Патент USA US2406446код для вставки
Aug. 27, 1946. M. WARE 2,406,446 _ INTERNAL-COMBÚSTION ENGINE Filed Feb. 26. 1940 2 Shefets-Sheet 1 .è @lâ KTM ...è4 l2 l ' Fig. 4. ` „f BY INVENTOR Marsden Wäre, v 7M' - ATTìoRNEY; ` \. ' _ -Aug.27,1946.-4 - M. `WARE ‘ y 2,406,446 INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed Feb. 26,` 1940 2 sheets~she§t 2 avg ` I?, pig@ I/ _ ~ nvvENToR. Marsden were ATTORNEYS' Patented Aug. 27, 1946 2,406,446 UNITED STATES PATENT oFFicE >2,406,446 l ÍNTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE Marsden Ware, Huntin gwn Woods, Michl, as 1 signor to Packard Motor Car Company, De: -troit, Mich., a corporation of Michigan Application February 26, 1940, vSerial No. 320,798 4 Claims. (Cl. 123.-,171) This invention relates to engines and more pars ticularly to engines of the fuel injection type. Fuel injectors are usually arranged to extend through a Wall of engine cylinders in order that 2 portion formed of material such as aluminum and a ring 8 formed of steel or similar material that is threaded interiorly and screwed upon the inner section. The provision of a steel ring reinforces the fuel can be sprayed into air charges in the the head structure so that it is capable of With combustion chambers. Heat, resulting from com# standing greater loads than when the strutcure is pression of the air charges in the cylinders >and formed entirely of aluminum. The head 4struc from combustion, Will cause the injectors and taure in both forms of the invention is secured to their securing means to expand even though a the cylinder iiange 9 by meansof studs I2 screwed cooling system is employed. The injector is usu into the cylinder flange and nuts 9' that are ally clamped tightly against a cylinder wall and screwed on the outer ends of studs.v The head temperature changes act to loosen the engage structure and cylinder sho-Wn in Figs. l. to 3, in ment of the injector with the cylinder Wall due to clusive, are each provided with a plurality oi cir differences in the coeilicient of expansion of the cumferential cooling fins I.3 and similar fins can injectors and their securing means. When the be provided on the cylinder shown in Figs,V ‘l to 7, injectors become loose there will be leakage from inclusive, if desired. A conventional piston ,I4 is the cylinders thus reducing compression pressure arranged in the usual manner Within the cylinder and allowing escape of at least a portion of the and has a depressed rend that cooperates With the fuel and air charges. end of the cylinder head to form >a combustion An object of the invention is to improve the op 20 chamber I 5. eration of engines by providing an air system for An opening _IS _extends >through the central por efficiently cooling fuel injectors, their securing tion of the head Wall and is similar in form` to the means and the heads of the cylinders with which outlet end of a fuel injector l1 that eXterldS there they are associated. The opening has a conical wall portion A further lobject of the invention is to improve 25 through, I3 against which the injector shoulder I9 seats the operation of an injection »type of engine by and- seals. The head Wall is also formed with a. the provision of deflector means for directing air central well 20 through which the nozzle >ex-Y in streams over the major portion of the ¿cylinder tends, and a .pai-r of bosses 2| projects from the heads and the injectors secured thereto. head Wallat the bottom 0f the well a desired dis Other objects of the invention will appear frem Si) tance into the well and is oppositely disposed ad the following description taken in connection with the drawings, which form a part of the speciiica tion, and in which: . Fig. 1 is a top plan view of one cylinder of an jacent the injector. The injectoris formed 'with :a pair of apertured flanges 22 arranged t0 align with the bosses yin the Well. The apertures in the flanges receive „studs '23 which Vare suitably an. chored in the bosses and nuts 24 are applied to the studs to tightly clamp the `injector shouldersY Fig. 3; _ I9 against the seat I 8 in the head wall. The studs Fig. 3 is a sectional view of the cylinder .and air are formed of material that will compensa-te for deñector structure taken on line 3_3 vof Fig. 2; difference in expansion caused by temperature Fig. 4 is an elevational view of the head end it' differences of the studs and injectors, and in the of a cylinder having a modified `form of air de present instance they have substantially the same flector means; coenicient of vexpansion as the injector. As the Fig, 5 is a plan view of the modiñedform of the studs are parallel with the injector in an axial invention shown _in Fig, 4; direction, axial expansion and contraction of the Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken on line 6-»6 »of securing means and the injector will be com Fig. `5; pensated for under all engine heat conditionsso Fig. 7 is another sectional View taken on line that a tight ~iit of the injector against the head 'l-l of Fig. 5 . engine with the Cowling ring removed; Fig. 2 is a sectional view taken on line 2-2 of The invention is shown associated with one cyl inder of van engine having a