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Патент USA US2406444

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Aug. 27, 1946.
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A,M_g1-ONER
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2,406,444
CHUCK RELEASE MECHANISM
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F1.9.1
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‘5°
Filed March 14, 1945
, 56 25
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INVENTOR.
ARTHUR MERE/CK STONER
ATTORNEY
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Aug- 27,1946'
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A. M. STONER'
CHUCK’ RELE
2,406,444
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Egg/II" A
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ATTORNEY
Patented Aug. 27, ‘1 946
2,406,444 *
‘UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,406,444
CHUCK RELEASE MECHANISM
Arthur Merrick Stoner, West Hartford, Conn.,
assignor to The Jacobs Manufacturing Com
pany, Hartford, Conn, a corporation of Con
necticut
' Application March 14, 1945, Serial No. 582,737
7 Claims.
1
(Cl. 279-—48).
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2
This invention relates to a chuck release mech
by the reference numeral 20. The rear portion
2! of the body is a hollow cylinder which is in
ternally threaded to ?t the threads l6 on the
. sleeve IE). This part of the body has a smooth
cylindrical surface 22 in which is a continuous
annular ?at sided groove 23. 24 is a longitudinal
hole drilled in the body and intersecting the in
_ner surface of the groove 23. Spaced from the
anism and its object is to provide a simple and
effective device for disengaging parts of a chuck
which have become wedged against a tool, to fa
cilitate removal of the tool. It' is particularly
adaptable for self-tightening chucks of the key
less type. Another object is to provide a chuck
from which a, tool may be removed and another
inserted while the chuck isrotating.
groove 23 is a non-continuous flat sided groove
In the use of chucks ‘which are arranged to 10 25 the ends of which‘ are designated by‘26 and
cause the torque on the tool, such as a drill, to.
tighten the gripping e?ect on the tool, the tool
often becomes locked into the chuck so tightly
that it is dif?cult to disengage it. According to
the present invention I provide a simple mecha
nism in which a spring-actuated hammer blow
may be delivered on the parts which cause the
looking to be effected.
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Figure l is a sectional side elevation of a chuck
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Fig. 2 is a front elevation of the chuck shown
in Fig. 1;
Fig. 5 is a side elevation and Fig. 6 a front view
of the collet shown in Figs‘. 1 and 2. In Figs.
1 and 2 the collet is closed and in ‘Figs. 5 and 6
latter.‘
respectively on the line 8—-8 and the irregular
the rear portion of the sleeve is internally‘thread;
ed, as at H, for this purpose. I2 is a hardened
steel ball seated on an inclined annular shoulder
13 formed in the sleeve. The bore I4 in the for
ward part of the sleeve is of a slightly smaller
diameter than that of the ball. The ball is forced
through this bore into cylindrical opening in the
sleeve which forms with the bore a shoulder l5
which retains the ball in the sleeve. The sleeve
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7
' Rotatively mounted-on the cylindrical surface
parts shown in Fig. '7, the sections being taken
chine tool. In the particular example illustrated
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tapered at the same angularity as that of the cam
surface 3 |__ and-are arranged to be engaged by the '
Figs. 8 and 9 are sectional end elevations of
I0 designates a hollow sleeve which is ar
ranged to be attached to the spindle of a ma
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The outer edgesof the gripping members are
this invention;
1
Y
ranged ‘to be seated on the surface 36 of disk 35.
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Fig. 7 is a sectional side elevation 'of a chuck
of a modi?ed construction which also embodies
line 9—9 of Fig. '7.
"
plurality of angularly spaced perforated‘ grip
ping members 4I interconnected vby abody 42 of
resilient material such as oil resistant synthetic
rubber. ‘The rear ends of the gripping members
are normal to the axis of the chuck and are arg
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1
"
A collet 40 is interposed between the pressure
member 30 and'the disk 35. This comprises a
Figs. 3 and 4 are sectional end elevations of
it is open.
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which ?ts the threads 29. ‘It has an internal
conical cam surface 3| and an external polygonal
the ball I2.
