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Патент USA US2406478

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Aug. 27, ‘1946.
-
R. E. SNYDER
'
2,406,478
DUCTILE TUBING CONNECTOR
Filed March 15, 1943
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FOBERT ESNYDER
_
ATTORNEY _
I
Patented Aug. 27, 1946
2,406,478
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,406,478
DUCTILE TUBING CONNECTOR
Robert E. Snyder, Pasadena, Calif.
. Application March 15, 1943, Serial No. 479,247
1
3 Claims. (01. 285--90)
2
This invention relates to pipe joints or cou
plings, and more particularly to couplings of the
material under consideration (Eshbach). Thus
type used to interconnect ?exible or yielding pipe
fering individual stiffnesses, the “resistanceto
through the expedient vof a thimble or ferrule
freely revoluble upon one of the tubes to beinter
connected and adapted to be engaged upon the
inatrain of directly connected members of dif
deformation” or the “restoring force per unit dis
placement” will vary from member to member.
The general rule seems to hold that under vi
other by means of screw threads formed on the
brational or cyclical stresses, stress concentra
thimble and thus join the two tubes in a leak
tions will be produced in the train at all junc
proof connection having su?icient strength to
tures
of members of differing stiffnesses.
meet commercial requirements.‘
.10
In .a tube subjected to repeated ?exure, either
In particular, the invention is concerned with
cyclical or otherwise, each unit particle of the
the provision of auxiliary resilient means in con
material of whichv the tube is composed, is sub
junction With a tubing connector for yieldingly
supporting the tubing adjacent its point of entry
into the connector.
The auxiliary means forms '
a contracted throat of smaller size than the tub
ing which may be expanded to ?t the size of
the tubing through spreading of the parts of the
auxiliary structure. The present application is a
continuation-in-part of my earlier pending ap
plication, Serial No. 326,699, ?led March 29, 1940,
and in addition to embodying the features of
jected alternately to tension and compression
stresses, thisaction being most pronounced near
the outer surface of the tube. The particles are,
therefore, alternately pulled apart and pressed
toward each other, and, as such action continues, .
they become displaced with reference to each
other within the‘structure of the material, and
gradually produce a surface “waviness” on the
tube. These waves usually appear on circumfer
ential arcs about the tube, and continued ?exure
tends to deepen the wave troughs until ?ssures
occur at the bottoms of the troughs, which ?s
cross-sectional contour of the interior of the aux 725 sures gradually increase in length and width, ul
iliary structure in its contracted and expanded
timately uniting with other ?ssures, and a cir
positions in relation to the contour of the tubing.
cumferential plane of weakness begins to de
It is readily apparent that when couplings of
velop. The resultant decrease in stiffness of the
the type indicated are used to interconnect sec
tubing along this‘ plane causes a corresponding
tions of tubing, the cross-sectional area of the 30 increase in the stress concentration in the weak
couplings will be relatively great compared with
portion and further hastens the action. When
that of the tubing they serve to interconnect.
the
?ssure ?nally works, clear through the tube,
Furthermore, the connectors being of greater
the process of progressive failure is complete.
Y such prior application, the present invention in
corporates additional features ‘relating to the
diameter than the tubing on which they are
Any local corrosion may itself be the cause of a
mounted, they are materially stiffer than the tub (A; Q: ?ssure or may aid in deepening a ?ssure as the
ing. As a result, whenever such a line of tubing
oxide products created in the ?ssure act as a
is subjected to continued vibration of .?exure, or
wedge to deepen it still further under continued
both, very characteristic points of failure develop
?exure.
in the tubing. In general, these failures occur
As an example, when a brass coupling is at
very close to the juncture of the tubing and the
tached
to a ductile copper tube in accordance
coupling; the exact point of failure depending
with conventional practice, a construction is pre
upon the type of connector used, the type and
sented wherein a length of tubing consists of
physical uniformity of the tubing, the vibrational
portions immediately adjacent each other and of
frequency and amplitude, the ‘damping. means
different cross sectional area and hence possess
used, the unsupported length, of tube, and other
ing di?erent degrees of stiffness, the portion hav
variables. In the greater number of examples,
ing the lesser cross sectional area usually
v
being‘ '
the failure occurs less “than one diameter of‘ the
the
more
?exible
of
the
two.
‘It
is
well
known,
enclosed tube away from‘ the coupling or last
however, that whenever a member of such a char
point of support of the tubing by the coupling.
acter is subjected to repeated ?exure, a concen
Scienti?cally, the explanation may be made in 50 tration
of stress will be imposed upon the por-'
terms of stiffness. “Stiffness,” according to one
tion of lesser stiffness, immediately adjacent the‘
authority, is de?ned as “the resistance to defor
point of its last support by the sti?er of ‘the two
mation under stress,” or “the restoring force per
portions; This accounts for the well recognized
unit displacement,” wherein the deformation is
fact that the point of most probable failure of
presumed not to exceed. the elastic limit of the 55 a conventional ductile copper tube, such as those
2,406,478
to provide resilient means adapted to make sur-_
face-to-surface contact with the tubing adjacent
the coupling throughout substantially the entire
regularly employed as oil lines, fuel lines, and
compressed air’ conductors in many different types
of mechanical installations, is in the tubing por
tion of such a line immediately adjacent any of
the coupling thimbles._
'
An object of the present invention, therefore,
is the provision of a novel type of coupling means
for ductile tubing in which means are provided
circumference of the tubing, and preferably also
ch throughout an appreciable distance lengthwise
of the tubing. The resilient means will have a
normal contracted position in which‘ it forms a
threat for at least part of its length of lesser size
than the tubing, and from. such :position, the
for avoiding concentration of stressin the more
‘structure can be expanded to jlco'nforr‘n to the
flexible *of the wwe members which, otherwise
size of the tubing. The'throat will have a differ
ent contour in its contracted and expanded posi
"tions, and in order that the structure may make
would be present when such a conductor is sub
7 jected to repeat flexure.
