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Патент USA US2406440

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Patented Aug. 27, 1945
2,406,440 v
UNITED stares PATENT orrlrcE
Christian H. Sauer, Chico, Calif., assìgnor to
J. T. Alm, Chico, Calif.
Application May 8, 1943, Serial No. 486,174»
This invention relates to brakes in general, and
more speciñcally> t0 a brake and braking system
that is applicable to aA railway car.
One of the objects of this invention> is the pro
vision of an improved braking system in which
conventional brakel shoes are actuated by hy
draulic or pneumatic means and~ in which system
the actuation ofY said means causes the body of
thev vehicle or'railway carto be pulled in a down
ward direction when the brakes are applied to
thereby- stabilize the car with respect to rocking,
swaying or bouncing of the body,r and to al'so‘in
body on the frame members and‘wheels; At each
end of each side frame member 6 is` azshock ab
sorber device I c that may be of the conventional,-
hydraulic, single acting type such as shown andi
described in my Co-pending application for’pat
ent, Serial No. 482,851, liled April 13,71943'g`andi
which device includes an arm II thatisgspringï
urged downwardly at its outer end' at all times
about a Divot point at I2», but which armfisÍ
checked in- its upward swinging- movementy by"
' liquid in the shock absorber device. This typcof`
shock absorber in itself~ is oldandwell knownto
crease the frictional resistance between Athe car
those skilled in the art.
and the rails or ground.
Theouter end of veach'arm I I is connectedwìth
the body 9 by a generally verticallydisposed chain
Another object of the invention is theprovision
of improved means for more eiìciently applying
the braking force to the wheels of a railway car
through a pneumatic or-hydraulic system in which
the braking action on a plurality of Wheels in a
" ,
or cable I4. The use of a ñexible connection be
, tween each arm II and the body is quite im
portant, and such connectionA may be' aV chai-n,
cable, or articulated links; provided upward move
truck at one end of the car or in all of the wheels
ment of the arm I I unde1` certain circumstancesis
of the car is equalized.
permitted, as will later be described.
Other objects and advantages will appear in the
drawing and description.
In the drawing,
Fig. 1 is an elevational'view of a set of'wheels
on a railway car showing the invention. >Parts‘l
are broken away for- clarity and only'part of the
body is'shown.
‘ Adjacent each of the wheels is a generallyup
wardly extending arm I5 that is pivotallyfm-ounted
intermediate its ends on a» pivot I6. VAbove each
pivot I6, each of said arms carries a brake shoe I1
of 4substantially the conventional type.
shoe I1 is pivotally- supported on the upper endv
of each arm and is yieldably held in position away
from the wheel, but with its curved wheel-tread
Fig. 2 is a plan view of the wheels and braking
elements of' Fig. 1, with the body removed, and 30 engaging surface generally concentric with ` the
certain parts being in section.
wheel, by means of a spring I8. Spring |18 is-be
The set of wheels shown in Figs. 1 and 2‘may
tween rods I9, 20, the former being connected with
constitute all the wheels of a single car, such as
the brake shoe and the latter being secured to the~
some of the small street cars now in use, but gen
body 9. Upon pulling the lower end of each arm
erally the same principle is involved in the trucks
|5` in direction awayy from the wheel- adjacent
at opposite ends of a car, some of whichV have
` thereto, the shoe I'I will be carried into engage
three pairs of wheels instead 0f only two pairs.
ment with the wheel-tread, and upon release of
Such modifications as may be required for differ
ent systems do not change the general-manner of
' the force on the lower end of each arm- I5, the
operationvof this invention, hence the illustrations
40 by spring I8 Yand also the arms I5 will be restored
andA description are not to be considered restric
tive of the invention, but are illustrative thereof'
In the drawing, two pairs of Wheels I, 2 are
shown on tracks 3, and which wheels may be se
cured> on( the ends of axles @that are journalled
at their ends in conventional journal boxes 5 for
rotation ofthe wheels.
