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Патент USA US2406412

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Patented Aug. 27, 1946
2,406,412 "
- ' UNITED. STATES PATENT OFFICE '
TREATMENT OF wool. FIBERS
John Bamber Speakman and Thomas Barr, Leeds,
England, assignors to Imperial Chemical Indus
‘
' tries Limited, a corporation of Great Britain
No Drawing. Application July 15,‘ 1943, Serial No. '
494,848. In Great Britain. August 21, 1942
"
6 Claims.
(Cl. 117-141)
1
.The present invention relates to a treatment
treated according to‘ .the invention possess a re
oflloose ?ber or yarn or woven or knitted fabric‘
duced a?inity for water ‘vapour. In addition,
consisting of or containing wool ?bers, whereby
polymer deposition within the ?bers modi?es their
novel effects are produced. These effects include
elastic properties by offering hindrance to rela
an increased stiffness,'a reduced af?nity for water
tive movementv of the protein molecules. Both
vapour and a diminished tendency to felt o
the reduced ai?nity for water vapour and the
for woven or knitted fabrics, to.shrink.
'
mechanical hindrance come into play in increas
According to the‘ invention, material of the ‘
ing the stiffness of the ?bers and in preventing
kind described is exposed at elevated tempera- _
that type of. ?ber movement which ‘is necessary
. ture, but below 100° 0., to the combined action 10 with loose ?ber, as well as'with woven and knitted
of water vapour and the vapour of a’ volatile
fabrics containing wool, if there is to be felting.
monomeric monovinylidene compound contain
' As felting is normally accompanied by shrinkage ,
ing a CH2=C= group, for instance, an ester of
in the case of knitted or woven fabrics contain
acrylic or methacrylic acid, ‘styrene or a vinyl
ester.
‘
ing wool ?bers, treatment according to the in
15 vention prevents or reduces that type of shrink- ‘
If the material is wetted' out with, water before
age known as milling shrinkage- Further, when
' exposure to the action. of the mixed vapours.
polymer is deposited on the surface of, as well
more even effects are obtained. ‘The wetting out
as within, wool ?bers, the surface scale structure ‘
may be effected by exposing the material to water
is masked and a supplementary eifect in minimis
vapour alone, before exposing to’ the action of 20 ing milling shrinkage is thus obtained.
the mixed vapours.
Alternatively, when‘ it is
The invention is illustrated but not limited by
required to use a polymerisation catalyst to pro- , '
the following examples, in which the ‘parts are
mote polymerisation of the ~ mono-vinylidene
compound on and within the ?bers, the material
may be impregnated with an aqueous solution 25
expressed‘ by weight:
_
containing the catalyst, for example ammonium
_
'
v '
Exampleif
;
Wool fabric (1 part air-dry weightlisiwetted '4
persulphate. Or the material may be immersed
in water or in water containing a wetting agent.
4 out in watery-wrung until about; I‘part. of'water»
'One of the aims ofthe invention‘ isto effect . remains, and wound at open-- widthixinto lailoose
30-' roll, which is suspended above a mixturépf methyl
. polymerisation of.-monomericvinylidene .com
pounds preferentially_within»the3;,.1ibers;‘ .It is
methacrylate -‘(2 - parts) andwater
Y‘ . to ?berstswqlileri {with .water »_
temperatures venabling‘this; ai
The" time armament of
apour; at; elevated
jpart)._ con- -.
tained ima; waterriaclketed; vessel which is'ifit'tedf
believed that the application . o?these compounds-j
> i 5 with. a; re?ux- condensei
d's‘itiodithat -
the =fabric ‘is not .‘contajminatev
be,‘ realised.
'
e .-. material varies ,
- :with the cited; dGSiIBdJIZ‘ILi-IQ example; anun- I
the "fabric, is removedmfro
' shrinkable ?nish onrallx-wooljfabrics ‘is required, I
.using methyl-limethacrylate»,~treatment is carried 4
on nsate.‘
e
el
an increase 'inweightoi-about 49.7 , (in tit-‘deposit I > _\
_out until thejfabricsg show. anfiricrease in weight
‘tion. of. methyl ~,methacrylatef-
‘
-v
- . ._ ‘
of 40% or more." Using'styrene, a considerable:
within-theiibers.
reduction, in shrinking powerfis also given» by
‘ e ‘A 'smtreat?dfab?e difters 1mm, the‘ enamel a‘ " i ‘
continuing the treatment. until the ‘fabrics show
.