cylinder block I0 _ter minating in a ñanged end 9 on which a head structure II is seated. In Figs. l to 3 inclusive, this cylinder head structure is cast as an integral unit and in Figs. 4 to '7, inclusive, the cylinder head is a .sectional structure comprising a central wall seat is maintained. , The major vportion of the `injector lies With-ill the engine head well in :order to reduce the over all diameter of the engine taken axially through cylinders, and some form of ¿cooling System for the injector portion within the Well Ais desirable to lower the injector v_temperature and .the head ‘ Structure temperature under engine operating 2,406,446 3 4 and .is bent downwardly and inwardly to prevent conditions. In the illustrated forms of the inven tion, deiiector means is associated with the head structure to direct streams of air into and through the Well. In this connection a plurality of radial ly extending fins 25 are thermally associated with the outer face of the end wall of the head struc ture. In Figs. 1 to 3 inclusive, these fins are cast integral with the Vhead structure while with the cylinder shown 'in'Figs 4 to 7 the fins are formed air from moving into the well through the space between the collar' and the top of the cylinder head structure and to also provide a collecting means for air entering the well and a guiding means for air leaving thejwell. Fitted over the collar member 28 and secured in such relation by the studs I2 and 33’ is a cover member 35 that encloses the injector and guides air downwardly of sheet metal and are fixed in grooves formed 10 through the collar member from which it passes v into the bottom of the well. The cover rests on in the central section of the head structure. In spacers 34’ that are seated on the funnel and Fig. 3 the fins extend from adjacent the injector to the periphery of Ythecylinder head but ter minate in the well a desired distance above the bottom thereof. In the form of cylinder shown in Figs. 1 to 3, inclusive, the iins are of varying length in a radial direction and some of them are formed with curved ends as indicated at 25, the 15 telescope the studs I2. The rear section of this cover is closed upon the funnel while the forward portion of the cover has an extension 35 that flares upwardly and forms a mouth 3l for the cooling air. II‘his flared mouth portion of the coverv overlies the extension closure portion 34 of . the funnel. curved portions extending in directions to act as ~ The direction of air iiowV into and out of the*`V scoops for guiding air into the well. Semi-circu 20 well is shown by arrows in Figs. 5 and 6 of the lar fins 21 project from the bottom of thewell in drawings. -Air >enters the space between the fun a'directiori fore and aft of thev engine and beneath nel and cover through the forwardly extending Y the‘lowe'r extremity of the portions of the fins 25 mouth 31 and it vpasses Ydown through the funnel, f projecting into the well. In the modified form of absorbing heat from the nozzle and the securing the invention the Vfins 25 are associated only with 25 means, and into the bottom of the well from which the inner section ofthe head and terminate short it iiows in streams through paths `formed by the' of the applied ring 8. Y iins25, the funnel 28 and the wall forming the 'I‘he deflector means is associated with the cyl well. AirA in travelling oîut of the well passes rear-V inder head and fins 25 in a` relation to provide into the funnel 28 and into the well from paths through which air must flow into and out 30 wardly which it’flows outwardly through the open ends of the well to absorb heatfromV the head structure, of the shield 34 or through the space betweenthej the injector and the injector securing means. funnel andthe cylinder head.` In both forms of the invention air circulationY This deflector means, as shown in- Fig. 3, is in the form of a sheet metal collar or funnel 2B formed to surround the'upper portion of the injector il 35 through the well in the 'head of the cylinderis controlled in the direction of its flow andv will abr-ï . `and similar in shape to the upper inner terminals sorb heat from the injector, the injector securing of theñns 25. This funnel is seated against the means and the head of the cylinder. Inthis man-' fins and projects a short distance into the well ner temperature is reduced during» operation y of so that air will be deflected between the front hns, the engine so that the engine eñìciency is there-VY into the forward portion of the well, across the 40 by improved. The injector securing means is well and then outA of the well from between the such that a tight joint between the injector and rear ñns. In other words, this funnel 23 forms ‘a the cylinder head will be maintained under all> closure for the top and a portionof the inner ter , minals of the fins that will deflect the airrthere engine operating conditions. V . ciples involved are susceptible of numerous other arranged in fore and aft direction to assist in guiding the air from the front to the rear of the applications which will readily occur to persons'V skilled in the art. The invention is therefore to well and they also serve as cooling means for the y head'wall. The portion of the nozzle in the well be limited only as indicated by the scope of the appended claims. beneath the collar 28 can be provided with suit What is claimed is: . able cooling ñns'29 in the path’ of air travel. These< fins asshown in Fig. 3 extend radially while in Fig. 6 they extend axially of the injector. A gasket 38 is arranged between the outer flanged end 3| >of the collar and engine cowl 32 and suit „ Although the invention has been Vdescribed in connection with a specific embodiment, the prin-` V beneath into the forward part of the well and out of the rear portion of the well. The fins 21 are Í 1 . . 