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Патент USA US2406404

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Aug. 27, 1946.
J. L. RYDE
- 2,406,404
INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE
Filed Oct. 12, 1945
S-Sheets-Sheet 1
Ljahn > L1. Hyde
g(
Aug. 27, 1946.
J, L_ RYDE ‘
2,406,404 ‘
INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE
Filed Oct. 12, 1945
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3 Shegts-Sheet 2
Aug. 27, 1946.
J_ |__ RYDE
2,406,404
INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE
Filed’Oct. 12, 1945
'
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
Jgiéjui
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Patented , Aug. 27, 1946
2,406,404
UNITED ' ‘STATES I PATENT ‘OFF ICE
John'lL; Ryde, Milwaukee, Wis., ‘assignor to ,Mc
gCulloch' Aviation, 'Inc.,
Los Angeles, CaliL, a
corporation of Wisconsin
Application‘octo'ber 12, 1945, ‘Serial N0."621,95'1
v9 Claims. (Cl. 123-43‘)
.
1
This invention relates to internal combustion
engines and ‘has particular reference to ‘cylin
ders for two cycle engines.
The scavenging or expulsion of the combus
tion gases from the cylinder bores has long been
a problem in the design of two cycle gasoline and
Diesel engines.
‘
'
In general the combustion gases are expelled
or scavenged from'the cylinder bore through ex
haust'ports opening to the side of the bore ‘and
uncovered by the piston {in us down stroke.‘ 'The
e
'
32
.
amount of ‘burned gases remaining in the :cylin
derf'bore and vdetracting from the e?ectiveness-of
the combustible charge left in the bore; awhile
efficiency- depends ‘to a large extent upon the
amount of scavenging medium employed or
wasted in scavenging.
While the ‘conventional method of de?ecting
the incoming "‘air" upwardly into the cylinder
bore ‘by ade?ector on the top of the piston pro
vides a measure-of control .over the exhaust gases,
expulsion of the combustion gases is eiiected by a
the vresults are far from satisfactory. Thus in " an
?uid scavenging ‘medium ‘admitted or injected
into the cylinder through an intake port or ports
been made in the past to control the injection of
e?fort to improve the scavenging, attempts :have
opcningto the side of the bore and uncovered i
by the piston in its ‘downstroke.
In the two cycle Diesel engine, the ‘scavenging
medium is generally air alone, usually supplied
to the cylinder here, under pressure by means
of a blower “driven by the ‘engine. In the two
the incoming “air” through the medium ofelon
gated intake passages drilled straight through
the walls of the cylinder. While this wasa step
in-the right direction thisand-other past attempts ‘
to better the scavenging entailed such cumber
some constructions thatlenglines embodying these
directional intake ‘ports were impractical and
cycle gasoline engine, the scavenging medium is
commercially unsatisfactory.
the air-fuel mixture which is caused to be forced
V,
g’ It is‘, therefore, a general object of this v‘invent
tionito provide a two cycle engine of the char
Inasmuch as the principles of the present in 25 acter described with a cylinder having “air” inlet
and exhaust gas ports of improved design and
vention are applicable to both gasoline and Diesel
construction to thereby improve the power and
engines, the following description and the claims
e'?iciency of the engine by effecting scavenging
employ the ‘term “air” as a scavenging medium,
without’
any appreciable Waste of scavenging
with the understanding that "air” intended to,
medium or admixture thereof with» the combuse
mean air'alone in the case of the is
Diesel engine 30 tionga-ses and to achieve this desideratum with~ T
and air-fuel mixture in the case of the gasoline
out entailing cumbersome or otherwise undesir
engine.
able structural design.
To facilitate scavenging, the pistons of two
Anotherhobject of this ‘invention resides inthe
cycle engines ‘have been commonly provided vwith
provision o'fa cylinder ‘for a ‘two cycle engine vhav
a de?ector on the top surface thereof arranged
ing ‘its ‘inlet passages built into the walls of the
to pass adjacent 'to the inlet port “or ports on
cylinder with the mouths thereof opening to the
the down/stroke of the piston to cause the in
cylinder vbore ‘at ‘substantially diametrically. op
coming “air” :to :be deflected upwardly toward
'posite points at vboth sides of the exhaust port
thezclosed end of the cylinder bore and ‘thereby
and'provided with means ‘therein for directing
force the burned {gases downwardly and out
into the cylinder bore‘ by the'vgdown .stroke' of
the piston.