Side frame members Sconnect the wheels I, 2 at
shoe will be returned to full line position of Fig. 1
to their positions, as shown in Fig. 1.
On the lower ‘end of each arm I5 is a 'pulley 2 Il,
and a cable 22 that is secured at one endv tov thel
body 9, extends d-ownwardlyacross a side of each
. pulley and then horizontally to pivotally connect
at its opposite end with one end of a link 23.
There is a cable for each shoe and the cables thatV
pass over the pulleys that are adjacent wheels I
are arranged so that'their horizontally extending
each side of the set, which members may extend
end portions extend toward lthe similar portions>
between the journal boxes, and cross-frame mem
bers T extend between the pairs of wheels and
of the cables that pass over the pulleys that are
connect said side frame members.
Leaf- springs 8 between the body 9 of' the car
and' the frame members 6» yieldably support the
adjacent wheels 2.
There are four links 23 (Fig.v 2) arranged in
pairs at opposite sides of the vertical mesìal> plane
65 of> the car.
The links- at' saidl sides extend' con
l vergently toward said plane when the brakes are ,
the cylinder may be equally transmitted'to the
l released and their divergent ends are the ones,
, connected tothe cables 22. The opposite or con
brakes and to the body.
Vvide means for bodily shifting the arms I5 to~
ward or away from the wheels adjacent thereto
1 25. These bars 25 extend at right angles to frame
quick adjustment of the brakes, I’preferably pro#
§ vergent ends of the links are pivotally connected
j to opposite ends of a pair of parallel spaced bars
While Vthe use of turnbuckles 26 provides a
by means of bolts 4I) (Fig. 2) that extend through
slots in the basesl of the bracket members 4I (Fig.
One pair of links 23 at one of the ends of bars
1) to which said arms are pivotally connected
i 25 are connected intermediate their ends by mem
bers 2B, @each of which may be in the form of a ‘
by pivots IB. By loosening said bolts the bracket
ï turnbuckle havingits opposite screw rods pivot- i
members may be .slippedï vtovitard or away from
By turning the' '..11 L‘the wheels until the brake shoes are properly
positioned relative to the'latter. Of course the
, buckle of each member 25 in one >direction or the '
f ally connected to said links.
l other, theV ends of said links 23 may be adjusted
relative to each other.
" ,s
' connections between arms I9 and the brake shoes
Vmay also .be adjustable so as to change the an
gularity between the Shoes and rods I9 so that
the wheel tread engaging sides of the shoes vwill
members 28 that are also parallelY with side- ` ' uniformly engage the treads when brought into
, v Frame members 21, parallel with sidel-frame.,`
, members 6, slidably support links23 whileuframe „
frame members 5, and that extend between cross- ` '
engagement therewith.
, frame members 1, slidably support the bars 25. '
By positioning the pivots I6 substantially
«Betweenjoars25 is an air or hydraulic' cyl*
nearer the brake shoes than to the pulleys 2 I, it
will be seen that considerable braking force is
applied to the wheels upon pulling the lower ends
of the cables 22 through actuation of the links
indeIeZSlr having thev conventional piston therein
i normally'positioned adjacent the head of the cyl
inder‘withwhich the iiuid pressure line'3ll con
t nectsgfor admission of fluid under pressure intoY 25
thefcylinder Abetween said head and piston. A
conventionalcoil Vspring inthe cylinder yieldably
hol'dsthe rpiston adjacent said head.A This air
cylinder piston, and controls therefore are prac
ticallyÍv-aslold ¿as air brakes andare familiar to ,
aëlyo'ne skilled _in the art;
Piston rod VEII extending from ysaid vcylinder
29 ‘
The application of thebrake shoes to the Lipper
Vhalf of the wheels I >haveiound to be much
preferable in its results than by applyingV the
brakes tothe lower’halfv of .the wheels where -they4
are ordinarily positioned This positioning of -
the brakes provides ¿a„¿more_efñ_‘cient braking Vac
tiongparticularly where a do-wnward force is also`
' transmittedto thebody 9.
