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Патент USA US2406395

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Aug.. 21, 1946.
W. A. NOEL ‘
Fnád oct.. 12.11945
‘ 4 sheets-sheet 1
Wllliom A.Noe|
» 52
Aug. 21, 194s.
Filed Oct. 12. 1945
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
William A.Noel_
Aug. 27, 1946.
w, A, NQEL
' Fned oct. 12,` 1945
4 sheets-sheet s
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, „
William A.Noe|
4,4. @7M
Aug. ‘27, 194s.
Filed 0st. 12. 1943
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
,i ~
_5_ _„E_5 _~M
Í _ .
William A.Noel
m wl
- ~
Patented Aug. 27, 1946
- William Alexander Noel, Washington, D; C., as
_ signor to the United States of America, as rep
-. _` resented by theîSecretary of Agriculture v
Applicatlßn October 12, 1943, Sßl‘fßl N0. 505,939
' islam.
(01.34-1-19) _
_ (Granted under` the act of March 3,1883, as
_ amepaeanpni so, 192s; 37o o. G. 757)
This application is made under the act of
upwardly flaring tube, nearfits lowerend while
’_March 3, 1883, as amended by the act of April
passing a stream of _drying gas upwardly through
_the tube, iii-_ contact _with the materialat such
velocity that it _carries the material upwardly,
the grains of the material being vsuspended with
v_30, 1928, and the invention herein described, if
patented. may be manufactured and used byor
`for the Government of the United_States of
Americaifor governmental purposes without the y in _the stream of 'gasfduringudrying following
payment to me of any royalty thereon.
which they are delivered out at the top of the
tube with the flow of drying vgas and are then
separated from it. At'its 4lower end,`_ the tubev
‘ticular reference to the dehydration of. ground 10 communicates with a plenum chamber and the
'meats containing fats using a flow of drying
rfats separate from themeat during ¿the drying `
gas, such as heated air, for the dehydration. l
and drain into the .plenum chamber from which
This invention relates to a method of process
ing materials and apparatus therefor, with par
According to conventional methods, granular
they are separately collected;
materials to be dehydrated are loaded on trays
f Fora detailed explanation' of' the invention,
and placed in a stream' of drying gas. Other 15 reference is made to the‘following description of
methods involve the use of revolving drums, and
the apparatus shown in the accompanying draw
so forth, in which the materials being treated
ings, in_which
are agitated. These methodsregulre the use of
Figure 1 is a side elevation showing `two units
elaborate equipment’ and considerable attend-4
of the apparatus, it being- understood that. any
ance during operation.
.In the dehydration, the materials being proc
essed lfrequently are in contact with metal parts,
20 desired number-of units may be used, al1 associ
ated in the manner illustrated for the two. cer
tain parts being broken away forv clearness in il
such as tray floors, which are also subjected to
the heated drying gas. This results in the metal
Figure 2 is a top view of the apparatus as shown
parts being heated substantially to the dry bulb 25 in Figure 1, except enlarged and omitting the ~
temperature of- the dryingr gas, which ordinarily
unit shown at the left offFig-_ure 1;
is considerably above the wet bulbl temperature.
Figure 3 is a' view on linev3-j-3 of Figure 1, with
In consequence, the dry bulb temperature must
parts broken away;
be held suillciently low to prevent scorching of
Figure 4 is a section on lined-4 of Figure 1;
the material at the' points of Contact_with the 30 Figure 5 is a section on line 5-.5 ofy Figure 3;
metal parts. This limit on the> permissible dry
bulb temperature limits the rate of dehydration.
Figure 6 is a diagrammatic illustration of» a
The rate of` dehydration is also limited dueto I
different arrangement~ of the units,A
non-uniformityof vcontact of the ‘processing gas
with all surfaces. of the grains of the material,
and in addition, the‘vproducts-are not uniformly
treated. Furthermore,- the time requiredl in load
ingthe trays into a- tray-type -dehydrator con
motor pulley. This provides mean fo feeding
siderably reduces the overall capacity' vofy such- ' the ' material into »a- AVenturi;‘tuloe‘fli'ßV 'hrÍoughî
40 suitable> aperture in itsÍ wall'ì‘ff' Dryingïegas- _flows
This invention has among its objects a
through the Venturi tube. and carries Athe ma_-;
method of dehydrating meats containing fats
terial upwardly into the upright processing tube'
and removing the fats from the meats, andan ~ l1, which flares upwardly, resulting inY a lowering:
apparatus which requires little attendance in use, -
rial at a maximum rate, and such- other objects -
of the velocity of the gas as it moves toward«fther.¿._ _
which is _simple _in construction, using but few 45
movable-parts, which treatsally grains of the
meats uniformly, and which treats such mate
« _
upper end of the tube.v
Assume a constant, properly regulated‘veloeityf- _
of a drying gas entering the processing chamber ‘
and a moisture containing granular materialîito'
as are apparent from the following‘des'cription
be dehydrated. The material is'carriedY upwardly
and claim.