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the device shown in the preceding ?gures, the
sections being taken respectively on the ‘lines
3-—3 and 4—4 of Fig. 1;
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30 is an externally threaded pressure member
Back of the pressure member 30 is an abutment
disk 35. This has a flat transverse front surface
36 and a cylindrical boss 31 projects from its
rear side. Thisboss is mounted to rotate freely‘
in the bore l4 of sleeve Ill and its rear end abuts
,In these drawings:
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threaded, as at 29.
part 32 for wrench engagement.
In the accompanying drawings I have shown
chucks which illustrate ‘this invention.
which embodies the invention;
21. The forward part of the body is a hollow
cylinder of larger diameter than that of the part
2|. The forward part of its inner surface is
40
22 of the body is a ‘shock sleeve 56. A radially
disposed plug 5| extends through the shock sleeve
into the groove 25 in body 20. This plug is held
in place and against rotation in the sleeve 50'
by a diagonally disposed pin 52.
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An annular groove Eispacedfrom the plug 5|
is formed in the inside of‘ the sleeve 50, the sides
of which register with‘ ‘the'side's of the groove 23
in the body and form valpocket 54. 55 is allongil
tudinal hole drilled in the sleeve?? and inter
secting the inner surface of the groove 53‘. 56
are radially disposed holes drilled into the sleeve
5!} for the reception of a spanner wrench.
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6B is a ?at spring in thepocket 54. The ends
of this spring are bent outwardly and enter the
‘holes
24 and 55 in the body 20 and'the sleeve 50
of its length, as shown at l6.
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tend to rotate the sleeve on the body in the
The body of the chuck is designated generally 55 and
directionrof the arrow in Fig. 4 to move~the plug
is externally threaded through’ thegreater part
2,406,444
5| against the end 26 of the groove 25, as shown
in Fig. 3.1 The pressure member 30 may be se
curely attached to the body 20 by wrenches af
fixed to the shock sleeve and the pressure mem-‘
ber.
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for engagement with the spindle of a machine . ‘
tool, and its forward portion is internally thread
ed, as at ISA.
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The conical cam surface 3| is formed in the
front portion 20B of the body, the outside of
which is formed withflat surfaces 32A for wrench
The operation of this device is as follows: The
reception. Between the inner conical surface 31
collet may be loosened or opened by turning the
and the cylindrical surfaces 22A splines 38 are
body 20 on the sleeve 10 in a counter-clockwise
formed in the body part 20B. v 1
direction, as viewed from the front of the chuck.
'10 is a disk-like portion of a collet actuator
This moves the pressure member 30 and the abut; v10 on the periphery of which splines ‘H are formed.
ment disk 35 apart and allows'the collet to ex
which‘ ?t between the splines 38. 12 is a spindle
pand and its grip-ping members M to move out
which extends rearwardly from the disk 10. The
wardly toward the positions in which they are’
outside of this spindle is threaded to ?t the
shown in Figs. 5 and 6.‘ Then after a tool such
threads
l?A. The rearend of the collet abuts
15.
as‘a drill is inserted in the collet, the body ‘is
the actuator ‘H3.
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turned on the sleeve in the opposite direction to
r-A shock sleeve 58A is rotatively mounted on the _
bring the gripping members 4! into engagement . bodypart 25A and is retained thereon by a split
with the tool. During this operation the abut
ring :57; MA is a longitudinally disposed plug in
ment disk 35 and the collet rotate with the body
the shock sleeve which extends into argroove 25A
20
because of the non-frictional bearing of the boss
in the peripheryof the rear end of body part
31 and the engagement of the gripping members
265. One end of this groove is shown in Fig. 9 _
4! with the surface 36 of the disk’ and with the
and is designated’ by 25A. The spring 50 which
cam surface 3! of the pressure member so that
interconnects the shock sleeve and the body part
the collet is not distorted.
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2913 tends to hold the pin 5IA against the-end
When the sleeve i0 is driven in a counter 2.5
25A of the groove 25A.