~
~
fabric in that it ‘possessesia _fuller__.- handle ‘and _.
.- andncrease‘in-weight of about 13%; ‘For in- '
'- shows reduced.shrinkagelingsoap _:3mi_1l_ing.- {Forv . ‘
, creased sti?ness, the amount/of polymer to’ be " dimple," whenm‘ttérnsio -.the heated and-1m: , _
I deposited vmust, of course, increase with the degree 45 . treated fabricate milled ogetherinj?yalaqueous
soapi solution‘, the fbllowin
of stiffness desired. It is, however, p'ossiblcto
continue the'treatinent of the materials accord‘- ‘
.obtain‘edr]
~
-
“ re‘ ‘shrinkeseem' "
’
~ ing to the invention until the increase in‘ weight
is as much as 200%..
When polymers are formed‘ within
wool ?bers; .50
M... ~~i i.
shrinkage,
'.
the groups normally conferringaf?nity for water
, are occupied or maskedby the polymer, which
also‘?lls the space normally available for accom
modating water,’ with the result that materials" "
- Untreated.-.
’
'
percent
1645‘.
Treated
_
‘
‘5356.
-
'
2,400,412
'
3
Example 2
W001 fabric (1 part air-dry weight) is impreg
solution, the following" area shrinkages are ob
tained:
1
"
'
‘
nated with a 02% aqueous solution of ammonium
persulphate and expressed until 1-1.5 parts of
.
methyl methacrylate (2 parts) and water (1 part) ,
in weightof about 1,50%.v
A
'
q
'
shrinkazei
‘
per cent
Untreated .................. _ .> _______________________ __
‘as ‘described in Example 1.. In, this case,'the
methyl methacrylate contains 0.5% --copper 10
rosinate as a non-volatile polymerisation in
hibitor.’ Polymerisation occurs on the fabric,"
which shows after 30 minutes anincrease in
weight of about 80%, and after 1 hour an increase
Area
Fabric
solution remain.’ The ‘fabric is then suspended "
at 90-95° C. in the vapour from a mixture of
Treated ________________________ ._
-____ __- ____ __-__-__f__
38. 0
~
16.4
We claim:
'1. Process for the production of novel effects
on wool-?ber-containing textile material which
‘ comprises exposing such material at an‘elevated
‘ temperature of the order of 90_-95°.C. to the ‘com; .
When patterns of the treated and untreated 15 bined action of water vapor and the ,vapor of a ‘
volatile monomeric polymerizable compound con
fabrics are milled together in- 5% aqueous‘ soap
taining, a ICHz=C= group and ‘selected from
solution, the following area shrinkages are -ob- tained:
I
7
Fabric
the class consisting of esters of acrylic acid, esters
of methac‘rylic acid, styrene and vinyl esters
20. until polymer “is formed within the ?bers.
~
Area
shrinkage,
percent
2. Process of claim ljvwherein‘ the material is
wetted out with water before‘ exposure-to'the
action of the mixed vapors.‘
Untreated ____________ ._
35. 9'
Treated for 30 minutes._
5. 4
Treated for 1 hour ____ -_
0.8
-
v3. Process of claim 1 wherein the textile mate- ' ‘4
rial is impregnated with a polymerizationgcata
,' lyst before exposure‘to the action of the mixed
vapors.
_v I
Example 3
I woolifabric (_2 parts air-dry weight)" is wetted
‘
4. Process‘of claim 1 wherein the polyme izable
monomer is methyl methacrylate. -
,
Y’,
out in water and expressed ,until about 2 parts -30 5. Process of claim 1 wherein, the polymerizable
monomer is methyl methacrylate and'the textile
of water remain._ The fabric is then treated at
material is, impregnated with a 0.2% aqueous
90"-95'0 .0. in the vapour from a mixture of
solution of ammonium persulfate before exposure
styrene (2 parts) and water (1 part) as described
to the action of the mixed vapors. ..
in Example 1. After six hours- the fabric is
6. Process of claim 1 wherein the polymerizable
conditioned‘ in air, and it shows an increase in 35
‘ weight of about 13%.
When patterns of the treated and untreated
fabrics are milled together in 5%, aqueous soap
monomer is styrene.
>
:
~
'
JOHN BAMBER. SPEAKMAN..
THOMAS BARR.
-
'
4
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