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g
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_
through the exhaust port.
40
7 ‘
the incoming “air”:slightly upwardly at predeter
mined angles and laterally away ‘from the axis
It is well .known, however, that this ‘method
of the bOre so' that the streams of “air” entering
of directing the incoming “air” .to effect scaveng
from
‘opposite sides :of the bore converge toward
ing produces admixture of ‘the "air” ‘with quan
,a point of con?uence near the wall of the ;bore
tities of burned gases and results in considerable
opposite the exhaustportand at the side of ‘ the
Waste of the scavenging medium. Thisis-par
inlet ports adjacent to the closed end of the .bore.
ticularly objectionable .in the two cycle gasoline
This arrangement and manner of injecting
engine inasmuch “as it causes waste of fueland
“air” into the cylinder bore has as its purpose to
detracts from the combustion characteristics of
the resulting combustible mixture; while in the 60 effect a substantially well de?ned columnar
ascent of the ‘.‘air” upwardly'along the wall of the
Diesel engine the effectiveness of ‘the combustible
bore opposite the exhaust ports to force burned
charge is also lessened .and considerable scaveng
ing an wasted.
'
'
‘
‘
The power developed "by two ‘cycle engines;
therefore, depends to a large ‘extent upon the
gases out through the exhaust ports at the side ‘
of the cylinder‘ bore opposite the rising column
of “air” with little or no admixture of the "‘air"
to with the combustion ‘gases being "scavenged.
g
'
9,406,404
1
4
which proper de?ection of the “air” entering the
cylinder bore is obtained;
Figures 8' and 10 are perspective views of modi
I have found that the upward angle at which
the streams of “air” enter the bore must be main
tained within well de?ned limits in order to effect
proper scavenging and avoid mixing of the “air”
?ed types of inserts for the “air” inlet passages
of the cylinder; and I
with the combustion gases.v In many instances,
‘however, the piston in its downward stroke to un
cover the inlet ports and admit “air” to the bore
causes the streams‘, of “air” m be deflected .sub-‘
stantially directly toward thef'clo'sed-end of the
bore (nearly longitudinally of the bore) especially
'
'
'
'
Figure 9 is a sectional view'similar to Figure 3
illustrating another manner of assuring proper
angular‘ control-f over, ‘fair’? 'Vadnri-issionv to’ the cyl
indéflborei
during initial uncovering of the inlet ports by the?
.
'
top of the piston. This is especially true .Hof_ en
"
'
u
Referring now more particularly to the accom
10
panying drawings, the numeral 5 deslgnates'gen
an internal combustion engine of the two
cycle type.‘ ‘For the sake of simplicity, the pres
‘ erally.
, ‘gines
1 Hence,
running
it is at
another
slow speeds.
objector-(this. invention ' to r ‘: ent invention will be‘ considered as applied to a .
' provide a cylinder for
single cylinder. two’ cycle gasoline engine although
two cycle? enginesawith fin ' ‘ athei'nvention
is applicable to multi-cylinder and
is
let ports of the character described by which “air”
‘injection into the cylinder bore at substantially
->
.
7 Diesel engines as well.
bore is assured regardless of the position of "the 1 .
top of the piston ‘with ‘respect to the inlet ports.
~
In
'
construction lines in Figure 1, having the cyl
inder of this invention mounted at its top in the
usual manner.
