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Патент USA US2406449

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Aug. 27,- 1946. '
2,406,449
C. C. WHITTAKER
swITcHING APPARATUS
Fil'ed June 29, 1944
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Patented Aug. 27, 1946
2,405,449
UNITED STATES PATENT CFFICE
2,406,449
S‘WITCHIN G APPARATUS
Charles C. Whittaker, Pittsburgh, Pa., assignor to
Westinghouse Electric Corporation, East Pitts
burgh, Pa., a corporation'of Pennsylvania
Application June 29, 1944, Serial No. 542,735
5 Claims.
l
(Cl. ZIM-51)'
2
My invention relates, generally, to switching
therefore, will not be described in detail in the
presentV application, An auxiliary or interlock
ing switch assembly >Ill of the usual type may be
apparatus and, more particularly, to switches of
the carbon-break type.
An object of my invention, generally stated, is
to provide a carbon-break switch which shall be
simple and eñicient in operation and. which may
un
be economically manufactured and installed.
A more speciñc object of my invention is to pro
vide a carbon-break switch which opens an elec
tric circuit in a multiple number of places simul
taneously.
Another object of my invention is to provide for
inserting a high resistance into an electric circuit
before it is opened by a carbon-break switch.
A further object of my invention is to provide
a carbon-break switch in which the carbon pile
is shunted from the circuit while the switch is
carrying current continuously.
Other objects of my invention will be explained
Jfully hereinafter or will he apparent to those
skilled in the art.
In accordance with one embodiment of my in
vention, certain of the carbon discs of a carbon
break switch are deñected to make contact at
their edges when pressure is applied along the 25
mounted on the cylinder l 2, as shown.
An insulator I 5 is connected to the external end
of the piston rod for the piston disposed in the
cylinder I2. A metal yoke IS is connected to the
insulator l5 by means of a bolt I1 and is therefore
actuated by the piston in the cylinder i12. A flat
metal plate I8 may be secured to the ends of the
yoke I6. The plate I8 is utilized to apply pres
sure to the carbon pile assembly II and also to
complete an electrical circuit to the carbon pile.
The yoke I5 is connected to a fixed terminal I9
by means of a flexible shunt 2U.
The carbon pile assembly II comprises a plu
rality of carbon plates or discs ZI and 22 and in
sulating spacing washers 23. A flat metal’end
plate 24 is provided at one end of the carbon discs,
and a iiat metal plate 25 is provided at the other
end. The carbon discs ZI and 22, the insulating
washers 23, and the metal plates 24 and 25 are
all slidably mounted on a glass rod 26 which in
turn is slidably mounted on a ñxed copper rod 2'1.
The copper rod 2i is supported at one end by an
angle bracket 28 and at the other end by an angle
bracket 29. The brackets 28 and 29 are secured
to the base l0. A terminal connection 3! is se
cured to the end of the copper rod 2l which is
longitudinal axis. As the pressure increases, vthe
resistance through the discs decreases, and ñ
nally the carbon pile is shunted from the circuit.
When the pressure is decreased, the ñrst move
ment reinserts the carbon pile into the circuit 30
mounted in the bracket 28, and the bracket 28 is
while still compressed. As the pile expands, the
electrically connected to the end plate 25 by
resistance increases greatly and then the discs
means of a flexible shunt 32. The other end of
separate simultaneously at a plurality of diiîer
the copper rod 2l may be silver tipped and is dis
ent places, thereby providing a multiple-break
posed to be engaged by the end ci’ the bolt I‘I
35 when the carbon pile is substantially fully com
For a fullerunderstanding of the nature and
pressed. The end of 'the bolt i'! may also be silver
objects of my invention, referencel may be had
tipped.
to the following detailed description, taken in
The carbon discs are compressed against a
conjunction with the accompanying drawing, in
spring
which is disposed between the end plate
which:
'25
and
the
bracket 28. The glass rod 26 is com
Figure 1 is a view, partially in elevation and
switch.
`
~
‘
partially in section, of a switch embodying my
invention.;
Fig. 2 is a view, in plan, of the switch shown in
Fig. l, portions being broken away for clarity, 45
and
‘
3 is an enlarged View, in section, of a por
tion of the carbon pile utilized in the switch.
Referring to the drawing. the structure shown
therein comprises a base I0 on which is mounted
a carbon pile assembly I I, an air cylinder I2, and
a magnet valve I3 for controlling the admis
sion of compressed air to the cylinder I2 in the
usual manner. The air cylinder I2 and magnet
valve I3 may be of the conventional type and,
pressed against a spring 34 which is disposed in
side of the spring 33 between a metal sleeve 35
at the end of the rod 26 and the bracket 23.
As illustrated more clearly in Fig. 3, the carbon
discs ZI are flat and each disc 22 is undercut
slightly on each side as shown. Furthermore. the
discs 2! are disposed in pairs with an insulating
washer
disposed between the discs of each pair.
