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Патент USA US2406446

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Aug. 27, 1946.
M. WARE
2,406,446
_
INTERNAL-COMBÚSTION ENGINE
Filed Feb. 26. 1940
2 Shefets-Sheet 1
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BY
INVENTOR
Marsden Wäre,
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ATTìoRNEY;
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-Aug.27,1946.-4
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M. `WARE
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2,406,446
INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE
Filed Feb. 26,` 1940
2 sheets~she§t 2
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Marsden were
ATTORNEYS'
Patented Aug. 27, 1946
2,406,446
UNITED STATES PATENT oFFicE
>2,406,446
l
ÍNTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE
Marsden Ware, Huntin gwn Woods, Michl, as
1
signor to Packard Motor Car Company, De:
-troit, Mich., a corporation of Michigan
Application February 26, 1940, vSerial No. 320,798
4 Claims. (Cl. 123.-,171)
This invention relates to engines and more pars
ticularly to engines of the fuel injection type.
Fuel injectors are usually arranged to extend
through a Wall of engine cylinders in order that
2
portion formed of material such as aluminum and
a ring 8 formed of steel or similar material that
is threaded interiorly and screwed upon the inner
section. The provision of a steel ring reinforces
the fuel can be sprayed into air charges in the
the head structure so that it is capable of With
combustion chambers. Heat, resulting from com#
standing
greater loads than when the strutcure is
pression of the air charges in the cylinders >and
formed entirely of aluminum. The head 4struc
from combustion, Will cause the injectors and
taure in both forms of the invention is secured to
their securing means to expand even though a
the cylinder iiange 9 by meansof studs I2 screwed
cooling system is employed. The injector is usu
into the cylinder flange and nuts 9' that are
ally clamped tightly against a cylinder wall and
screwed on the outer ends of studs.v The head
temperature changes act to loosen the engage
structure and cylinder sho-Wn in Figs. l. to 3, in
ment of the injector with the cylinder Wall due to
clusive, are each provided with a plurality oi cir
differences in the coeilicient of expansion of the
cumferential cooling fins I.3 and similar fins can
injectors and their securing means. When the
be provided on the cylinder shown in Figs,V ‘l to 7,
injectors become loose there will be leakage from
inclusive, if desired. A conventional piston ,I4 is
the cylinders thus reducing compression pressure
arranged in the usual manner Within the cylinder
and allowing escape of at least a portion of the
and has a depressed rend that cooperates With the
fuel and air charges.
end of the cylinder head to form >a combustion
An object of the invention is to improve the op 20 chamber
I 5.
eration of engines by providing an air system for
An opening _IS _extends >through the central por
efficiently cooling fuel injectors, their securing
tion of the head Wall and is similar in form` to the
means and the heads of the cylinders with which
outlet end of a fuel injector l1 that eXterldS there
they are associated.
The opening has a conical wall portion
A further lobject of the invention is to improve 25 through,
I3 against which the injector shoulder I9 seats
the operation of an injection »type of engine by
and- seals. The head Wall is also formed with a.
the provision of deflector means for directing air
central well 20 through which the nozzle >ex-Y
in streams over the major portion of the ¿cylinder
tends, and a .pai-r of bosses 2| projects from the
heads and the injectors secured thereto.
head Wallat the bottom 0f the well a desired dis
Other objects of the invention will appear frem Si) tance
into the well and is oppositely disposed ad
the following description taken in connection with
the drawings, which form a part of the speciiica
tion, and in which:
.
Fig. 1 is a top plan view of one cylinder of an
jacent the injector. The injectoris formed 'with
:a pair of apertured flanges 22 arranged t0 align
with the bosses yin the Well. The apertures in the
flanges receive „studs '23 which Vare suitably an.
chored in the bosses and nuts 24 are applied to
the studs to tightly clamp the `injector shouldersY
Fig. 3;
_
I9 against the seat I 8 in the head wall. The studs
Fig. 3 is a sectional view of the cylinder .and air
are formed of material that will compensa-te for
deñector structure taken on line 3_3 vof Fig. 2;
difference in expansion caused by temperature
Fig. 4 is an elevational view of the head end it' differences of the studs and injectors, and in the
of a cylinder having a modified `form of air de
present instance they have substantially the same
flector means;
coenicient of vexpansion as the injector. As the
Fig, 5 is a plan view of the modiñedform of the
studs are parallel with the injector in an axial
invention shown _in Fig, 4;
direction, axial expansion and contraction of the
Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken on line 6-»6 »of
securing means and the injector will be com
Fig. `5;
pensated for under all engine heat conditionsso
Fig. 7 is another sectional View taken on line
that a tight ~iit of the injector against the head
'l-l of Fig. 5 .
engine with the Cowling ring removed;
Fig. 2 is a sectional view taken on line 2-2 of
The invention is shown associated with one cyl
inder of van engine having a cylinder block I0 _ter
minating in a ñanged end 9 on which a head
structure II is seated. In Figs. l to 3 inclusive,
this cylinder head structure is cast as an integral
unit and in Figs. 4 to '7, inclusive, the cylinder
head is a .sectional structure comprising a central
wall seat is maintained.