‘ ; Still another .0 iect ,or thiszinvcntmn is tome: '
I
a
-
‘
'
"
. The cylinderfl' oi thisinvention is preferably a
andexpedient manner 9f; coins
1 pactly constructing and building the zintakeports
die casting vand is provided- with a bore 3 opening
to’ the bottom of the cylinder so as to communi
’ I vide >-_atpractical
‘ into the cylinder wall, withoutidetracting;from
the desirable directional
,
'The vengine comprises a crankcase 6, indicated
‘predetermined angles to a radial plane of the
aspect
not V‘ the porting,
I
1 but, which permits the inlet passages to be formed 1
‘ by; the simple expedient ;of,c_oring longitudinal
chambers’ in‘, opposite sides of _ the cylinder wall ‘
cate with theinterior of thecrankcase. ,Theiip
per end of the bore 8 is closedexcept fortheusual
spark plugxopening 9, and in the present instance
the bore is de?nedby, a substantially tubular liner
l0, cast into the, cylinder andtwithin which the /
at thev time of casting with the. chambers Opening 30 piston‘ III (indicated in, construction lines in Fig:
to the bottom of the cylinder casting-perv se. ~ 7 .v .7
I H 7 With the above and other objects in viewrvwhich
ure
" The
1) isside
recipr'ocably
wall l2_ofreceived;v
the cylinder'is
.
vcored, as at
‘ will -_appear as the I description proceedathisjn- ‘ ’
I3 at diametrically oppositesidesoi thebore to
form longitudinal _“air” inlet passages leading
vention ‘resides in the, ncrel _construction,~_com
j bination land arrangementhof parts substantially
from the bottom face _ I4 of the cylinder upwardly
as ;_here_ina_fter_ described, and“ more particularly 35 toward the medial’portion of the cylinder: bore
‘ de?ned by the appended claimsit being under
from whence theip'assa'g'es branch inwardly to
, ‘stqod; that such changes’ in vthe precise embodi
ward each other as at ._I5_;and open into the bore
‘ ment;io_f the hereindisclosedVinvention- may be l
through the. liner 10 to. provide yoppositeuinlet
made ps-come withinthe scope-0f; the claims.- ‘ _
ports‘ l6 by which the" “iai'r'gi‘s admitted 15¢ the bore ,
a.
;i The. accompanying drawings
illustrate several ‘4.0 from the interior of V thé- crankcase , ii! the usual
cf thephysical embodiment of l t
' 3. complete examples
mahnerjhpon, the'fdowngst'ryoke of: the piston. Fer
; jtheginve'ntion constructed in accordance with-the‘
best'gmodessolfardevised for the practical appli
this reason the‘: lower’ ends ef ‘the passageways, I 3
‘ cation of- the principles thereof, and-V in- which:
cated at l‘! leading to the interiorwofthe crank
longitudinal?sectional. view _ *
for, a’ two‘ ‘cycle enginewith
portions thereof in elevation showing the cylinder‘
v H
v
‘constructed
in accordance with thelprinciples of
this'invention;
‘
"
‘ ‘ ‘ rFigurezis a; cross sectional viewtaken through 430
Figure l onjthelplane of tl"1eline>v2-—2;'~v
i
.
.
w
‘a
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‘
‘supplied ‘to the‘b'o're under [pressure‘ for scaveng
ingiandadmixturejwith mu injectedfseparately
_
V’
V
,7
f,
dially disposédlexhaustports Reopening-to the
7 injection‘, of scavenging medium into the cylinder
v
I
In-the‘ case for the Dieselengine, the'pavssage- ,
ways" l3 would connect with'the outlet of a blower
(as'jof the Roots type) - to enable-plain‘ airltoj be
V_ The burned gases are exhausted from'thebore'
through a series‘ ofv circumierentiallyarranged ra- .
cylinder pro
vvticnal new, of a slightly modi?edproperv
angular
yided with means “for assuring the
‘7
case.‘
into’theboref
Figure 3 is a fragmentary‘ longitudinal sec
b0r$7~
communicate with ‘crankcase passageways ; indie
bore through the liner l0 atone, side‘ of the bore
between‘ thejinlet ports IS; "The bottomedges of
.
"Figure ,4, is-essentiallya diagrammatic secs
tional View similar to Figure ‘3 illustrating the
7 effect, of the piston on the direction of “air” in;
these ports l8v aresubstantially in ‘line ‘with the
bottomv edges of the inlet ports _I 6 but the top edges
of theexhaust-.portsvextend upwardly to a‘ higher
~jection into the, cylinder bore at the time of initial (so elevation than those of theinlet ports so as to
uncoveringof the‘ inlet ports 'by'_ the top of, the
relieve combustion gas pressure during the down
‘piston;
’
1'
g
"
7*
V
stroke of the-piston just prior toiuncovering of
Figure 55¥i>s~a diagrammatic view similar to
the inlet ports by the top of-the piston.