A more detailed object in this connection is to
avoid the concentration of stress-referredftolby
‘surfa'celtoi'surface contact circumferentially with
“' the tubing the contour of the throat is deter
"min'ed'aiécofding to the. expanded position of the
providing means for distributingjstresswhich
inevitably occurs when ?exure "a: "thetubirig
occurs. Inasmuch as it is {out v'of the idue’sti‘c‘in, , Y V The invention possesses other objects and fea
to‘ prevent‘the development of such stress’, {my 7
tu're‘s'o'i ‘advantage, some of which, with the fore
present invention seeks to make the stress inn’o‘cé
going, will be set forthin the following descrip
uous insofar vvas damage to the tubing is con
tion of the'Ipteierred‘embodimentsioi my ‘inven
istructiire.
earned; and this can best ibe i'a'ccomplished lby
,
'
ition which larelilluls'trat'éd ii'n 7the-‘drawing accom
"effecting 3''‘the ‘distribution of ‘the -‘stress "over {a
{mat
én'gthpf th'eZtubin-g;1 and thus avoidfthe
‘6o
-tration ‘of-stress
a single point which
ipariyi‘rig ia‘ndlforining pants ith‘e speci?cation‘,
it is to ‘be understoodithat-"I “doinotdimitmyself
to 5the showing 1'made by ‘the ‘ said vdrawing E'a’nd
héreteforehas been the 5direct cause- "of failure 25 Idescriptionfasifmay adopt variations of thepr'e
'in' ‘ductile, 3~copper tubing “subject to ire'pe‘ated
<ferred embodimentswithin{the scope of my in
'?ékur‘e,
'
r
1
'
'
w,
vention ass-e1; ifo'rth inYthe ‘claims.
Referring toTth‘e drawing:
I
" 5A77furth'cr objectiof ’ the present inventiohlis-to
assure the‘ distribution ;of "stress referred to 3 by
"-viewi'of‘aiportion fiiac 'Tpl-in'g/membe'r having
extending thel‘efroin- in 1 continuous Contact ‘with
to? tta'in’-t1ie§results desired.’ Other manners of
5a “ reaching the Iprob‘lem andv providing 'lthe Ydis
.
Figure 1 is a Juneau-21mm, lme'dial sectional
'ineans'efia-yieldinglresiliént support forithe more
flexible lotwo portions 50f the conductor,
preferably i carried ‘by "the fstiifer ~‘o‘f the two land
'the :more *fléi'zible " member 1 in i’su‘ch 'a' ' manner ?as
'
:35
ttibiition » of "stress *by ‘means of "different #types
stress-'-"distributiio‘gE means embodying the princi
'>ples of the i~present i'iveiitio'n cooperatively dis
posed thereupon. -A I-portion of the "tube upon
which *the coupling ‘ime-ni-ber is intended to 'be
vpositioned is shown inipositi‘o'nito be thrustfthere
into; “and the ‘stress-"distributing elements viare
- ‘shown ‘in "the :vpos'itio'n‘s assumed ‘I thereby before
of 'fsupportli’o'r the 1less stiff ‘member, "form the
engagement upon vthe‘tube.
_
subject 'in'atter “of
‘United ‘States ‘Letters
40 ' Figure *2 iis'fa‘view vsimilar to ‘Fig. "1, ‘but show
Patent (No. 5252711502, issued January "27, 1942,
and No.52’,
l'Ahothéi‘
7S0,’ iSSlled Tk/[ai‘ch 7-16, 71943. ‘
cot Lof 31113’ invention is to (provide
means fe'sili'ently supporting thefin’ore ‘flexible
of ' the ‘ltwo lpoirtions Jof ~*the ‘*co‘n'ductor, which
ing th'e‘ipartsflih‘l'ithe respective ‘positions assumed
‘thereby when ‘the ‘tubing- ‘and * coupling "members
are disposed in -'asseinbled,'loperative ‘relation.
Figure '3 I is i an end-view of ‘the vi‘coupling imem
:45 ~ber'~tak'en" on 3the ‘ line ?3—‘-3To'f "Figure -1, but on: ‘a
'
~ '
' means
‘fare "carried 1by the J's'ti?e'r ‘member “and
somewhat P‘smaller ' scale.
'
engagefthe‘im'cre i?'eX-ible Fmeir‘nber in a‘rsli‘ding
engagement, Itheireby 'ie'nhanci‘n'g the degree of
?exibility-of vthe laissemble‘d‘ unit.
Figure '‘4 "is ‘a transverse section‘ taken ‘on the
line “4:4 ‘of-Figure '2.
='
Figure "5 1 is an ’ enlarged iinore lor ile's’s- diagram
I‘Anot‘n'er obj ect of ' my invention is the3 provision
mane explanatory .view‘tc' make clear the'lreas'on
of ~vstress-distilibuting lm'eans ‘for 1 use in conjunc ~50
tion "with ' the '- coupling for ductile imet'al ltubing
iii-the ‘manner indicated, which ‘ interferes" in: no
for vithe ‘circumferential vcurvature 'lof "'the ‘throat
in atheembo'diments ‘of “the invention shown iin
iriann‘er?w‘riat'soever with \ther'e?iciency ‘of the
coupling im'emb'er "as T's'u‘ch, --'does not add- mate
"Figures 1' tout; and?further-illustratingithe effect
of employing 1a 'diiierent'curvature‘ forlthethroat.
complicate'o‘r‘ makei'more fdi?ilcult the installation
tubingi'cou'pling'i'showing Piny improved 7st'rYe‘ss- '
; " Figure *6 I is Ta'i'half longitudinal 'sectionalview
rially ‘ to 1 its gTcostv of ‘manufacture, Sand does I not 55 ‘of ‘a’ conventiona1?’invertedi?aredv’i'typei o'fduc’tile
and/or'servi'cin'g 10f F‘the coupling "member.
\
A further object is the provision of means-"for
avoidingfc‘on‘centration of stress in "a ductile
metal‘ tubing ‘adj acentlth‘e‘ ‘couplings used in con
nectio'n'with: that‘ltubing, which :d'oes'not detract
materially = fromithafiex'ibility of the‘ tubing icon
vdistributing méansvifor‘me'd integrally ‘with “the
nut member a 'of the 1‘ coupling.