Each pair of the dat discs 2! is disposed between
two of the undercut discs `22. Thus, when pres
sure is applied. on the discs, the wide portions of
the undercut discs engage the ilat discs 2 I, there
by causing each pair of discs 2l to be deflected to
ward each other to make contact at their outer
edges since their central portions are kept apart
2,406,449
3
by the spacingr washers 23. As the pressure in
creases, the action is similar to that in the ordi
nary carbon pile resistor where the resistance de
creases as the pressure increases.
Assuming that it is desired to close the switch,
the magnet valve I3 is energized to admit air to
the cylinder I2, thereby causing the yoke I6 to
press the plate I8 against the end plate 24. When
4
bodiments of the invention may be made without
departing from the spirit and scope thereof, it is
intended that all matter contained in the fore
going description or shown in the accompanying
drawing shall be interpreted as illustrative and
not in a limiting sense.
I claim as my invention:
1. In an electric switch, in combination, a car
bon pile having a plurality of undercut carbon
the edges of the carbon discs 2| make Contact,
discs and a plurality of pairs of ilat carbon discs
l0
as described hereinbeiore, the electrical circuit
disposed to make contact at their edges when
is established through the carbon pile which at
compressed together to establish an electric cir
this time has a relatively high resistance. As the
cuit through the switch, each pair of ilat discs
pressure on the carbon pile is increased, the re~
being disposed between two of the undercut discs,
sistance is gradually decreased until finally the
and spacing means disposed between certain of
contact member I1 engages the end> of the copper
said discs to cause them to be deflected toward
rod 21. At this time, the switch is entirely closed,
each other when compressed axially, said spacing
and the electrical circuit extends from the ter
means having a smaller diameter than said discs.
minal I9 through the shunt 20, the yoke I6, the
2. In an electric switch, in combination, a car
contact member I1, the copper rod 21, and the
bon pile comp-rising a plurality of undercut car
terminal 3l` Under this condition, the carbon 20 bon discs and a plurality of pairs of flat carbon
pile is shunted from the electrical circuit. In this
discs, the discs of each pair of iiat discs being
manner there are no losses in the carbon pile
disposed between two of, the. undercut discs to
while the switch is carrying current continu
make contact at their edges when compressed to
ously.
When it is desired to open the switch, the mag 25 gether to establish an electric circuit through the
switch, and a spacing washer disposed between
net valve I3y is deenergized to exhaust the air
the discs of each pair to cause them to be de
from the cylinder I2, thereby releasing the pres
flected toward each other when compressed axi
sure on the carbon pile. The ñrst movement of
ally, said spacing washer having a smaller di
the yoke I6 to the left opens the circuit through
the contact member I1 and the rod 21, thereby in 30 ameter than said discs.
3. In an electric switch, in combination, a
serting the carbon pile into the circuit while
carbon pile comprising a plurality of pairs of flat
substantially fully compressed.
carbon discs and a plurality of undercut discs,
As the pressure, is removed, and the carbon pile
the discs of each pair of flat discs being disposed
expands, the resistance increases gradually until
to make contact at their edges when compressed
finally all of the carbon discs 2l separate simul
together between two of the undercut discs to
taneously, thereby interrupting the electrical cir
establish an electric circuit through the switch,
cuit at a multiple number of places. Since, as
and means for compressing the carbon pile axi
explained hereinbefore, the flat discs 2I make
ally.
contact at their outside edges and also break
4. In an electric switch, in combination, a car
contact at the same place, any arcs caused by
bon pile comprising a plurality of pairs of ilat
interrupting the circuit are at the outside pe
carbon dises and a plurality of undercut discs,
riphery of the carbon pile. When the switch is
the discs of each pair of flat discs being disposed
fully opened, a wide gap exists in the electrical
to make Contact at their edges when compressed
circuit between the contact member I1 and the
together between two of the undercut discs to
end of the copper rod 21.
establish an electric circuit through the switch,
From the foregoing description, it is apparent
a spacing washer disposed between the discs of
that I have provided a carbon-break switch which
each
pair of flat discs, and means for compressing
inserts a very high resistance into an electrical
the carbon pile axially.
circuit when the circuit is opened, thereby reduc
5. In an electric switch, in combination, a car
ing the current to almost zero and then open 450
bon pile comprising a plurality of pairs of flat
ing the circuit in a multiple number of places
carbon discsl and a plurality of undercut discs,
simultaneously. It is evident that the switch
a spacing washer between the discs of each pair
herein described has numerous applications in
of flat dises, and means for compressing the discs
the electrical field, such as, for example, in the
of each pair of flat discs between two of the un
control of electrically propelled vehicles, particu
dercut discs against said washer to make contact
larly those operating in mines where it is desir~
at their edges to establish an electric circuit
able to avoid the drawing of arcs during the
through the switch, said spacing washer having
opening of an electric circuit.
asmaller diameter than said discs.
Since numerous changes may be made in the
CHARLES C. WHITTAKER.
above-described construction, and diiîerent em 60
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