is lpi'votally connected at its ¿outer end with one
In I theV arrangement herein Y described, thev
cfg-the bars 25. at a pointrinterm'ediate the ends
ofïthe latter',
¿the head of `the cylinder that `35 means for pulling the body downwardly is asso
ciated with the brakes, but the torque from the
isnOrmally adjacent the piston is pivotally con->
ne'cted with the vother bar‘ 25 as at 32'at a point i .
rotating -,wheels-does not Vhave'. .any particular '
trailers, etc., and while not aseiîfective in `such
latter vehicles as the systems shown in. my co
eiîect on the force that pulls downwardlyon'the
intermediate the ends of the latter.
body.V This principle may be lapplied _to any>
¿frhe-bargawith which the cylinder head is;
connected maybe connected'with the conven 40 vehicle. having brakes, `such as automobiles,
emergency _hand A brake
(not ‘ shown)
î through ¿the usual` connecting mechanism that
- includes’rod 33 V(Fig. 2) „While a member 34emay
extend from the; other bar A25` over the/frame
member 'I that is adjacentthereto. By provid-` '
ingf’a hook 35 on the „outer-end of member 34, `
theemergency brake will function to actuatethe Y
vbrakes> _independently of the use of ¿compressed ~
fluid »in'thevcylinder 29.
ffrStops SIìonframe members 28 projecting up
‘ therefrom'will engage one or more of the -v
pending application for` patents:aboveqnentionedg;
it does ltend to stabilize the Vbody'during braking.
Theshock _absorbenelementslû will be Vseen
toV function'upon application of the brakes in re
stricting the objectionable upward movement of ,
the body and rockingV or swaying that occurs,A C
when brakes are applied. When the body is
pulled downwardlyby the l cables 22, these ide,
vices also .prevent sudden >upward movementpt.
the body when the brakes are> released. .The
Varrangement of these elements I0. is also such
or failto function.:
that Vthe body of the car will not lurch, as at
In- operation, assuming I, the car is moving to-‘
wardrthe right, as seen in the drawing, andthe y 5; present, when it is started too quickly, and the
lurch is also substantially reduced ,when _cars are
airis >applied through line 30, the head and
coupled together, thereby reducing damage from
piston' of the, cylinder, 29 will move apart under ;
the shifting of loads in .the car aswell as reducel
equal force. This movement will cause links 23
" links- 23 'should any one of thev cables 22 break
to pivot on members 26 in a-direction for moving ,
ing :the wear and tear on cars.
y »
In the claims and description the use of the
their ldivergent ends `toward each other. This 60
>`termv “fluid pressure” is intended to include low
latter movementwill pull cables 22 at each side
airpressure such as a partial vacuum, as well as
of the car toward eachother, thereby swinging
to hydraulic pressure and positive high air pres- ,
armsk I5 on their pivots to move the _shoes I'II
into engagement with` the wheels I, 2.» At the j
same time, and proportional to the force applied
sure above atmospheric pressure.
, Having described my invention, I claim:
' l. In a wheelmounted vehicle including all;
to the brakes, the ycables, 22 will pull the body 9V
downwardly to'stabilize any pitching or rocking
spring supported body carried by the wheels and
of thebody, and also to somewhat compress the
vbrakes for the latter, a ñuid 'pressure actuated v»
springs 8'.
mechanism including an element connected withY .
This downward force also serves to
increase they Vfrictionalr»resistance between the `70~ said brakes Vand movable in one direction under»
wheels andthe rails to prevent
ing of the brakes and wheels. `
skidding or lock- l
« .