'
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r
ing \the "stressi‘disti'ibuti'ng means ‘formed upon
the nut memberofx'ai'coupling of: thei‘welléknown V
"compression” type)“
sidere'd‘as' a" whole.
'
' IFi'gure‘? ‘ is'ia‘vie'w similar-‘to Figured, but "show
.
'7 r
r
.
"
fFigure'g is aiview‘similar ‘to-Figure‘ 6, but'show
Yet-another object of=myiinventionisthe'pro- '
ing" :the stress-‘distributing "means formed ‘as 1a ‘
vision '- of .:means *‘for distributing ‘stress over ‘a 65
“standard
V'malterial ~length'of tubing adjacent'the coupling
used -'in connection with ‘that tubing, “whichi dis
tributing‘ means ‘ is constructed entirely? of ?r'e
proof ‘ jand heat-resistant’ materiaL? preferably ‘of
portion “of the'hut Ymeinb'er of the
?ared tube”-‘ty~'pe of coupling.
'
I
g
V
Figure-93s ianoth'er'view similar to Figure "6,
butshowing the‘st'ress'edistributin‘g means formed
as aiportion'of a nuttmember of axcoupli'rigfofthe ,
I the‘same materialas thatioffwhich' the‘coupling 70
member isfcons'tructed; and a‘dapte‘d't'o‘ lend itself
economically "to large-scale l'pro'duction lup‘on v'a
quantity basis by ‘automatic ‘machinery.
‘ 5
7' >In-'7addition to Y the ffo‘re'g'oih‘gf general ' objects
it i'sr'aifurther particular Jobje‘ct: of fm'yiinvention
‘icompression ring” =t-ype.
but Vs'ho'w'inglthe‘stres'sidi'stributiiig means formed -
as alp‘érpionio
ainuti‘me" ‘ 'b'é‘r ‘of f al coupling-‘of: the ‘
as'01carer-ring”i type.
. -
V
- ,
2,406,478
5
6
Figure 11 is another view similar to Figure 6,
butshowing the stress-distributing means formed
means {50 are the body part 5[ and the ?exible
a‘s'a part of a separate sleeve in a coupling of the
bore 52_‘therethrough. , The base. 65 of slots§59
.‘fcomp'ress'ion type.” 'L
’
'
U
f Figure 12 is another View similar to Figure 6,
but showing the stress-distributing means ofv the
present invention’ formed integrally with the
sleeve member of a'coupling of the “?ared tubef’
extensions '64 having the outwardly convergent
isoften referred to as the root" of ?exible exten
sionsl64. vTvheinatural resiliency of the material
of which the device is formed allows the ?exible
extensions’ 64 a certain amount of elastic radial
?exure. The exact number of slots is determined
by the desired degree of ?exibility of the ?exible
Figure 13 is another view'similar to Figure 6, 10 extensions 64 consonant with the thickness of the
but‘showing the stress-distributing means of the
tapered portion 55 as determined by internal
present invention formed integrally with the
taper 54 and external taper 53. It is apparent,
separable sleeve of a coupling of the “soldered
therefore, that by selecting the proper number
type.
'
'
‘
.
,ring” type.
of slots 59 for a stress-distributor of given thick
By referring ?rst to Figures 1 and 2, the par 16 ness wall, a nice balance may be assured for the
ticulars of the ?exible, stress-distributing means
several factors which contribute to the operation
bridging the juncture of a coupling and the tub
of the device.
'
ing to which it is attached will ?rst be described,
A circumferential lip 66 extends uniformly
‘after which the manner of application of the
around the outer ends of ?exible extensions 64
stress-distributing means ‘to different types of 20 and is cut by slots 59. The bore 52 extending
conventional coupling constructions will be illus
through the lip 65 is reamed out to present a
trated by several examples.
.
tapered throat?‘l at the extreme outer end of
The resilient, stress-distributing means of the
the ‘extensions 54. The maximum outside diam
present invention is indicated in its entirety at
eter of the tapered throat 67 is slightly greater
50, and comprises a body portion 5|, which, as
than the maximum inside diameter of the bore
will be described more fully hereinafter, prefer
52. inwardly from point 57 on said bore' so as to
ably constitutes a portion of the coupling with
facilitate assembling the device upon the end of
which the stress-distributing means is to co
tubing 58 with which it is intended to cooperate.
operate. Consequently, it is preferred that the
The tube 6.8 having an outside diameter‘a little
distributing means, be constructed of the same 30 less. than the maximum inside diameter of bore
material as that of which the remainder of the
52 can be placed in the tapered throat 61 in axial
coupling member by which it is carried is formed,
the principal requirement as far as selection of
the material is concerned, being that it possesses
alignment with the resilient means 50. Forcing
the tube 63 against the tapered face of the throat
67 causes the ?exible extensions 64 to be ?exed
a material degree of inherent resilience, inasmuch 35 radially outward due to their inherent elasticity
thereby allowing the tube 68 to enter into bore
52. The elasticity. of the inherently resilient ?ex
ible extensions 64 causes them to maintain close
structed will probably most frequently be brass,
circumferential engagement with the enclosed
as‘this is a feature contributing to the theory of
operation of my invention.‘ In most cases, there
fore‘, the material of which the device is con
inasmuch as that is the material commonly em;
ployed for the construction of couplings of the " '
type here under discussion, and this metal is alto
gether satisfactory for the purposes of the present
invention, having an ample degree of resilience
tube 68.v
‘
The external taper 53 and the internal taper 54
of the ?exible extension 64 are so designed in
view of the particular material used that'trusion
of the tube 68 into the bore 52 causes the ?exible
extensions to ?ex gradually over their- entire
length, i. e., not onlyat some one point. In
Figure 2 is shown the relative position of the
?exible extensions 64 and the tube 68 when the
tube has been forced into the bore 52. The in
to meet the requirements to be described here
inbelow.