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clockwisedirection and its rotation is imparted
When relative rotation is imparted to the parts
to the tool, opposition to this rotation of the tool,
29A and 26B of the body, the collet actuator 1i]
due to‘ the work imposed upon it, causes further
will rotate with the part 2913 because of its splined
relative rotation of the body 20 on the sleeve Iii
connection therewith, and because of its threaded
in a clockwise direction andincreases the pres 30 connection with the part 20A it will move longi
sure of the gripping'members on the ‘tool. This
‘pressure often becomes so great that his diiii
cult to disengage the tool by' turning the body
2e on the sleeve in a counter-clockwise direction.
tudinally therein.
Thus the longitudinal disk
tance between the actuator ‘10 and the cam sur
face .3l may be adjusted.’
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>7
This chuck is also self-tightening and can be
To overcome this dif?'culty, I have provided the 35
released
by its shock sleeve in the manner here
device hereindisclosed which operates in the .fol
tofore explained.
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lowing manner:
Various modi?cations in construction, mode of
’The tool is backed off from its engagement
operation, use and method of an-invention may
with the work and the shock sleeve, 5!] given a
and often do occurto others, especially after
40
relative rotation on‘ the body in-a clockwise direc
bene?tting from knowledge of such a’ disclosure
tion against the action of.;the springr?ll. This
as that herein presented of the principles in
will cause the'plug 5! to ‘move away from the '
volved, but the invention itselfv is not con?ned to
end 26 of the groove 25. The relative movement
the present showing.
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thus attained will be limited by the plug reach
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claim:
45
ing the end 21 of the groove.
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1. In the type of chuck which isarranged to
Now when the shock sleeve is released Suddenly
be
rotated in one direction to ‘drive a.tool_ a grip
the spring 60 rotates it'on the body in the oppo~
1 ping member and means formoving the gripping
site direction and causes the plug 5“! to deliver
a hammeriblow on the end 26 of groove 25 which
member into engagement with a tool, and in
will drive the body, 2;: rotatively in acounter 50 which resistance to the rotation‘ of thetool, ac
tuates said means to tighten the engagement of
clockwise direction on‘ the sleeve in; This opera
the gripping ‘member, a release mechanism com
tion isgperformed conveniently while the chuck
prising a rotatable shock sleeve, a spring biased
is rotating byiretarding the rotation of the shock
to rotate the sleeve in the driving direction of
sleeve and then releasing it and may be repeated
if, necessary. The engagement of the’ collet on 55 the chuck, means for limiting the rotationof the
the tool will become loosened thereby, in fact'the sleeve? in one direction so arranged that the
sleeve may be rotated against the action of the
, tool will drop out of the chuck and another tool
spring vand that the spring may ‘return; thesleeve
may be inserted without stopping the rotation
and impart a hammer blow between said interen
of the chuck. Initial engagement of such other
‘tool may then be effected by grasping the outer 60
surface of the shock sleeve. vThe retardingeifect
2. In the type of chuck which is arranged to
need not be sufficient to separate the end 25 of
berotatedjin one direction to' drive a tool, a grip
theslot 25 from the plug 5| but if they are sep
ping member and means for moving the gripping
arated the shock’ sleeve is released gradually so
member into engagement with a tool,_and in
65
that these surfaces will come together without
which vresistance to the rotation of the tool ac
a sudden impact.
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tuate's said means to tightenvthe engagement of
,Another form of self-tightening chuck is illus
Vthe'gripiping member, a shock sleeve rotatably
trated inlFigs. 7,8 and 9. The body is made in
supported by the chuck, a spring biased to ro- .
two parts‘ 20A and 20B which are relatively rotat
able-on inter?tting cylindrical surfaces at 22A. 70 tate the sleeve in the drivingwdirecti-on of the
body,- interengaging parts of the ‘chuck and of
Balls I 8 are interposed between the, parts 128A
the sleeve to limit the rotation of the sleeve in
and 20B; These are inserted in a suitable ball
one direction, said parts being so‘ arranged that
race through an opening IS in the ‘body 20B in‘
the sleeve may be rotated against the action of
the usual .manner. The rear portion of the part
20A of the body is internally threaded as at ‘ll 75 the ‘Spring and that the springlimay-retur-n ‘the
gaging
means.
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2,406,444
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sleeve and impart a hammer blow between said
interengaging parts.