a fractional distance within the processing; tube:
until it reaches a region where the air force'tend-ç
ing to move it upwardly `is in equilibriumV with».Y
the force ofgravity tending to move itldown
In general, vaccording to this invention», the
meat in granular form is subjected toY a stream
of dryinggas in such manner that the individ-`
ual particles areseparated from each> other. and
suspended within the gas stream» substantially
out of contact with heatedparts of the apparatus,
_and are' conveyed through the-treating apparatus _
by tli‘e ilow of the gas.- This _is accomplished', in
_ wardly.
The grains of'rmaterialïare suspendedà ..
within. this region, and are continuously tumbledësr"
aboutVbeing ñrst bounced upwardly beyon‘clï.thef~'___v`
level of equilibrium dueto, their momentum, and’vv
_ then falling somewhat below the level, repeatedly.
As a result, the grains are dried uniformly on all'`
scribed, by feeding the granulated meat into an 60 surfaces. As the material dries it is usually so
the embodiments ofthe apparatus herein de
altered that it is carried upwardly against the ' gases being exhausted to the outside after passing
through the processing chamber and‘collector.
force of gravity morev easily by a constant ve
If blanching is desired, a blanching steam ad
locity of the processinggas. This may be due- to
pipe 55 communicating with the process
change in its specific gravity, in_the dimensions ,
ofthe grains, in the surface resistance to flow .5 ing tube Il near its lower end may be used. Also,
pipe 5B may beemployed to\admit steam in case
of gas, or to a combination of these changes.
the processing gas is too dry.
Therefore, the material moves upwardly in the
A hot water or steam admission pipe 56 may
processing tube as it is being dehydrated until\
be additionally provided for cleaning purposes.
finally it is delivered out at the top through exit
conduit Il. Regulation of the velocity of the 10 All that is' necessary to clean and sterilize the
apparatus is to turn in steamv or hot water and>
gas with other factors constant determines the
circulate the hot air until the parts are thor
time that the materialfis dried..
oughIy clean and sterile. The resulting wash
The dried material and drying gas then passl
tangently into a cyclone collector 25 for separat
water runs down the processing tube into the
ing the processedlmaterial from the gas. The Al5 plenum chamber, from which it is readily
collector hasa cylindrical wall 2i mergingl into
.The description thus far relates to but one
unit. Sucha unit may be used by itself either
a funnel-shaped bottom 22. As the gas and ma- _
terial whirl about in the collector, the material
falls into the funnel-shaped botthm. passing
in a continuous process, as described above, or
around the edge of a centrally disposed baille 23 2li in'a batch process. In the latter case (which
-may be necessary if the nature of the material
" located beneath the open end of gas exit tube 24.
being processed is such that it is not altered
'I'he material. is delivered from the collector
suillciently while being treated to cause it to be
through' delivery conduit 25, either to the out
carriedv over with the processing gas, as, for
side. if desired, 'or to‘further processing units, a
laterwill be explained.
a. 25 example, in case of cooking meat at 100 percent
relative humidity), a batch is loaded »into the
From sas exit tube 24 the drying gas passes
processing tube and after a desired interval of
, into conduit 23, through heater 2l, through cori--`
treatment, while suspended in the tube, _the gas
duit 2l, into blower 29, which is preferably pow
velocity is increased to blow the batch over into
ered with a variable speed motor 30 and arranged
$0 the cyclone collector.
to have variable speed belting coupling with the
bloweras by stepped pulleys 3| _and 32, and from
the blower through plenum ~chamber 33, return
ing to Venturi tube II, the plenum chamber be
ing in communication _with the Venturi tube at
By the >batch method, if there is some degree
of alteration, as is usually the case, it is also
possible to separate fractions of the material
which are altered the more rapidly from the other
35 fractions, since they can be passed into the col
the lower end of the tube.