There is a bore 52 completely through the re
silient means 50. From the body part 5! there
extends a portion 55 having two tapers, one on
the outside 53 and the other on the inside 54 in 50 ternally tapered portion 54 between points 51 and
the bore 52. The outside taper 53 graduates the
58 in the bore should contact tube 68 for substan
outside diameter of the tapered portion 55 from
tially the entire length 69 of the bore 52 between
some maximum value near the body part 5| to
the two said points. Optimum results are ob
some minimum value near the outer end of the
tained for tube support if this is so, but excellent
tapered portion 55 at point 56.
results are obtained if it is even partially so‘ sup
The inside taper 54 gradualy diminishes the
ported. The allowable variation of plus or minus
inside diameter of bore 52 from some maximum
0.002 inch in outside diameter of standard market
value at point 51 adjacent the body 50 on said
grades of tube 68 makes uniform contact only
bore to some minimum value away from body part
approximate. For greatest support good accu-_
5| at point 58 adjacent the outer end of the ta 60 racy must be maintained for tube outsidediam
pered portion 55. The tapered portion 55 is cut
eter and concentricity as related to bore 52.
by a plurality of longitudinal, radial slots 59 which , However, excellent results have been
obtained
extend from the extreme outer end of the tapered
with relatively loose ?ts.
‘
portion 55 for a material distance toward the body
The internal taper 54 between points 57 and
part 5|. The slots 59 may extend either to or 65 58 in the bore 52 is not necessarily straight but i
beyond the inward end of the outside taper 53
is usually increasingly convergent from point 51
into the body part 5| . The slots '59 preferably
to
point 58. The exact nature of this longitudinal
extend beyond the inward end 51 of the inside
curve between 51 and 58 is determined by several
taper 54 in the bore 52 for a material distance
factors, among them the resiliency of the ma
into the untapered part of the bore 52 inward of
terial used, the longitudinal shape of exterior
70
point 51 on said bore and into the body part 5!.
taper 53, the desired degree of ?exibility, etc.
‘ Between the slots 59 the split parts of the ta
pered portion 55 form ?exible extensions 64 which
are integral with and extend from the body part
Due to the circumferential curvature of ?exible
extensions 64 they are stiffer to radial ?exure
than they would be if they were ?at. However,‘
5l‘."- Thus the principal parts “of the ‘resilient 75 if ?at they make only tangential contact with
‘ascents
.
.
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‘7
V
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i8
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Because extensions“ are "contracted "in *‘their
_ tthe ‘enclosed ‘tube ’and ‘thus "do‘n‘ot’ofier "circum
‘normal "condition "as ' ‘shown ‘in’ ‘Figure ‘"1 ' and ‘re
*‘?éreritiall ‘support. Fsuch' types "also ‘cann‘otfbe
ma‘de *as'easily-‘on *a‘l'athe.‘ This "circumferential
curvature ‘further "influences the ‘longitudinal
"curvature of ‘internal "taper ‘5’4 v‘between points
‘:51 ‘andv 58. ‘Thegreater‘the‘circumferential angle
'o‘f’a‘g‘iven ‘flexible‘extension-thestiffer it vbecomes.
‘quire spreading when. tube ;68 ‘is inserted; bore
52 should be specially .shapedso‘as tlto conform
'to‘the‘ contourof ‘the ‘tubing in ‘the sprea'd'jposi
‘For "example, "in ' a ‘brass "coupling unit for 1a “3/;
'tion' of ‘the extensions. 'While it ‘might “beas
isumed vthat‘the ‘circumferential "contour "of ‘the
tapered throat‘portion ill-of ‘bore ’ 52‘ would be‘the
:inch ductile copper "tube having three ‘slots "in
‘the ‘resilient ‘means "for 'one type or ‘brass ‘the
*gers’shown'intFi'gure Tand‘in ‘the expande‘d‘posi
same in both the contracted .position of the 'T?n- ‘
‘ti‘on ‘thereof when ‘ithe ‘tubing is ‘inserted "as‘in
‘maximuminsi‘de diameter at 'point‘E'l was "ap
proximately "0.380 inch 'or “02005 "inch over-size,
‘and ‘the ‘minimum inside "diameter'at :‘point '58
was ‘appr0ximately’0E360 ‘inch or‘ O'DZO‘inch‘imder
‘size ‘(or about 0.010- inch "on ‘a side) . ‘The ‘longi
‘Figure'Z, this is "notlthe ‘case. Not ‘only the‘siz'e
but ' the‘ contour vof ‘the l‘throat'is changed‘in'cident
to spreading. If the throat is circular‘ in ‘contour
15
tudinal-curvature in ‘this case :is'very‘slight. In
a four slotted stress-distributor, the ‘curvature
might ‘be .‘greater for the same 'type ‘of 'brass.
"cular lin‘the otheri‘position.
‘Assuming that :the “tubing, as iordinarily "the
‘However, ‘with ‘different materials and ‘different
:52 ‘with acir‘cular contour‘ inv the contracted posi
tube "sizes different “values must ‘be used. In an
cases the number of ‘slots determines the'angular
tionof-the'?ngers 641s undesirablebecause‘upon
expansion of the sizeof the “bore upon'in'sertion
of the tubing the shape'of'the 'borewould‘become
'cfa'sefi‘s circular, the tapered jportion"64 of *bore
curvature " of both ‘longitudinal ‘and "circumferen
'nonecircular. This ' is ‘explained by’the” fact "that
tial ‘curves'o’f‘ the ?exible ‘extension. ‘The ‘greater
'the smaller‘ithe'size ‘of the bore‘the smaller‘the
the number of slots, the'ne'arer'an individual ?ex
of curvature. _ The greater the size ‘of a
ible‘ extension approaches‘ ?atness, and for a given 25 ' ‘radius
circle ' the larger :its radius of vcurvature ‘and the
‘external taper, "the 3 greater ‘must‘be the ‘internal
less abrupt ‘its ‘arc. Hence ‘the ‘contour of 1the
longitudinal ‘curve between points "51 “and '58 to
inner ‘surfaces 16f ?ngers ‘54'. niust‘loe‘for'med with
'afford'the same ‘support.