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3. In the type of chuck which is arranged to be
rotated in one direction to drive a tool, a grip
ping member and threaded means for moving
the gripping member into engagement ‘with a
6
against the action of the spring and that the
spring may return the sleeve and impart a ham
mer blow between said interengaging means.
6. In a chuck which has a sleeve arranged to
be rotated in one direction to drive a tool, a body
in adjustable threaded engagement with the
tool, and in which resistance to the rotation of
sleeve, an abutment member supported by the l
the tool actuates said means to tighten the em
sleeve, a member a?ixed to the body, said mem
gagement of the gripping member, a shock sleeve
ber having a cam surface spaced from the abut
rotatively supported by the chuck, a spring bi 10 ment member and inclined to the axis of rota
ased to rotate the sleeve on the chuck in the
tion of the sleeve, and a gripping device inter
driving direction of the chuck, interengaging
posed between the abutment member and the
means for limiting the rotation of the sleeve
comprising a non-continuous annular groove
having a transverse end and a projection mov
able in said groove, said parts being so arranged
that the Sleeve may be rotated against the ac~
tion of the spring and that the spring may re
turn the sleeve and impart a hammer blow be~
tween said projection and the end of the groove. ~
4. In the type of chuck which is arranged to be
rotated in one direction to drive a tool, a grip
ping member and threaded adjustable means for
moving the gripping member into engagement
with a tool in which resistance to the rotation
of the tool actuates said means to tighten the
engagement of the gripping member, a release
mechanism comprising a shock sleeve, a spring
biased to rotate the sleeve in the driving direc
tion of the chuck, interengaging parts for lim
iting the rotation of the sleeve in one direction,
said parts being so arranged that the sleeve may
be rotated against the action of the spring and
that the spring may return the sleeve and im
part a hammer blow between said interengaging tic U!
parts.
5. In a chuck which is arranged to be rotated
in one direction to drive a tool, an abutment
member, a cam surface spaced from the abut
ment member and inclined to the axis of rota 40
cam surface and in which resistance to the-ro
tation of a tool engaged by the gripping device
turns the body on the sleeve to tighten said en
gagement, a shock sleeve rotatatively supported
on the body, a spring biased to rotate the sleeve
on the body in the driving direction of the body,
interengaging parts of the body and of the sleeve
to limit the relative rotation of the sleeve on the
body
comprising
a
non-continuous
annular
groove having a transverse end and a projection
movable in said groove, said’parts being so ar
ranged that the sleeve may be rotated against
the action of the spring and that the spring may
return the sleeve and impart a hammer blow be
tween said projection and the end of the groove.
7. In a chuck which has a sleeve arranged to
be rotated in one direction to ‘drive a tool, a body
in adjustable threaded engagement with the
sleeve, an abutment member supported by the
sleeve, a pressure member a?ixed to the body,
said member having a conical cam surface
spaced .from the abutment member and sym
metrical to the axis of rotation of the sleeve, and
a collet arranged to be seated on the abutment
member and having a tapered portion arranged
to be engaged by the cam surface and in which
resistance to the rotation of a tool engaged by
the collet turns the body on the sleeve to tighten
tion of the body, a gripping device interposed
said engagement, a shock sleeve rotatively sup
between the abutment member and the cam sur~
ported on the body, a spring biased to rotate the
face, threaded means for adjusting the space
shock sleeve on the body in the driving direction
between the abutment member and the cam sur
of the body, interengaging parts of the body and
face to move the gripping device into engage 45 of said sleeve to limit the relative rotation of the
ment 'with a tool and in which resistance to the
sleeve on the body comprising a non-continuous
rotation of a tool engaged by the gripping device
annular groove having a transverse end and a
actuates said threaded means) to tighten the en
projection movable in said groove, said parts be
gagement of the gripping device, a shock sleeve
ing so arranged that the sleeve may be rotated
rotatively supported by the chuck, a spring bi 50 against the action of the spring and that the
ased to rotate the sleeve in the driving direc
spring may return the sleeve and impart a ham
tion of the chuck, interengaging means for lim
mer blow between said projection and the end of
iting the rotation of the sleeve in one direction
the groove.
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so arranged that the sleeve may be rotated
ARTHUR MERRICK STONEEIQ.
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