V ' ' ~ ,
Figure 4,-illuvstrati?rig how theangle of f‘air” in
As previouslystated it‘ isjonepr the objects ‘or
jection' is ‘preserved by’ this invention regardless
jofgthe'position of the piston top withrrespect’ to
the inlet ports;
'
/
"
'
r'
-
.
‘
Figure? is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional
View illustrating another‘ modi?cation of, this in
vention whereinlde?ection of the"‘?¢i'r” entering
the cylinder bore at the .proper angles is accom
plished byinserts in the inlet passages of the
this; invention ‘to-improve the scavenging of ex‘
haust' gases from the cylinder bore b-ycontrol of
“air” injection into: therbore. In the present in‘
stance this isaccomplished,'without'resorting to
' the use of‘ deflector means on’ the ‘piston itself,
The f‘air’j which is‘ admitted ,into4‘the"borev.'8:
through thepppos'i-te inlet 'ports l'a‘j is .' caused 'to
a travel at‘predetermined', slightly upward angles
illiihjiéspe'éi wheel has Iéffiliefb'ess Price
2,406,404 /
8
'core'd passagewaystherein leading to ‘fair’Y-‘inL
as shown
Figure’ 9.. 'The splitters 30' do not
have their outer ends curved downwardly to pro_
lject into'the upper end of the longitudinal por
.tions of the‘ “air.” passageways l3 and hence can
let ports in the wall of thebore at apposite sides
thereof medially of the ends of the bore ‘and
through which “air” may be supplied torthe bore
whenever'the piston moves past and» uncovers
not alone serve to smoothly transfer ‘the
the ports in its travel toward the open endv of
flowing’ upwardly through the passages [3 into the
branches
I5.
.
'
.
v
r
the bore, said passageways, at least adjacent to
,
In this event, it' is preferable to employ en
I llarged beads 31 either oninserts 32 for the “air” '10
ipassageways or on the inner wallsvof the 'pas-'
.sageways themselves. -.The vanes .20 and split
item 30 of Figure 9 are shown cast integrally with .
the cylinder with the bead 31 on an insert 32
‘such as 'illustratedin'Figure 10, but it will be
obvious'that the insert 32 may have the vanes
‘and splitters formed integrally thereon as in the
‘
yFi'gure
8vembodiment.
,
"
V .
.
'
remote from the open end of the bore.
fcompactness of the cylinder as previously point
therein, said cylinder having cored passageways
therein leading to “air” inlet ports in the wall of
the bore at opposite sides thereof medially of the
ends of the bore and through which “air” may
- be supplied to the bore whenever -the'- piston
30 moves past and uncovers the ports in its travel
toward the open end of the bore; the inner por
tions of each. passageway adjacent to the bore
. Attention is directed, to the fact that when
being disposed at an angle of approximately 20°
the splitters havertheir outer extremities extend
to a radial plane of the bore to cause “air” enter
ed and curved downwardly into the longitudinal
ing the bore to discharge in streams pointing
portions~l3 of the “air” passageways as shown 35 slightly toward the closed end of the bore and
in Figures ,3 and 8, the circumferential head 28
ipose.
‘
‘
'
2. In a two cycle internal combustion engine: a
cast cylinder having a bore opening through the
bottom of the cylinder to slidably receive a'piston
Qmined upward angle of “air” injection into the
,
charge into the bore laterally away from the
V bore'axis' to converge toward a common point of ‘
midway between the opposite ports near one side
wall of the bore and at the side of the ports
1ed out. The function‘ of the splitters 30 in this
;instance, therefore, isto divide the inlet ports
‘into a plurality of separate longitudinally - adja
' ,cent discharge nozzles'to preservegthe'predeter
‘the length of the splitters to achieve this pur
the ports for causing the streams of “air” to di'"- -
con?uence with said point of con?uence lying
V
, 'The bead 3!, when properly designed,- has the
effect of elongating the branches 15 even though
1the same may .be held to a” minimum length for
spacing between the split
icylinder bore. vThe bottom
walls of the branches
1 ters and the top and
1 I5 is‘ preferably relatively small as compared to
the'inlet ports, being disposed at a slight angle
to‘a radial plane of the bore to cause"‘v‘<air”‘en
tering the bore to discharge in streams pointing
‘slightly toward the closed end of the bore; and.