_
1
.the same 'radius'lo'f- curvature'as’the' tubing, which
“The shape "ofitheilon‘gitudinal ‘curve v511 between
‘points .51 and "58 vton "bore "52 ‘is "also ‘determined 30 is'to' sa'y .thattheib'o‘re collectively de?ned hyfthe
?ngers ‘must be determined by the radiusof the
‘by ‘the ‘desired ‘degree "of ' support ‘of the enclosed
bore in "the expanded position of‘the?ngers as
'tube'a'gainst "?exure. ‘It ‘has been thoroughly
shown in Figure ‘2.
'
a
1
veri?ed 'by "experiment‘that “to ‘attain the‘ longest
‘life . in ‘a ?uid conductor, .the graduation of : the
“In the explanatory‘view.of‘Figure 5, vthe Idotte'd
A ‘ing "the ‘ends “of the flexible .‘extensions ‘with va
‘theradius of curvature of the tubing. ‘It .will'b'e
observed‘ th'at'the ‘contour “of'?n'gers '6‘4' \in"Figure
stiffness’ along the conductorifrom ‘the ‘high’ value 35 inner "circle C’ ‘represents ‘the diameter of .the
smallest ‘portion ‘of the contracted bore ‘at point
‘in "the ‘coupling “down to“the lesser value in the
'53 ‘adjacent its ‘outer .end .as .seen ‘in 'Figure'l.
tubing should ‘be ias‘nea'rly uniform .asfpossible,
The largerlfull‘line circle Ca-representsthe ‘out
‘andsuch ‘graduationfshoul'd 'be‘spread ‘out over
sidecontourtoftubing 58 which'lis engage'd'bylthe
‘a‘s‘lon'g a'section'of "the‘less sti?'member'as is
‘?ngers
‘in ‘their ‘expanded ;position as , shown .. in
practical. Excessively long ?exible extensions 40
‘Figure '2. Ri'represerits‘the radius of curvature
‘do .not "support the ‘tube clear v‘out to ‘ the‘ tips .of
of the‘contracted borejportion,and R2 represents
‘the extensions. 'A"method'ofielastically"connect—
‘circular‘spring‘aroundthe'outerfends 6f the ex
'5 cionform'to‘the "arc of a circle "having a._ra'dius
tensions ‘inward ‘of the ‘lip "has “been ‘used with
's'ome'success. 'veryshort ?exible extensions‘can
‘not be made ?exible ‘enough ‘without’ using too
‘little‘metal-to ‘be practical. Each type of ‘ma
of curvature R1. Withsuchv an arrangementthe V
b‘o're?e?n’e‘d by theii?ngersiin their contracted
position would “be "circular, ’ but, as . shown“ inTFig
’ure"5, “the inner contour > of the ' respective 'i?ngers
. teriallseems to have 'a ‘different set of optimum
"presents ito‘o ‘abrupt an..arc when expanded to
values which differ-with di?erentfbore diameters.
'The circumferential ‘contour or "the contracted
‘portion oflb‘ore 52 fde?nedby the‘?exible'?rigers
6‘4‘is‘quite important. ‘Merep'ointor' line engage
merit ‘ofthe ?exible extension "6‘4 with the tubing
>6‘8'has been foundnot to "be satisfactory. "The
‘conform jtoithe contour of .the ‘tubing .with the ;
resultithat “merely .the i 1ongitudinaledges .of ‘the
?ngers tenga'ge"the . tubing. ‘It .is the intent of
I ‘the present invention 'to avoid suchresultlby
forming .thecontou'r of’the'?ngers with-them; .
dius'of ‘curvatureRg sothat circumferentially the
interior ‘surfaces or ‘the ‘?ngers will .each present
(‘contact ‘between-the extensions landlthetubing
should "be surface-to-sur'face .throughout the
‘arcs ‘conforming to'jportions of the circular con
"tour ‘of‘ithef tubing. ’ It‘ _will"be' noted that in-Fig
transverse 'width'of' the extensions so as tapro
videsupport 'for'thetubing substantially through
out‘its entire circumference. Itis not the intent
"of the linve'ntion‘to-secure a ‘biting ‘engagement
ure ‘3"with’the ?ngersin contracted ,po'sitionlthe
‘bore de?nedi ‘by"the"?ngers is ‘of non-circularcon
tourwhereas "when ‘the ‘?ngers are? ‘expanded .to
.
between the extensions'and-thetubing, but mere
ly a pressure contact through'the resiliency ofthe
‘receive the ‘tube‘as'iinlFigure ‘4'thereis fa .Tfiill ‘ '
surface=to+surface contact between lthe Z?ngers
‘andthe'tubin‘g ‘throughout the circumferential
extensions. Through‘ such arrangementthe‘ tub
ing ‘can be ‘freely"forced‘itnrough the- extensions ‘
'extent‘o'f theires‘pectivei?ngers.
into “the ‘connector ‘ and withdrawn ltheré‘from
'?'n'ge'rs'bli it is desirable-to expan'd'the ?ngers
of " the " smooth surface“ ‘fit ‘ the‘ tubing ‘and extén- _
sionsmay "?ex laterally “without ‘substantial in
crease in ‘ stiffness _.of“the ‘ tubing " because .of the
‘from their. normal contractedépo'sitionas shown
70 in- Figure 1 "to their (tube-engaging .position,<and
then .to ‘form the -.bore .b-yl-a drill of uniform: di
extensions. "Beca‘u'seythere is'in effect a‘bearing
contact betwee'nitl'ie extensions ariditubing. no re
strictioni'is imposed upon .relative ‘longitudinal
"sliding "movement ‘between such . parts'finciider-it
toflateral‘?exing.