From the standpoint of preferred structure*v
the influence of lsaid fluid pressure for applyingk
said brakes, a body depressing member connected '
with said body and with said element, means '
the cylinder ‘29 'shouid be -noatingiy s,m.~»por1;edsol ' mounting said member for downward movement
that’th'e brakingfforce fromthaair or ñuid ¿inl 75 yupon said movement of said element in said one
direction whereby'said member will pull down-«1
element under fluid pressureandim'eans connect-È _
wardly on said .body when said brakes are applied
ing saidj brakes. and said'member to‘saidelen'ient'Y
for somoving said brakesv and saidxmember.
6,;-5 In a railway car` having rail’engaging'wl‘reelsy
supporting a frame .and springsv supporting .said
bodyïon .said frame ;r brakeA shoes'respectively’ sup-.
by actuation of saidy li'uid pressure> mechanism,
saidk element being actuatable bysaid` fluid pres-`v
surej for’ applying saidv brakes and: for so - moving
said'. member independentlyI of “ .the torque. force
transmit-ted'- to. said- brakes by said ‘wheels rwhen
the latter are-rotatingand the brakes. are applied;
ported on saidf'rame for movement.v into andzouti of: :frictional Vengagement with the peripheral
'2, In a 'vehicle' having> front and rear. wheels,
tread portions of said wheels, av body depressing
axles for said wheels, brakes. for’ said rear wheels; 10 member secured to '.said body and extending.
a'.- frame .carryingsaidaxles andY brakes, a body,
downwardly therefrom, a` fluid pressure actuated
and. springs yieldably supporting. saidlb‘ody -on
element' movably supported. onv saidy frame andî
saidîframe; as fluid pressure actuated mechanism- ~ v connected. with said vshoes and with said.v member'
for.simultaneously- movingsaid shoes.' into en
`carried byusaid frame for applying< said brakes,
and. a movablel body depressing member con-J 15 gagement with said treadv portions and for movnested’ with' said fluid pressure mechanism. and
ing saidl member downwardly upon actuation of'.
said body»v` for Vpulling saidl body downwardly
said element under fluid pressure, andmeanscon-ï
against theresistance of usaid springs upon. actu
necting said brakes` and said memberv to said ele-y
ation of said mechanism for applying said brakes,
ment for somoving said brakesand- said-member,
said.. fluid pressure mechanism including an- ele 20 said lastmentioned means including an arm piv
ment supported on said frame for` reciprocable
otally supporting each of said brake'shoes-Lfor
movement and said memberfbeing >connected with
carrying the latter into kengagement withlsaid
said element for movement therewith.
treadV portions respectively upon pivoting eaclr
» 3.. In a vehicle having front and rear wheels,
arm, and a link connecting one end of said ‘a-rnr
axles for said Wheels, brakes for said rear wheels, 25 to said element and to one end of said member.
avframe carryingr said axles and brakes, a body,
"1?. In. a railway car having rail engaging wheels?
and springs yieldably supporting said body on
supporting a frame and springs supporting said?y
said frame; a fluid pressure actuated mechanism
body on said frame; arms pivotally‘ supportedë
carried byi said frame for applying said brakes,
intermediate their ends on said frame atzpoints
and` a movable body depressing member connect 30 adjacent said wheels; a brake shoe on one endî
ed with saidi fluid* pressure mechanism and said
of .each arm movable`4 into'» engagement. with the
body forpulling said body downwardly against
wheel` adjacent theretol upon swingingthe oppo-l
the resistance of said springs upon actuation of
site endof `each arm in» one direction.;l a> fluid pressaidA mechanism for applying said brakes, said
sure actuated mechanism> connected ywith saidî
huid pressure mechanismV including an element 35 opposite end of each arm for so swinging said`V
supported on said frame for reciprooable move
latter end,v anda link extending downwardly from
ment and. said member being connected with said
said body and- connected with said mechanism.
element for movement therewith, said member
andï witl'isaid opposite end of each arm adapted'
being a flexible link secured at one of its ends
to beurged downwardlyupon said swinging ofy~
to said element and secured at its opposite end 40 said oppositeend of said arm for depressing said
to said body.