inserts con?ned in said passageways to lie-along
the sides thereof and each having a plurality ‘of
vanesfdisposed in the passageway ‘adjacent to
V
V
,
‘ on the inner wall of the “air” passageway is un
‘ necessary, provided the splitters effect a substan- ,
1 tially equal division of the space in said passage
ways .
converging toward a point midway between the
ports; individual inserts, one con?ned in each of
said passageways and each having a plurality of
40 vanes .disposedin the passageways adjacent to
‘ , By way of illustration; the inserti'lgof Fig
1 ‘ ure 8 has been shown without the annular bead
, and with the curved outer ends of the splitters
1 arranged to effect the desired smooth transfer .of '
; “air” from the‘passagewaysl 3 into their branches ‘
l5. 1 Hence, a straight walled insert (without the '1
1 circumferential bead) would, therefore, suffice
the discharge-ports for‘ causing .the streams of.
“air” entering the bore ‘at said predetermined‘
inclination toward the closed end of the bore'to .
be directedilaterally away fromr-the bore axis to
converge towarda common point of confluence V
with said point of con?uence lying midwaybe
tween the ports near one side wall of the‘ bore,
7 and at said side of they ports remote from "the
I inth'e"‘air” passages‘ 13 in the event the vanes ,
open end of the bore; and splitter vanes carried
20 and splitters 22 of the Figure 3 embodiment ‘
so by said inserts and extending crosswise of the
, were cast integrally with the cylinder.
ports to divide [the same into a plurality of longi
7 From the foregoing description taken in‘ con
3 nection with the accompanying drawings, it will ‘
i be readily apparent that this invention improves
1 the scavenging of combustion gases from the
cylinders of two cycle internal combustion en
‘ gines by reason of the angular control over the r
1 streams of “air” entering the bore, and conse- I
quently results in greater e?iciency and less waste
tudinally adjacent discharge nozzles adapted to
be successively uncovered by the piston as it
- travels past the ports toward the open end of the
bore, said splitter vanes serving .to maintain the
predetermined angular inclination: of the “air”
entering the bore despite partial closure of the
ports by the piston.
.
a
.
3. In a two cycle internal combustion engineLa,
of the scavenging medium.
To avoid misunderstanding, it is again desired 60 cast cylinder having aqbore opening to‘ one end
thereof and having substantially diametrically
topoint out that the term"‘air” is intended to
opposite longitudinal “air” inlet passages formed’
cover air injection as practiced in Diesel engines
in its side wall communicated. with the cylinder
and air-fuel admission as employed in gasoline
bore'through branch passages angling abruptly
engines, and that “air” is meant to be synono
from the longitudinal passages inwardly toward
mous with “scavenging medium.” Both in the .
thebore with the mouths of said branches open
preceding description and in the following claims,
ing to the ‘bore substantially medially of its ends
therefore, the term “air” is intended to be inter
and
at substantially diametrically opposite sides
preted as the scavenging medium; air alone for
thereof, said branches extending toward each
Diesel engines and air-fuel mixture for gasoline.
70 other at relatively small identical angles to a
engines.
radial plane of the bore so as to direct “air” into
What I claim as my invention is:
t
the borerat slight inclinations toward the closed
1., In a two cycle internal combustion engine:
end of the bore; means in said branch‘passages
a cast cylinder providedfwith a bore opening
for'de?ecting “air” ?owing therethrough into the
through the bottom of the cylinder to slidably
receive a piston therein, said cylinder havingv 715 borel'at said slight inclinationilaterally to one side '
2,406,404
of the" bore‘ axis toward: ‘a point?‘ of‘ vconvergence
bead“ positioned
,
along: 1o
the, inner wall
_ of‘ its:, Ion,
located‘, midway between‘ the mouths of‘ the’
branches but‘v close't'o one sidewall of the bore;
and'splittersvanes. in each branch passage divid
g-itudi'n'al" passage and‘ projecting thereinto adja
cent to the outer extremity or the branch_pas
“sage thereof for de?ecting f‘fair?" approaching they
ing. the ‘same into a plurality of longitudinally
branch. passages outwardly into
the outermost,
portions of the vbranch passages so
as to insure
smooth transfer of f‘air” from the longitudinal"
passages. to the branch passages andto thereby
adjacent discharge passageways, saidv splitter
vanes having curved‘ outer end portions the ex
tremities of which. extend into the longitudinal.