'
"
r
I
’
'
'
, '
"Informing the "contracted bore de?ned‘ byl'the
- without'scarring *or'other'rnutilation, and because
ameter throughout. its length‘. rather than ~gvvithi-a
tapered drill. ».If _-the~-body.portion 5| provides
' arclosefit with‘sthetubingithessame.drillmay be
75
employed‘to form‘the'bore'52 throughout its en
2,406,478
10
tire length. If,'h'owever,lthe portion of the bore
in body portion 5| is somewhat'oversize with
adjacent the relatively stiff couplingstructure
that avoids the concentration ‘of stress within
the structure of the tubing which, when more
conventional coupling devices have been rem-L
ployed, results so quickly in the fracture of the
respect to the size of tubing 68 so as to provide
only aloose ?t, it is desirableto utilize a drill of
smaller size than such portion of the bore in
forming the bore portion through‘ the normally
convergent ?ngers 64, it being desirable that the
tubing.
By providing support for the tubing
result in line contact of the-edges of the fingers
with the tubing, too large a radius of curvature
dius of curvature than would be the case were
the resilient support herein describednotvproe
which’ diminishes gradually as the distancefrom
arc of curvature of the inner faces of the ?ngers
the coupling increases, I have caused whatever,
be the same as, ,or substantially so, the contour
of the tubing. It will be apparent, of course, 10 curvature may be imposed upon this portion of
the tubing to be developed about a greater ra-‘
that just as too small a radius of curvature will
vided, with a consequent elongation of the-por
for the contour of the ?ngers will cause the ?n
gers to engage the tubingmerely with'linecon
tact at some point of their circumferential exr-l
tent intermediate their edges.
.
.
~
-
I
tion of ‘the tubing wherein the curvature occurs.‘
This, of course, reduces the amount of curvature
occurring at any unit portion of vtheiitubing,
with the result that no portion of the tubing
'
Flexure or bending of the tube against the
?exible extensions causes these extensions to
has as much stress imposedthereupon, although‘
the total amount ofcurvature is vnot reduced. _
“give” slightly. This elastic‘ yielding of the re
The same is true with respect to vibration "to.
silient means is proportional to the degree of
which the tubing is subjected.
?exure within the limits of‘ the material form
ingthe resilient means. As in a spring leaf,
_
.. ;
.
,
Whether stress imposed upon the tubing and
of such a nature that it tends to causefracture
the tips of the ?exible extensions make a slid
of the tubing, is the result of ?exure orof- sus
tained vibration, or of a combination of these
able contact with the enclosed tube. This slip
between the ?exible extensions and the enclosed
tube makes for springy action not present if ‘the
two actions, the stress-distributing means of -
the present invention prevents concentration of
?exible extensions are in any way soldered or
that stress within such a short length of the tub
otherwise rigidly attached to the enclosed tube.
ing that serious strain and fracture thereof
would quickly re-sult—instead, my device causes
the stress to be distributed over a relatively great
length of the tubing, with a consequent reduction
in the amount of such stress imposed upon any
They carry the same yieldable support found in
an ordinary leaf spring which would also be rel
atively less useful if its leaves were soldered or
welded together. Thus the ?exible extensions
add support to the tube graduated outwardly
unitportion of the tubing.» It is apparent, there
fore, how the device of. the {present invention
serves to prolong the usefullife of- ductile tubing:
from the coupling without greatly adding to its,
initial stiffness. Because the circumferential
contour of the bore de?ned by the ?ngers cone
forms to the tubing as above explained, a smooth
With which it is associated.
'
One of the important features of- thepresent'
surface-to-surface contact is obtained between
the resilient ?ngers throughout their‘circumfer
invention is that it is applicable to any of the.
numerous types of coupling for ductile tubing.
commonly employed. However, in any case, and
Without regard to which type of coupling is em
ployed, the stress-distributing means 50 incorpo
64 is slightly less than the outside diameter‘ of > ‘ rated'therewith in accordance with the principles
of the present invention comprises the ?exible ‘
the tube, 68‘ which it is to receive, after-.thetube»
extensions or ?ngers 64 hereinabove described,
has been thrust into-the bore the‘extensions ex
carried by a body portion 5| and having acone.
ert pressure radially’ inwards against the‘ outer‘
vergently tapered bore 52 therethrough. The
circumferential wall of the‘ tube. The gradual
ential extent as well as throughout their length.
Due to the fact that the device is so constructed ‘
that before its engagement upon the tube 68 the
bore 52 at the outer end of the ?exible extensions :
several
decrease in thickness of the metal’constituting: 50
these extensions and the gradual increasein the‘
rate at which thediameter of the bore 52 de
creases as the distance from the body 5l' in
‘or extensions 64, is substantially evenly distrib
uted over the entire length of the tube with
couplings illustrated are
attempted to illustrate every possible‘ type ‘of’
coupling with which the device of the present in
vention can be incorporated advantageously, but
merely to illustrate the manner of its incorpora
tion with a few of the better known types of duc-.
creases preferably are so proportioned with re~
spect to each other, as well as with respect to. the .
particular material employed and the number of
slots 59 that the pressure exerted by the ?ngers,
individual
merely exemplary, inasmuch as it has notbeen
.
tile tubing couplings;
,
i
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p
_
~_
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I > v
In Figures 6 to 10, inclusive, the several types
of tubing couplings illustrated all embody'the re->
which the ?ngers make contact. Moreover, due CO 'silient-stress-distributing means 58 of my inven
tion as an integral part of a one-piece clamping
to the yielding nature of the pressure exerted by
the ?ngers 64, this substantially even distribution
of pressure is maintained, even after ?exure of
the tube has occurred to an extent which causes
displacement of one or more of the ?ngers from
the positions thereof indicated in Figure 2..
Therefore, whether the portion of the tube 68
embraced by the ?ngers 64 remains straight or
is bent after its insertion into the device, the ?n
gers 64 continue to give yielding support to the '70
tube, which support is substantially evenly dis
tributed throughout the entire length of the ?n
gers.
,
It is this evenly distributed support for a Ina-7"
“térial length of the ductile‘ tubing immediately‘
member which serves as the means for attaching
the tubing to the base part of the coupling.