4A In a vehiclehaving front and rear wheels,
bçdy against theA resistance of said springs simul
taneously with application of said brakes.
8. In a' railway car having rail engaging wheels
supportingr a frame and springs supporting said
axles-for saidV wheels, brakesfor said rear wheels,
a frame carrying said axles and-brakes, a body,
and springs yieldably supporting said body on 45 bodyfon said frame; arms pivotally supported
said- frame; means supporting said brakes for
intermediate their ends on said frame at points
generally oscillatory movement to and from wheel
adjacent said wheels; a brake shoe onf one endl
braking position; a fluid pressure actuated mem
ber supported on said frame for generally recip
rocatory movement connected with said means
of each arm movable into engagement with> the
wheelY adjacent thereto upon swinging the op
and with said` body for simultaneously causing
said oscillatory movement of said brakesV in one
direction to said position and for drawing said
body downwardly against the resistance of said
springs upon application of fluid pressure to said
member for actuating the latter, fluid pressure
means connected with said member for so actu
ating the latter, and means supporting said mem
ber on said frame for downward movement of the
posite end of each arm in one direction; said
opposite end of each arm extending generally
downwardlyl from the- pivot supporting the same;
a pulley carried by each arm at its saidopposlte
end; llexible links connected at one of their ends
to said body and respectively extending down
wardly therefrom and over each of said pulleys
andrthen laterally-‘to fluid> actuated elements
respectively movable under the influence of fluid
pressure> for drawing said links against said
portion thereof that is connected with said body 60 pulleys-whereby said' arms will be pivoted t0a ap
when said member isactuated for causing appli
ply the brakes and to simultaneously draw saidì
cation of said brakes.
body downwardly when said elements are so.. ac
5. In a railway car having rail engaging» wheels
tuated, means securing said links 'to said ele
supporting 'a frame and springs supporting said . ments, and fluid'` pressure means for so actu-v
body on said frame; brake shoes respectively sup 65. ating said elements.
9. In a vehicle having,l axlesV provided with
portedv on said frame for movement' intoandfout
of- fi’ictional engagement with theV peripheral
body supportingwheels thereon, a body, and.
tread portions- of said wheels, a body depressing
member secured to said body and extending down
springs supporting said body onî said axles; a
frame carried 1by said axles; brake shoes carried'
wardly therefrom, a fluid pressure actuated ele 70 on saidY frame adjacent' said wheels mounted` forv
ment movably supported on said frame and con
movement into and out of frictional engagement
nected with said shoes and with said member for
with the wheels; means securing said shoes. to
said frame against movement together with said:
simultaneously moving said'shoes into engage
Wheels when said shoesiare in engagement there-A
ment with said tread portions and' for moving
said member downwardly upon actuation of said 75 with; a; body. depressing. element securedv to said
body and adapted to >draw said body’ downward'
ly against> the resistance'of 'said springs upon
pressùreinto?said cylinderbetween'said head and
î downward movement of said yelement;4 a member j
-adjacent one of said adjacent pairs of Wheels
said piston; means'connecting the brake shoes»
securedgrto said brakes 'movable'in one direction'
to said cylindenand' means Yconnecting the brake
` for applying said brakes to said wheels; apower
5 shoes YadjacentV thev other of said.` >adjacent Vpairs j
actuated mem-ber connected to said, element and
of wheels to saidÍpis'tonfrod for simultaneously Y
applying said shoesl to said Íwheelsrwhen’ñuid is
» l to said member arranged and adapted torsirnul
Ítaneously move said element downwardly and
admitted into said cylinder; thev said means re-‘
î to move said element in'Y said one direction vupon ï
‘ l application of power to»- said member.