passages. to assuresmooth'transfer of “airf’ from
said?lon'gitudina'l passages into‘ the; branch, pas
sages. and to. divide the “air” ?owing through they
,assuregangular directional control of the “air,”
by said branch passages; and de?ector vanes!
cast integrally with the cylinderand disposed, in
saidbranch passages‘ for. directing. the‘ streams
of “air” entering the bore laterally away from
the bore axis toward" a] point of con?uence lo
longitudinal passages- into a plurality of‘ sepa
rate. streams, at ‘the. outer entrances to. said
branchpassages.
'
'
4.. In. a‘two cycle internal combustion engine; a a
cast cylinder provided with. a, bore, opening, to.
the, bottom. of the cylinder. but closed. at the-top
thereof,‘ said bore! being adapted, to. slidably re.
ceive a piston; meansl de?ning diametrically op
posite substantially parallel “air” passagesin the;
wall; or. the cylinder with said passages extending
longitudinally of the bore axis and close to the
bore so as to enable the dimensions of the cyl
inder at its bottom portion to be held to a mini
mum, said “air” passages opening to the bottom
of the cylinder and having their portions remote
from the bottom of the cylinder branching angu
larly inwardly toward each other and opening to
the cylinder bore substantially medially of its
cated midway between the ports and" close‘ to,
one side wall ofvtheborer-
.
'
6. In a‘ two cycle internal combustion. engine:
a cast cylinder provided-with a bore opening, tov
one end of‘ the. cylinder to slidably receive a. pis-'
20
ton, said cylinder having, diametrically opposite.
cored", passages, in. its' side wall‘rextending longi
tud‘inall'y of' the cylinder and communicated with
the cylinder bore through branch passages an- '
gling abruptly inwardly therefrom at relatively
slight predetermined angles to a radial plane of
the bore and toward the closed end of the bore,
the mouths of said branch passages opening to
the bore substantially medially of its ends from
opposite sides of the bore; de?ector vanes cast
ends at substantially diametrically opposite sides 30 integrally with the cylinder and disposed in said
of the bore, ‘said inwardly directed branch pas
branchpassages for dividing‘the “air” entering
sages being disposed at an angle of approximate
ly 20° to a radial plane of the bore so as to direct‘
the bore at said predetermined inclination into
streams directed laterally away from the bore axis
“air” ?owing therethrough slightly upwardly into
toward a point of con?uence located midway
the bore toward the closed end thereof and to
ward a point of convergence located midway be—
tween the mouths of the branch ‘passages; an V
between the ports and close to one side wall of
the bore; and an individual insert in each of said
cored passages, each of said inserts having a cir
insert con?ned in each of said “air” passages,
said inserts being separate from the cylinder
_ casting and each having a substantially circum
ferential bead projecting into its longitudinal
“air” passage for de?ecting “air” ?owing through
the longitudinal passages outwardly into the
outermost portions of the branch passages to
thereby assure directional control of the “air” by
said upwardly inclining branch passages; longi
tudinal vanes in said branch passages for effect
ing lateral de?ection of “air” ?owing there
through to one side of the bore aXis and conver
gence of the streams of “air” entering the bore at
said slight upward inclination toward a point of
con?uence midway between the mouths of the
branch passages but located to one side of the
bore axis and near the cylinder wall de?ning the
bore whereby said streams of “air” join and I
40
cumferential bead positioned along the inner
wall of its longitudinal passage and projecting
thereinto adjacent to the outer extremity of the
branch passage leading therefrom for de?ecting
“air’f approaching the branch passages outwardly
into the outermost portions thereof so as to in
sure smooth transfer of “air” from the longitu- '
dinal passages to the branch passages and to
thereby assure proper directional control of the
“air” by said inclined branch passages.