Describing these various forms of couplings in
greater detail, Figure 6 illustrates a coupling of
the type known in the trade as the “inverted nut”
type, wherein the body portion 5| of my stress
distributing means is formed integrally with the
clamping ferrule ‘ill, the resilient extensions or
?ngers 64 extending from the outer end of the
ferrule.
'
The other end of the ferrule 10 is pro-.
vided with threads ll engageable with, interior
threads of the base part 12 ofthe coupling. The.
bore 13 of the ferrule is adapted to receive the
end of the tubing ‘M therein;v 'and‘the‘ inner end»
of the bore 13 is ?ared, permitting a similarly
12
LL
standard Vfl'ared tube type'wherein the interior
?ared portionflS on.the extreme endof the tub
means; in- ferrule" 90 "for ?aring and securing the
tubing end is similar to that in the‘ “internal
ing‘gto be‘ engaged‘between~ the ferrule‘ and‘fa com
j pl’ementarilycformed" conical“ protection", it’ on" the
nutmtypev ofjcouplingof’Figure 6;;- Figure g‘shows
‘ basapart't 12 whenv-the‘ferrul‘e, is tightened’ into
a standard‘, compression type incorporating ade
formable ring‘92 which is collapsediinwardlyupon
‘the tubing when ferrule: 91, is; tightened‘; and,
the base‘ part:._ Inthis manner,_ the end‘ of‘ the.
tubingis" rigidly‘ attached; to the coupling base
‘ partly'l'2 Withit‘s bore‘
registry and communi
cation with bore‘ ll" of the base part. It will be
I understood that" the outer end‘ (not shown). of
Figure; 10' shows’ a; standard: soldered tube“ type
wherein- a special"; ring 94 is- soldered‘ to the; end
_ of tubing% andt compressed between ferrule 96
and‘ coupling‘ base-part 91: In- all of these‘ cases
the ' base part‘ 12 ‘ will bethreaded, as convention.
ally, for’at'tachment of’ the assembled‘ coupling .
the‘ support-for the tubing'is‘ embodi'ed’in resilient
and“ tubing‘tc ‘whatever structure; with which it
?ngers 64 integral with a ferrule- and-functioning"
maybe‘rdesiredito have‘ the tube ‘Hi communicate.
in the same manner‘ as in connectionwith; the
' It'ijs' apparent that when the't'ubi'ng hasjbeen
inverted types of" couplings previously" described
regardless of which of‘thejthree-types' Qf‘tube seal‘
introduced‘; through the resilient ?ngers tit,
spreading the ?ngers to expand‘ the contracted
bore:to" thesize' of'thej tubing; and‘ into the 'clamp~
,
1' ing; ferrule 1t)‘,w an'ditheferrule has bcensecured 7
is‘ used.
7
The principal difference between- the embodies
ments of'Fi‘guresllt 12 and‘ 1'31 and thqse'oitithe '
in‘thebase‘ part; 12;,thje‘ ?ngers G?ext‘ending from
_
the" ferrule resiliently
support‘ said‘ 7 tubing
through smooth s'u?a’ce-to-‘suriace; contact- of.
embodiments previously described‘ is- that. reach’ .01’;
such subsequent embodiments; instead‘ of emplhY
ing a‘ one-piece ferrule incorporating; the‘ auxil‘e
inner faces of‘ the ?ngersithroughout their cir
iary resilient‘stress-distributing‘means as an in; V '
cumferentia'l' width andlength. with the periphery
tegrral part thereof and serving the-dual: function
of the-tubing against‘ lateral flexure in, the cou
- pling-‘and against sharp bendingstresses either.
of clamping the" tubing to a‘ coupling“ base party
and al'soproviding the resilient’ support for the;
at" the point‘ of‘. connection of. the‘ tubing, and base.
part; 12‘ or‘ at thepointof entry of the tubing into.
tubing: according: to- the principles of the‘ inven-‘
tion, employ‘ a two-part structure: Suchtwo
the outer'en'd', of the ferrule; ‘It: The flexible ex:
part’. structure comprises’ a sleeve interiorly
tensions 64 in all cases bridge the" juncture oil
threaded‘v for securing connection upon an‘ asso
30
tubing‘ ‘Miarid' the coupling and: regulate thera
ciated coupling basepart, and a compression ring
d‘ius- of bending of the tubing‘ transversely to‘ its‘,
cooperatively disposed inside the sleeve: to— be
axis" at and near" the pointy of "' contact of" the. tub‘
ingwitnthe coupling,’
I
>
pressed: into clamping engagement- with the tub
ingi andi'carry-ing the vstresse-distributing means;
> a
Point‘ 8-3 at the‘ba‘se-of‘the ?ared‘, position '55 of:
The only difference- between the' forms of " cou-J
t‘ube'l’lii is the place where‘ stress- concentrations“
plin-g illustrated in Figures; 11., 12-‘ and- I3 lies~in1
have’ been found to. be, greatest; in common forms
of‘ couplings, but through‘ the addition, of the
' the manner of? connection'bet'ween; the compres
auxiliary structure provided under; the: invention
this point‘ is. thoroughly- protected from’ all.
sion ring and the tubing, In Figure 11' the com
pression ring I01 is- collapsed‘v against the outer‘
wall‘ of tubing H12; when the-threaded sleeve’ I03
stress concentration through the resilient sup
port~~ given the tubing‘ by. the, flexible‘ ?ngers 8'5
is tightened; thus corresponding closely to th I
arrangement employed‘ in the embodiment of’
Figure‘l‘T. In Figure 12 engagement of tl‘recou-v
pling" with’ the tubing H11t is obtained by» clamp‘v
on the, outer‘ endofthe. coupling; ‘Gradual flex
ure of the; tubing‘ is allowed: by the‘ fingers‘to an‘
increasing" degree in the direction. of thenou‘er'
ing the‘ ?aredv end N6 of’ the tubing" between a V
ends of; the: ?ngers; servingto' distribute all’ stress’ 45 ' conicali ?ared: portion, M8- at the- ihne'r'end of
compression. ring? [09'- and a complementarilyj
resulting from ?'exure and/or‘ vibrationv over a
material length ofithe: tubing ‘My insteadi of per
I formed extension’ on" the‘ end‘; of ‘ couplingr base
part llil‘ through tighteningéof? sleeve I651. In"
the‘ embodiment, of‘ Figure 13 the compression
' mitting such‘ stress, to. be concentrated“ at’ point '
83, so that danger of‘ fracture of‘ the tubing
mitigated.