Spectively connecting said shoes to'said head and
10.111V a vemeieîhav'ing axles provided _with
`body supportingpwheels Ythereon, a body, and
springssupporting said` body on_ïsaid~ axles; a"
to apply> said brakes whensaid rod and cylinder
1 said frame against movementtogether with said
Wheels whensaideshoes are in engagement there
rod and body for so moving said body.ï
toisaid -piston rod being arranged .and adapted s
are simultaneouslymoved oppositely', la iiexible
connection. between` said body’and said piston
` frame carried by said raxles;lbrake shoes carried f rod actuatable -by'movement of said piston under
on said frame adjacent said wheelsvmounted for 15, said fluid pressure for pulling> said body down
: movement intoand out offrictional engagement ‘ wardly against the resistance of said> springs;
means mounting said link relative to said piston
îwith the Wheels; means securing said> shoes to
V13; A railway car comprising a spring lsup-=A
` with; a body, depressing element secured to said 20 ported body mounted on rail rengaging wheels and '
air operated brakes for said wheels including gen
i body‘and-Vadapted to draw said body downward-_ ‘
" lyragainst they resistance of ~ said springs upon
erally reciprocable air pressure actuated elements
connected with said brakes; links extending
downwardly- from said body and connected'to
È'downwardvmovement of said element; a member
, l secured‘to said Ibrakesmovable in one direction Á
l for applying saidbrakes to said wheels; a power 25 said elements; means mounting said links'for
downwardY movement upon reciprocation `of said
elements under air pressure for applyingY` said
Ybrakes whereby said body will be pulled down-Y
s actuated member connected to said element and j
l to said member arranged and adapted to simul- ,
taneously move said element downwardly andato
move said element4 in said one direction upon
‘ applicationof power to said member, said brakes
; being carried on said frame adjacent the upper
` most portions of the tread surfaces of said wheels
wardly upon applicationof said brakes.
Y 14. A railway car comprising a spring supe
y ported body mounted on rail engaging wheels and
airroperated brakes for said wheels including
generally reciprocable air pressure Vactuated
for movement into frictional engagement with
`the generally Vupwardly facing parts of said '
membersl connected with said brakes; links ex
l, tending downwardly from said‘body and oon
l surfaces.’l
11.> Ina vehicle havinga pluralityof~ pairs of y
axially aligned wheels, axles supporting said
` wheels, a body, and springs supporting said body Y
` on said axles; brake shoesl Vfor the wheelsof one
l adjacent pair thereof supported on said frame
Vlrfor movement finto' frictional engagementk with ` v
nected to said elements; means _mounting said
links for downward movement upon reciprocation
of said elements under air pressure for applying
said brakes whereby said body will »be pulled
downwardlyr'upon application of said brakes, said
links including flexible cables; and-_the means
_; said wheels; a cylinder and a piston reciprocable
mounting said links for said movement including '
Í thereon positioned Ybetween said adjacent pairs lof
aligned >wheels;` said cylinderY having` a 4closed "
pulleys over Ywhich said Vcablesrextend v’at points
respectivelypositioned between said elements and
head at one end, and a piston rod on said piston
said body.
l projecting from’the opposite end of said cylinder; j
~ 15.~ -A »railway car comprising a spring supported
`means Asupporting said cylinder for movement
body mounted on rail engaging wheels: and air
operated brakes forsaid wheels includingY gen-V f
l thereof opposite to the direction of movement
ï of said piston rod upon admission of fluid under
l pressure into said cylinder between said head and
` said piston; means connecting the `brake shoes
j adjacent one fof saidradjacent pairs oi wheels
i to said cylinder, and means connecting the brake e
‘ shoes adjacent the other of said adjacentrpairs
of wheels to said piston rod for simultaneously
1 applying said shoes to said Ywheels when ñuid
z is admitted into said cylinder; the said means
; respectively connecting said'` shoes to said head
erally reciprooable air pressure actuatedmem
bers connected with said brakes; links extending
downwardly from said body and connectedto
said elements; means mounting said links for
downward movement upon reciprocation of said
elements under air pressure for applying saidV
brakes whereby said body will be pulled down
wardly upon application of said brakes, means
at opposite ends of each car connecting said
wheels to said body across the said springs for
yieldably resisting relative movement of said body
Íand to said piston rod `being arranged and l
j adapted to apply said brakes when said rod and 60 and wheels apart while permitting relative move'-` ’
cylinder are simultaneously moved oppositely.
