 inches by 11 inches at the bot other unit in the gas-circulating system. How-` tom, 12 inches by 18 inches at the top, and about ever, the materials pass through the various units 18 feet high, 32 pounds of cooked granulated in series, according to the particular embodiment pork with a moisture content of 54 percent >was illustrated. Thus, the material processed by fed into the processing chamber in a batch while the ilrst unit feeds from the bottom 22 of the 20 passing processing air through the chamber at ñrst collector into the tube 25 and into the 200° F., dry bulb, and 155° F., wet bulb, at the Venturi tube i6' of the second unit. By adding rate of about1800 cubic feet per minute. The units in this manner, increased capacity is ob temperature of the air first fell to about 170° tained, since the materials can thereby be given F., but rose to about 200° F. in about _15 min” a partial treatment in each unit and then be 25 utes. Within about 20 minutes from the time of passed on to the next unit for more complete loading the batch into the processing chamber, treatment. the very finely divided particles of dehydrated Gravity feed may be used for conveying the meats started passing into the collector, and the materials from one unit to the next unit if the largest particles passed into it in about 45 mln collectors are elevated, or any other suitable 30 utes. 0n test the dehydrated meat showed a type of conveyor may be employed. In case the vmoisture content of about 7 percent. Venturi tube is omitted, a one-way feeding valvey The conditions indicated above are not opti 65 is installed in tube> 25. Valves suitable for mum, and better results are obtained by using this purpose are known. 'I'he one shown com a higher wet bulb temperature, and by avoiding '- prises a set of radial ñns 66 tlttingly rotatable ín 35 the initial drop in temperature possible if pre- -' ‘\a casing 61 and driven in any convenient manner.v heated materials are fed into the apparatus and The ñns block oiï back passage of gas, but as they a large capacity heater is used. rotate material is dumped at the upper inlet of AMany other tests using the apparatus with the casing into the pockets between the fins and is dumped out of the pockets at the lower out let of the casing. Stopping rotation of the ñns stops feeding. l - lent results both as to ease of attending the ap paratus and as to the rapidity and uniformity of the processing. If the last unit be employed to separate the materials fractionally, which is accomplished in the batch process, the prior unit may neverthe less beoperated continuously, since the mate rial may be allowed to collect in its collector and~ ' then be fed as a batch into the succeeding processing chamber. variousl other types of materials showed excel . i ` With light materials (the speciñc gravity of which is well below one) , the process of dehydrat ing is especially applicable, since these materials change their factors, especially decreasing their density with the loss of water, more rapidly than do. heavier materials', with,the result that they are conveyed more readily upwardly in the proc In case of dehydrating, the successive umts 50 essing chamber during the processing operation. may be of decreasing size, as shown, since the Having thus described the invention, what is . volume of the material ordinarily decreases as it claimed is: is dehydrated. ' .A method of dehydrating meats containing Although the apparatus shown uses but one fats, comprising introducing granulated meat at blower and heater and but one set of controls, in 55 a, low region into an upwardly flaring tube hav s_ome instances it may be desirable to employ a ing a plenum chamber‘communicating _with the .separate blower, heater and controls for each tube at its lower end, said tube having passing therethrough an upwardly ñowing stream of heated, drying gas at such velocity as. to carry eral different treatments may be given the mate 60 the granulated meat upwardly in the tube where rials in a continuous process. For example, the by. due to decrease of velocity of the gas as it materials may be -gassed with sulphur di'oxide flows upwardly in the tube, the grains of meat in the ñrst unit. blanched in the second unit. and are gradually conveyed upwardly during drying dehydrated with varying temperatures~ and hu . . from one region to a higher region where the gas midities in the other units, and a cooking or roast 65 force tending to move them upwardly is in equi ing unit may be added. librium with the force of gravity tending to move Such an arrangement is illustrated in Figure 6 them downwardly and whereby the fats separate showing- two units, the :drst of which is providedl from the meat and drain into the plenum cham with a processing chamber 60, collector 6I, heater ber, and separately collecting the iats from the 62, blower 83, and plenum chamber 84, and the plenum chamber and the dehydrated 'meat from second with corresponding partshaving the same 70 the tube. ~ unit with the materials passing in series through the several units. With such arrangement. sev reference characters except primed. The collec tor from the tlrst unit is connected to iced into . WILLIAM ALEXANDER NOEL.