lector before materials which are altered the
The heater, which may be of any desired type,
less rapidly. In case‘of dehydration of ground
is here shown 'as a steam radiator 35 having an
meats of non-uniform sizes of the particles, for
outlet pipe 36, and a steam inlet pipe 31 equipped
example, the smaller particles collect' iìrst.
with an air-operated valve 38 regulated by 'a
thermostat 33, placed in the plenum chamber. 40 Also,.with a single unit the same materials may
be given separate processing steps in the batch
Compressed air is supplied through a tube 40 con
method. For example, a batch of the granular
nected between the thermostat and the valve and
material may be introduced intothe processing
air supply tube 4l connected to the thermostat
tube, be given a nrst treatment-with sulphur
in a known manner. This yprovides f_or automatic
regulation of the dry bulb temperature of the 45 dioxide gas, a second treatment with blanching
steam, and successive treatments'4 with dehydrat
ing gas‘at varying relative humidities- and tem
Thewet bulb temperature is regulated by ad
peratures. Finally, the treated materials may
mitting outside dry air through port 42 controlled
be fractionatedV as above explained.
by damper valve43 linked to the damper motor
'44, which in turn is automatically controlled in 50 In dehydration in this apparatus of meats,
liquids, such as fats, separate from the meats,
a known manner by a hygrostat 45`also placed
and drain- into the plenum chamber. In order
in the plenum chamber and connected to the
to collect and remove them, the plenum chamber
damper motor by a tube 45 and to the supply
tube 41.
is arranged on a decline, in the manner illustrated
Excess air is exhausted through port 48 con 55 in Figure 1. VThe liquid materials iiow toward the
left-hand end or the chamber and are drained
trolled by a damper valve 49 manually set by
therefrom through a conventional U-tube trap
operating rod 50.
' '
6U which is of suflicient length to prevent blow
Due to the location of ports 42 and 48 on op
ing the processing gas out through the U-tube.
posite sides of the radiator 35, only the port 42
need be closely'regulated to provide the desired 60 Thence, the liquids may be collected or returned
to the dehydrated materials, as desired.
wet bulb temperature. The radiator creates suf
Incase of cleaning the apparatus, the wash
ñcient resistance to-the flow of airso that, upon
water is also drained out through the U-tube
opening the valve 43, air enters at this p01` .
trap, or through- a suitable gate 6i, as shown at
and any approximate opening. of port 48 w ch
will allow -escape of the replaced air is sui’li ient. >65 the left-hand‘end of the plenum‘chamber in
Figure 1.
Adjustment of the air ñow other than by
The Venturi tube I_6 isprovided toform a
varying the blower speed is provided by shut-oil
valves 5| and 52 located in conduit 28 and bei ï suction inlet at the point of admission of mate
tween the plenum chamber 33 andl Venturi tube _, rial from the conveyor I2, and also provides a '
,'70 ,means of increasing the velocity of 'the gas at
_this point. It is not necessary to provide a'
If it be desired to treat the materials with
other gases, such as. sulphur dioxide or flue gases, ’
these may be admitted through port 42. In case
waste hot ñue gases are available, these may be
' Venturi tube -in all instances. For example, by
terminating the screw of the conveyor short of
the exit end of its enclosing pipe in a manner
used for drying without use of the heater, the 7_5 illustrated in Figure 1, with many materials a
. ' 2,406,395
packing eiïect is obtained at the exit end of the
pipe which prevents blowing of the processing
gas back through the conveyor. However, it is
desirable to provide a restricted passage for the
- the processing chamber of the second unit. _De
tails of the .several units are similar to details
heretofore described in reference to Figures 1-5.
The parts of the apparatus may be constructed
gas at this point in order to obtain a gas velocity = GFI from any suitable material, stainless steel or
sumcient to carry the material introduced therein
upwardly into the processing chamber.
Any number of supplemental units may be em
ployed, depending on the ¿capacity desired. One
enameled iron being preferable from the stand
point of cleanliness. As shown, opposite walls of
the processing tubes are provided with inspection
windows 10 in order to observe the materials
such supplemental unit is illustrated in Figure. 1, 10 therein. However, a more desirable construction
and is similar to the unit above described, similar '
would be the `use of a transparent material for
parts being given similar characters except
at least two opposite walls.