12. In a vehiclehaving ya plurality of pairs of *Y
ment of said body and wheels toward each other
upon compression of said springs.
Y 16. In a vehicle 'having a spring supportedbody
carried on pairs of,` opposed y body supporting
l wheels, a body, and springs supporting said body
on said axles; brake shoes for vthe Wheelspof one 65 wheels,l brakes for said wheels rrespectively sup"axially aligned wheels,
axles Supporting ’ said l
È adjacent pair thereof Ysupported fon-said frame
`for movement into frictional engagement with
§ said wheels; a cylinder and a, piston reciprocable
g thereon positioned between said adjacent pairs of
ported adjacent each of said Wheels forgenerally
oscillatory movement to Yand from >said wheels,
generally reciprocably supported brakeactuating
elements connected with said brakes for causing
i aligned wheels; said cylinder'ghaving 3a closed w said movementgoi the'brakes upon reciprocation
of said elements, a cylinder and piston recipro
l head at one end, and a piston rod on said‘piston
cable therein respectively connected to said‘brake
i projecting from the opposite end of said cylinder;
`means supporting said cylinder for movement > ' actuating> elements for said causing-reciproca
tion ofV the latter upon reciprocating theV piston
j thereof Vopposite to the direction of movement of j
î said piston rod upon 'admission of‘riiuid under 75 andcylinder relatively bycausing huid pressure.
changes in the cylinder between one of its heads
and said piston, means for causing such changes,
and a stop member stationary relative t0 certain
0f said elements positioned to limit the move
of the wheels to which said frictional resistance '
stop turning thereof and simultaneously there
with pulling downwardly directly on said body
against the resistance of the springs supporting
the same, said step of pulling said body down
wardly being free from the influence of the torque
is applied, and varying the force of said down
ward pull in direct proportion to the amount of
frictional resistance so applied to said wheels.
19. The method of braking a vehicle of the
type having body supporting wheels and a spring
supported body carried by said wheels that com
prises, applying a frictional resistance to the
wheels to stop turning thereof and simultaneously
therewith pulling downwardly directly on said
body at both ends thereof against the resistance
of the springs supporting the same, said step of
pulling said body downwardly being free from the
inñuence of the torque of the wheels to which
said frictional resistance is applied.
20. The method of braking a vehicle of the
type having body supporting wheels and a spring
of the wheels to which said frictional resistance
supported body carried by said wheels that com- ~
ment of the latter in one direction in the event
of accidental disconnection of such certain ele-`
ments with the brakes normally connected there
17. The method of braking a Vehicle of the type
having body supporting wheels and a spring sup
ported body carried by said wheels that comprises,
applying a frictional resistance to the wheels to
is applied.
18. The method of braking a vehicle of the type
having body supp-orting wheels and a spring sup
ported body carried by said wheels that comprises,
applying a frictional resistance to the wheels to
stop turning thereof and simultaneously there
with pulling downwardly directly on said body
against the resistance of the springs supporting
the same, said step of pulling said body down
wardly being free from the influence of the torque
prises, applying a frictional resistance to the
wheels at points above their axes of rotation re
spectively to stop turning thereof and simultane
ously therewith pulling downwardly directly on
said body against the resistance of the springs
supporting the same, said step of pulling said
body downwardly being free from the influence of
the torque of the wheels to which said frictiona]
resistance is applied.
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