I
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r
50' ringitakestheior-m- cfan annulus M2 soldered or '
a
Figure- 7? shows an “inverted nut” type of con' plingvgenerallyt similar to Figure 6, but‘ employ;
ing» a‘ modi?ed means for attaching‘ the‘ tubing
othenwise secured/‘tog~ the end of tubing H33! in the
manner of' Figure I0.’ Such ring ‘I I2‘ is clamped5
against‘ the: coupling base part: IIME by thezeinner
end: of clamping’ring; {1L5 which embraces the
~ therein; Such‘ means‘ comprises} a tapered? de
7 formable end‘ 85' on- the inner end of the ferrule
" tubing: and, which‘ is- engaged by: a. shoulder lctGE
86 initially’ of the same internal’ diameter as they
mainportion of the ferrule but deformable in~
wardl'y-[against the tubing 81 to the position
shown by’ engagement with» the tapered‘- seat
on threaded sleeve: H?!‘ which may’ be2 tightened
on the: base: part‘. I- I4;
It will be, observed'that'. in each of Figures 11:‘,
12' and. 13 the: resilient stressedistributing' means,
comprising,‘ resilient’ ?ngers 64 constructed: and‘
arranged as explainedrin conne‘ctiorrwith: Figures.
1 to: 4;,inst'ead1 of‘ being. formed: integrally with
the coupling: baseeengaging threaded sleeve, is:
such- tight’ engagement with the tubing‘ that'the
formed upon a. separate ring" which is: disposed:
latterisrigidl’y- and tightly attached to1 the cou--_ 65 inside that element; and which is adapted‘ to=be1
formed by specially curved‘ surfaceet'éiini the: conplin-g base part 88’ Whenthe ferrule; is tightened
therein. The curvature of? seat" 89F is such‘ that.
the tapered end€ 85 is collapsed?‘ inwardly into
pling. As in- the‘caseof the coupling of‘ Figure 6; v
the ?exible and resilient?ngers 64?, being- carried‘
by ferrule'86» which is rigidly secured-in- basepartv
' 88/,. are enabled to afford the desired‘resili‘ent' sup-I
port to the tubing enclosed‘ thereby and distribute
any stress resulting: from ?exure andl/or vibra
tion- over su?icient length of tubing to mitigate‘
danger of tube» fracture.
-
c
'.
’
Figures‘ 8, 9E and» 10‘; show- the“ older'types of‘
75
ri“'external nu i’" coupling-s. Figure 8 shows.
pressed, into sealing engagement: either with the '
tubing or with a. ring? soldered to-the. tubing when
the threaded. sleeve; is; tightened;v Howevergthe
action», of the stressedistributing means: on. the;
tubing iszidenticalcwitlr that obtained‘- in: the cou
pling embodimentsiof: Figures 61m 10'...
‘
Iclaim:
1. In a connector for ductile tubing adapted-to»
prevent concentration of stress at. the. point of '
connection, a' body portionhaving‘ a. tubing;
2,406,478
13
14
receiving bore, a plurality of extensions project
ing lengthwise from one end of the body portion
and cooperatively arranged to normally form a
from the inner ends of the ?ngers, and the tube
contracted throat concentric with the bore and
of smaller size than the tubing, said extensions
their length each having an arcuate circumferen
tial contour adapted to form a circular bore ?t
is of gradually diminishing intensity outwardly
engaging inner faces of the ?ngers throughout
being resilient and adapted to be spread apart to
ting the circumferential contour of’ the tubing
expand the throat to the size of the tubing and
when the'?ngers are in their spread, tube-engag
resiliently engage the tubing when received in
ing position.
the bore of the body portion, the tubing-engaging
3. A tubing connector adapted to secure the
irmer faces of said resilient extensions conform 10 end of a ductile tubing associated therewith
ing in their circumferential contour to the shape
without concentration of stress in the tubing such
of the tubing so as to form an expanded throat
as may arise from ?exure or vibration at the
?tting the tubing when the extensions-are in their
spread position and said inner faces de?ning a
point of connection, said connector including a
base coupling part, a sleeve threadedly engaged
different contour as well as smaller size thanthe 15 with said base part and adapted to receive the
tubing in the contracted throat when the exten
tubing end therein, and means actuated when the
sions are in their relaxed position.
sleeve is tightened with respect to said base part
2. In a connector for ductile tubing adapted to ~ for establishing a ?uid-tight and rigid connection
prevent concentration of stress at the point of
between the tubing end and the connector, and
connection, a body portion having a tubing '20 stress-distributing means adapted to bridge the
receiving bore, a plurality of circumferentially ar
juncture of the tubing and connector including a
ranged, resilient ?ngers projecting lengthwise;
body portion supported by the sleeve and having a
from one end of the body portion and cooperating
bore receiving the tubing, and a plurality of cir
to de?ne a bore in extension of the bore in the
body portion adapted to receive the tubing, but
said ?ngers being convergent towards their outer
ends whereby said extension bore is of gradually ,
decreasing size in an outward direction to an
cumferentially arranged, resilient ?ngers project
ing from the outer end of said body portiongand '
pressed under their inherent resiliency into sup
porting engagement with the tubing, the inner
faces of each of the ?ngers having an arcuate
extent requiring spreading of the ?ngers as the
transverse curvature de?ned by the radius of
tubing is thrust into said bore, each of said re 30 curvature of the outer periphery of the tubing
silient ?ngers being of gradually decreasing,
thickness in an outward direction whereby the
lateral support offered said tubing by said ?ngers
and making surface-to-surface contact circum—
ferentially with the tubing.
ROBERT E. SNYDER.
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