,
The major vportion of the `injector lies With-ill
the engine head well in :order to reduce the over
all diameter of the engine taken axially through
cylinders, and some form of ¿cooling System for the
injector portion within the Well Ais desirable to
lower the injector v_temperature and .the head
‘ Structure temperature under engine operating
2,406,446
3
4
and .is bent downwardly and inwardly to prevent
conditions. In the illustrated forms of the inven
tion, deiiector means is associated with the head
structure to direct streams of air into and through
the Well. In this connection a plurality of radial
ly extending fins 25 are thermally associated with
the outer face of the end wall of the head struc
ture. In Figs. 1 to 3 inclusive, these fins are cast
integral with the Vhead structure while with the
cylinder shown 'in'Figs 4 to 7 the fins are formed
air from moving into the well through the space
between the collar' and the top of the cylinder
head structure and to also provide a collecting
means for air entering the well and a guiding
means for air leaving thejwell. Fitted over the
collar member 28 and secured in such relation by
the studs I2 and 33’ is a cover member 35 that
encloses the injector and guides air downwardly
of sheet metal and are fixed in grooves formed 10 through the collar member from which it passes
v into the bottom of the well. The cover rests on
in the central section of the head structure. In
spacers 34’ that are seated on the funnel and
Fig. 3 the fins extend from adjacent the injector
to the periphery of Ythecylinder head but ter
minate in the well a desired distance above the
bottom thereof. In the form of cylinder shown in
Figs. 1 to 3, inclusive, the iins are of varying
length in a radial direction and some of them are
formed with curved ends as indicated at 25, the
15
telescope the studs I2. The rear section of this
cover is closed upon the funnel while the forward
portion of the cover has an extension 35 that
flares upwardly and forms a mouth 3l for the
cooling air.
II‘his flared mouth portion of the
coverv overlies the extension closure portion 34 of .
the funnel.
curved portions extending in directions to act as ~
The direction of air iiowV into and out of the*`V
scoops for guiding air into the well. Semi-circu 20
well
is shown by arrows in Figs. 5 and 6 of the
lar fins 21 project from the bottom of thewell in
drawings. -Air >enters the space between the fun
a'directiori fore and aft of thev engine and beneath
nel and cover through the forwardly extending Y
the‘lowe'r extremity of the portions of the fins 25
mouth 31 and it vpasses Ydown through the funnel, f
projecting into the well. In the modified form of
absorbing heat from the nozzle and the securing
the invention the Vfins 25 are associated only with 25
means, and into the bottom of the well from which
the inner section ofthe head and terminate short
it iiows in streams through paths `formed by the'
of the applied ring 8.
Y
iins25, the funnel 28 and the wall forming the
'I‘he deflector means is associated with the cyl
well. AirA in travelling oîut of the well passes rear-V
inder head and fins 25 in a` relation to provide
into the funnel 28 and into the well from
paths through which air must flow into and out 30 wardly
which it’flows outwardly through the open ends
of the well to absorb heatfromV the head structure,
of the shield 34 or through the space betweenthej
the injector and the injector securing means.
funnel andthe cylinder head.`
In both forms of the invention air circulationY
This deflector means, as shown in- Fig. 3, is in the
form of a sheet metal collar or funnel 2B formed
to surround the'upper portion of the injector il 35 through the well in the 'head of the cylinderis
controlled in the direction of its flow andv will abr-ï .
`and similar in shape to the upper inner terminals
sorb heat from the injector, the injector securing
of theñns 25. This funnel is seated against the
means and the head of the cylinder. Inthis man-'
fins and projects a short distance into the well
ner temperature is reduced during» operation y of
so that air will be deflected between the front hns,
the engine so that the engine eñìciency is there-VY
into the forward portion of the well, across the 40 by improved. The injector securing means is
well and then outA of the well from between the
such that a tight joint between the injector and
rear ñns. In other words, this funnel 23 forms ‘a
the cylinder head will be maintained under all>
closure for the top and a portionof the inner ter
, minals of the fins that will deflect the airrthere
engine operating conditions.