1. In an engine, a cylinder head having a well (extending inwardly thereof in an axial direction, Y a plurality ’of ñns extending 'radiallyr in the well andV ñxed to the head, said fins projecting__ outwardly Yof the well beyond the outer wall `ofA able means can be utilized to removably secure the head, a collarV projectingpart way-into the the collar and cowl together. With this form of well and contacting the inner edges ofthe Ífins, the invention, air will flow across the head struc ture in streams defined by the twoV fins, the collar GO said collar having a flared-- outer end seated against the edges of the ñns projecting beyondV and the cylinder head structure. ` the head, the forward portion of the> flared outerl In the form ofthe invention shown in Figs. 4 end of the collar extending beyond thefperiphery, to 7,vinclusive,'a collar member 23, similar gen of the head and bent downwardly below the por Íerally to that Vjust referred to, is employed but it :projects further into the well and is considerably 63 tions of the fins projecting beyond the cylinder. head, a fuel injection nozzle fixed in the well- and ' spaced from the injector. In this instance the projecting _into and in spaced relation with the. collar member fits against inner and upper edge collar, and a cover enclosing the ñared end of the portions of the ñns 25 but continues'outwardly of collar, said cover having a forward portion spaced. «the AWell'to the outer edgeof the head where it above the collar to form an air inlet mouth there _ is yanchored on the studs l2 and rests on nuts 9’. Spacer elements 33 are arranged between the nuts 9’A and the collar and the collar is secured by nuts _33' .threaded on the ends of the studs. A forward half of this collar has an extension shield 34 that projects outwardly from the cylinder head 55 . between. 2. In an engine, a cylinder head having a wellf extending inwardly thereof in an axialV direction,V a plurality of radially extending fins inthe well,r ' fixed to the head, lsaid fins projecting outwardly' 2,406,446 ’ 5 of the well beyond the outer wall of the head, a `in the well and projecting into and in spaced rela collar projecting part Way into the »Well and con tion with the collar, and a cover enclosing the tacting the inner edges»kk of the fins, said collar lrear portion of the end of the collar/and having having a flared outer end seated against the edges of the ñns projecting beyond the head, the for Ul a mouth above the forward portion of the collar through which outside air flows to the interior" of ward portion of the flared collar end being ex the collar.r tended downwardly beyondthe end of the cylin der head to shield the space rearwardly thereof, ' a fuel injection nozzle ñxed in the Well and pro 4. In an engine, a cylinder head having a well v extending'inwardly thereof in an axial direction, a plurality of radially extending fins in the Well jecting into and in spaced relation with the collar, 10 ñxed to the head, said ñns projecting outwardly of the well beyond the outer end wall of the head, a sheet metal collar projecting part Way into the ward end through which air passes into the col Well and contacting the inner edges of the fins, lar. c said collar having the outer end flared and seated 3. In an engine, a cylinder head having a well 15 against the edges of the ñns projecting Vbeyond extending inwardly thereof in an axial direction, the head, the forward half of said flared end of a plurality cf radially extending fins in the well the collar extending beyond the cylinder headI fixed to the head, said fins projecting outwardly and` bent downwardly to shield the space rear of the well beyond the outer wall of the head, the forward portion of the’ñared collar'end extend 20 wardly thereof to prevent the entry of outside air into such space, a fuel injection nozzle fixed ing downwardly beyond the end of the cylinder in the well and projecting into and in spaced head to shield the space rearwardly thereof from relation with the collar, and a cover fixed over the the entrance of outside air, a collar projecting collar having the forward portion thereof spaced part Way into the well and contacting’the inner edges of the ñns, said collar having a ñared outer 25 above the collar to form an inlet mouth through which air passes into the interior of the collar. end seated against the edges of the ñns project ing beyond the head, a fuel injection nozzle fixed and a cover on the flared end of the collar having a portion forming an air inlet mouth at its for MARSDEN WARE.