7. In a two cycle internal combustion engine:
a cast cylinder having a bore opening to one end
to slidably receive a piston and having substan
tially diametrically opposite longitudinal “air” in
let'passages cored in its side wall and communi
cated with the cylinder bore through branch pas
sages angling abruptly from said longitudinal
passages with the mouths of said branch pas
sages opening to the bore substantially medially
of its ends and from opposite sides of the bore;
and an individual insert in each of said “air”
passages, each of said inserts having de?ector
ascend along said side of the bore in columnar
fashion toward the closed end of the bore; and
means providing an exhaust port opening to the
bore opposite from said point of con?uence of
the streams of “air” ?owing into the bore.
(ii)‘ means thereon to act on “air” ?owing through
5. In a two cycle internal combustion engine: a
the passages to aid in controlling the direction
cast cylinder provided with a bore opening to one
end’ of the cylinder to slidably receive a piston,
at which the “air” enters the bore.
_
said cylinder having diametrically opposite cored
8.. In a two cycle internal combustion engine: a
cast'cylinder» having a bore opening to one end
passages in its side wall extending longitudinally ’
of the cylinder and communicated with the cyl
tially diametrically opposite longitudinal “air”
inder bore through branch passages angling
abruptly therefrom with the mouths of said
branch passages opening to the cylinder bore sub
stantially medially of its ends from opposite sides
of the bore whereby “air” is supplied to the bore
whenever the piston moves past the mouths of
the branch passages toward the open end of the
bore; an individual insert in each of said cored
passages, each insert having a circumferential
to slidably receive a piston and having substan
inlet‘ passages cored in its side wall and com
municated with the cylinder bore through branch
passages angling abruptly from said longitudinal
passages with the mouths of said branch pas
sages-opening to the bore substantially medially
of its ends and from opposite sides of the bore;
and individual inserts in said cored passages each
having substantially longitudinal vanes thereon
projecting into the branch passages and posi
'
asqeeqe
‘ branches disposedata substantiallyabrupt-angle
tioned at angles such as to deflect f‘air” ?owing ‘ to .each other withone of saidlbranches extending
laterallytowardjal
through the“ branch‘ ‘passages
I substantially longitudinally. of the boreand the
jco'mmon‘point' of convergence ‘located atone‘ side
other substantially‘ transverse ' thereto and open
of thecylinder axis, and spaced ‘substantially cirv-i
ing to the bore; ‘thesubstantially abrupt turn at
jcumferentially ‘extending splitter vanes, carried
the'juncture of said‘ branches subjecting the flow
‘by said inserts and extendingiacross the branch
of .“air” to the bore through said passageway to
the
same‘
into"
a
plurality
of
passages to divide’
a substantially abrupt change in direction, said
‘longitudinally adjacent substantially‘ shallow
transverse branch being relatively short so that
ports,’
said
splitter
vaneslya
g(axia1ly) discharge
of itself‘ it is incapable of guiding ‘,‘air”-d’eli_vered
ring at an angle of approximately 20"v ‘with respect w thereto
'from the .isubsta'ntially longitudinal
to a'fradial plane ofithe~borewith their inner
branch into the cylinder at a vde?nite’angle;"an
insert separate from the cylinder casting'and con:
1 ends“ inclined ‘toward the .fclosed end of the'bore
‘and'their ‘outer ends curved downwardly from the
?ned in said inlet passageway; and means, car-;
I
branch passages
and extending‘ into the upper
ried by said insert and lying in the pathof ‘.‘air”
portionsof the’v longitudinalpassa'ges so as to 15 ?owing
through theipassageway for effecting
facilitate transfer of “airf"from_the longitudinal
smooth
transfer
of the “air? around the’turnin;
passages to the abruptly angling branch'passages.
the-passageway at ‘the juncture of its. branches
‘ j QgAHcyIinder construction'for port-‘scavenged
to enable the transverse branch‘ to exertdireca
internal combustion engines comprising: a cast
tional guidance on]; the ‘fair” ?owing there;
‘ cylinder provided with a bore'and having acored
‘ “air? inlet passageway in its side, wall, leading to
JOHN‘ L.‘ RYDE. 7 7
_‘ the bore, said inlet passageway comprising two
1
,
'
11-‘
‘
through.
'
'
"
'
‘
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