V .
ciples involved are susceptible of numerous other
arranged in fore and aft direction to assist in
guiding the air from the front to the rear of the
applications which will readily occur to persons'V
skilled in the art. The invention is therefore to
well and they also serve as cooling means for the
y head'wall. The portion of the nozzle in the well
be limited only as indicated by the scope of the
appended claims.
beneath the collar 28 can be provided with suit
What is claimed is:
. able cooling ñns'29 in the path’ of air travel.
These< fins asshown in Fig. 3 extend radially while
in Fig. 6 they extend axially of the injector. A
gasket 38 is arranged between the outer flanged
end 3| >of the collar and engine cowl 32 and suit
„
Although the invention has been Vdescribed in
connection with a specific embodiment, the prin-`
V beneath into the forward part of the well and out
of the rear portion of the well. The fins 21 are
Í 1 .
.
1. In an engine, a cylinder head having a well
(extending inwardly thereof in an axial direction, Y
a plurality ’of ñns extending 'radiallyr in the
well andV ñxed to the head, said fins projecting__
outwardly Yof the well beyond the outer wall `ofA
able means can be utilized to removably secure
the head, a collarV projectingpart way-into the
the collar and cowl together. With this form of
well and contacting the inner edges ofthe Ífins,
the invention, air will flow across the head struc
ture in streams defined by the twoV fins, the collar GO said collar having a flared-- outer end seated
against the edges of the ñns projecting beyondV
and the cylinder head structure.
`
the head, the forward portion of the> flared outerl
In the form ofthe invention shown in Figs. 4
end of the collar extending beyond thefperiphery,
to 7,vinclusive,'a collar member 23, similar gen
of the head and bent downwardly below the por
Íerally to that Vjust referred to, is employed but it
:projects further into the well and is considerably 63 tions of the fins projecting beyond the cylinder.
head, a fuel injection nozzle fixed in the well- and '
spaced from the injector. In this instance the
projecting _into and in spaced relation with the.
collar member fits against inner and upper edge
collar, and a cover enclosing the ñared end of the
portions of the ñns 25 but continues'outwardly of
collar, said cover having a forward portion spaced.
«the AWell'to the outer edgeof the head where it
above the collar to form an air inlet mouth there
_ is yanchored on the studs l2 and rests on nuts 9’.
Spacer elements 33 are arranged between the nuts
9’A and the collar and the collar is secured by
nuts _33' .threaded on the ends of the studs. A
forward half of this collar has an extension shield
34 that projects outwardly from the cylinder head
55
.
between.
2. In an engine, a cylinder head having a wellf
extending inwardly thereof in an axialV direction,V
a plurality of radially extending fins inthe well,r
' fixed to the head, lsaid fins projecting outwardly'
2,406,446
’ 5
of the well beyond the outer wall of the head, a
`in the well and projecting into and in spaced rela
collar projecting part Way into the »Well and con
tion with the collar, and a cover enclosing the
tacting the inner edges»kk of the fins, said collar
lrear portion of the end of the collar/and having
having a flared outer end seated against the edges
of the ñns projecting beyond the head, the for Ul a mouth above the forward portion of the collar
through which outside air flows to the interior" of
ward portion of the flared collar end being ex
the collar.r
tended downwardly beyondthe end of the cylin
der head to shield the space rearwardly thereof, '
a fuel injection nozzle ñxed in the Well and pro
4. In an engine, a cylinder head having a well v
extending'inwardly thereof in an axial direction,
a plurality of radially extending fins in the Well
jecting into and in spaced relation with the collar, 10 ñxed
to the head, said ñns projecting outwardly
of the well beyond the outer end wall of the head,
a sheet metal collar projecting part Way into the
ward end through which air passes into the col
Well and contacting the inner edges of the fins,
lar.
c
said
collar having the outer end flared and seated
3. In an engine, a cylinder head having a well 15
against
the edges of the ñns projecting Vbeyond
extending inwardly thereof in an axial direction,
the head, the forward half of said flared end of
a plurality cf radially extending fins in the well
the collar extending beyond the cylinder headI
fixed to the head, said fins projecting outwardly
and` bent downwardly to shield the space rear
of the well beyond the outer wall of the head, the
forward portion of the’ñared collar'end extend 20 wardly thereof to prevent the entry of outside
air into such space, a fuel injection nozzle fixed
ing downwardly beyond the end of the cylinder
in the well and projecting into and in spaced
head to shield the space rearwardly thereof from
relation with the collar, and a cover fixed over the
the entrance of outside air, a collar projecting
collar having the forward portion thereof spaced
part Way into the well and contacting’the inner
edges of the ñns, said collar having a ñared outer 25 above the collar to form an inlet mouth through
which air passes into the interior of the collar.
end seated against the edges of the ñns project
ing beyond the head, a fuel injection nozzle fixed
and a cover on the flared end of the collar having
a portion forming an air inlet mouth at its for
MARSDEN WARE.
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