primed. As shown, the supplementary unit is ar
-As an example of the method using a single
ranged in such manner to use thesame blower
unitwlth this type of apparatus having a process
and heater, being connected in parallel with the 15 ing chamber 11 inches by 11 inches at the bot
other unit in the gas-circulating system. How-`
tom, 12 inches by 18 inches at the top, and about
ever, the materials pass through the various units
18 feet high, 32 pounds of cooked granulated
in series, according to the particular embodiment
pork with a moisture content of 54 percent >was
illustrated. Thus, the material processed by
fed into the processing chamber in a batch while
the ilrst unit feeds from the bottom 22 of the 20 passing processing air through the chamber at
ñrst collector into the tube 25 and into the
200° F., dry bulb, and 155° F., wet bulb, at the
Venturi tube i6' of the second unit. By adding
rate of about1800 cubic feet per minute. The
units in this manner, increased capacity is ob
temperature of the air first fell to about 170°
tained, since the materials can thereby be given
F., but rose to about 200° F. in about _15 min”
a partial treatment in each unit and then be 25 utes. Within about 20 minutes from the time of
passed on to the next unit for more complete
loading the batch into the processing chamber,
the very finely divided particles of dehydrated
Gravity feed may be used for conveying the
meats started passing into the collector, and the
materials from one unit to the next unit if the
largest particles passed into it in about 45 mln
collectors are elevated, or any other suitable 30 utes. 0n test the dehydrated meat showed a
type of conveyor may be employed. In case the
vmoisture content of about 7 percent.
Venturi tube is omitted, a one-way feeding valvey
The conditions indicated above are not opti
65 is installed in tube> 25. Valves suitable for
mum, and better results are obtained by using
this purpose are known. 'I'he one shown com
a higher wet bulb temperature, and by avoiding
'- prises a set of radial ñns 66 tlttingly rotatable ín 35 the initial drop in temperature possible if pre- -'
‘\a casing 61 and driven in any convenient manner.v
heated materials are fed into the apparatus and
The ñns block oiï back passage of gas, but as they
a large capacity heater is used.
rotate material is dumped at the upper inlet of
AMany other tests using the apparatus with
the casing into the pockets between the fins
and is dumped out of the pockets at the lower out
let of the casing. Stopping rotation of the ñns
stops feeding.
lent results both as to ease of attending the ap
paratus and as to the rapidity and uniformity of
the processing.
If the last unit be employed to separate the
materials fractionally, which is accomplished in
the batch process, the prior unit may neverthe
less beoperated continuously, since the mate
rial may be allowed to collect in its collector and~ '
then be fed as a batch into the succeeding
processing chamber.
variousl other types of materials showed excel
With light materials (the speciñc gravity of
which is well below one) , the process of dehydrat
ing is especially applicable, since these materials
change their factors, especially decreasing their
density with the loss of water, more rapidly than
do. heavier materials', with,the result that they
are conveyed more readily upwardly in the proc
In case of dehydrating, the successive umts 50 essing chamber during the processing operation.
may be of decreasing size, as shown, since the
Having thus described the invention, what is .
volume of the material ordinarily decreases as it
claimed is:
is dehydrated.
.A method of dehydrating meats containing
Although the apparatus shown uses but one
fats, comprising introducing granulated meat at
blower and heater and but one set of controls, in 55 a, low region into an upwardly flaring tube hav
s_ome instances it may be desirable to employ a
ing a plenum chamber‘communicating _with the
.separate blower, heater and controls for each
tube at its lower end, said tube having passing
therethrough an upwardly ñowing stream of
heated, drying gas at such velocity as. to carry
eral different treatments may be given the mate 60 the granulated meat upwardly in the tube where
rials in a continuous process. For example, the
by. due to decrease of velocity of the gas as it
materials may be -gassed with sulphur di'oxide
flows upwardly in the tube, the grains of meat
in the ñrst unit. blanched in the second unit. and
are gradually conveyed upwardly during drying
dehydrated with varying temperatures~ and hu . . from one region to a higher region where the gas
midities in the other units, and a cooking or roast 65 force tending to move them upwardly is in equi
ing unit may be added.
librium with the force of gravity tending to move
Such an arrangement is illustrated in Figure 6
them downwardly and whereby the fats separate
showing- two units, the :drst of which is providedl
from the meat and drain into the plenum cham
with a processing chamber 60, collector 6I, heater
ber, and separately collecting the iats from the
62, blower 83, and plenum chamber 84, and the
plenum chamber and the dehydrated 'meat from
second with corresponding partshaving the same 70 the tube.
~ unit with the materials passing in series through
the several units. With such arrangement. sev
reference characters except primed. The collec
tor from the tlrst unit is connected to iced into
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