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Патент USA US2406482

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Aug. 27, 1946. ‘
. 2,406,482
Filed April 27, 1942
I 2 Sheets-Sheet l
852 HA7]
Jaw‘ A?W
Aug. 27, 1946.
w. R. TUCKER '
2 Shéets-Sheet 2
Filed April 27, 1942
Patented Aug. 27, 1946
Warren R. Tucker, Dayton, Ohio, assignor to The ..
Hydraulic Development Corporation, Inc., Wil
mington, Del., a corporation of Delaware
Application April 27, 1942, Serial ‘No. 440,733
6 Claims.
This invention relates to hydraulic machinery
and, in particular, to hydraulically controlled ma
chine tools.
It is an object of this invention to provide a
hydraulically powered and controlled device
adapted to perform a combined rotary and recip
rocating motion, such as drilling, reaming and
(01. s0-52)
' ing to another feature of the'invention, be ‘pro
vided, which will cause a temporary retraction of
the tool holder if the rotation of the tool is acci
dentally stopped, for instance, when the tool en
counters undue resistance in the material to be
Structural arrangement
It is another object to provide a device includ
7 Referring now to the drawings in detail, the
ing a reciprocable member which may be hy l0 device shown therein comprises a casing, gen
draulically controlled so as selectively to be recip
erally designated Ill, having connected thereto,
rocated, for instance for broaching or pressing
in any convenient manner, two cylinders II and
I2, in which are reciprocably mounted two
purposes, or so as simultaneously to be recipro
plunger-s I3 and I4 respectively.
cated and rotated for operations, such as drilling,
reaming and honing.
nected to a piston rod l6, while the plunger l4
It is another object of the invention to provide
comprises a piston |'| connectedto a piston rod
a device which comprises a member adapted
simultaneously to be reciprocated and rotated
|8l The piston rods I6 and le8re’are connected,
hydraulically, and in. which the reciprocable
in any desired manner, with a piston I9 vre;
member will automatically be retracted tempo 20 ciprocable in the cylinder bore 20 and connected ‘
to a piston shaft 2|. The piston l9 and piston
rarily in response to a predetermined resistance
shaft 2| are hollow and have mounted therein
encountered by said member, and will again be
anti-friction bearings 22, 23 and 24 which, in
advanced when said resistance has decreased.
A still further object of the invention consists
their turn, support a tool holder 25. The tool
in the provision of a hydraulic system comprising
holder 251s rotatable within the piston l9 and
a plurality of members adapted. simultaneously 25 piston shaft 2| and has rigidly connected there
to be reciprocated and rotated, in which the re
ciprocative and rotative movement of said mem
bers may be controlled by a single pressure ?uid
to a rotor 26 of a rotary motor 21, which may be
of anydesired type, preferably of the type shown
in Figure 4. According to Figure 4, the rotor
26 is provided with a‘plurality of radial slots‘ 28
These and other objects and advantages of the 30 having reciprocably mounted therein vanes 29
which engage the inner periphery 30 of the
invention will appear more clearly from the fol
motor casing 3|.
lowing speci?cation in connection with the ac
companying drawings, in which:
, H
Figure 1 diagrammatically illustrates a ma
chine tool accordingto the invention.
Figure 2 shows, on a larger scale, a partial sec
tion of the device illustrated in Figure 1.
. Figure 3 is a section along the line 3-3 of Fig
ure 2.
Figure 4 is a section along the line 4-4 of Fig
ure 3.
Figure 5 shows a system including a plurality
The motor casing 3| is provided with two op
posed ?at .suriaces v32 slidable. on correspond-J
35 ingly shaped surfaces 33 in piston IS. The motor
casing 3| is continuously urged toward the right
with regard to Figure 4 by means of a spring 35,
one end of which rests in a recess 36 provided
40 in the piston |9, while the other end of the spring
35 engages the motor casing 3|.‘
~ _ I
An eccentric 31 is provided which is connected
to a control rod 38 (Figure 3), which latter is
rotatable by means of a worm wheel 39 and worm
of machine tools according to the invention.
45 40. By rotating the eccentric 31 from the posi
General arrangement
tion shown, the motor casing 3| will be’shifted
The device according to the present invention
toward the left with’ regard to Figure 4 agains
consists of a ?uid operable plunger rotatably sup
porting a tool holder, and, a hydraulically oper
the thrust of the spring 35.
> e
'The, inner space of the motor casing 3| is
able rotary motor for rotating said'tool holder.
adapted to communicate withv a passageway 4|
through'a bore 42in the» motor casing 3|. A
Furthermore, control means are provided which
are adapted to control the supply of pressure ?uid
b,ore_43 is adapted to connect'a portion of the‘
to the ?uid operable plunger and the rotary mo
tor so as selectively to cause reciprocation and
simultaneously rotation of the tool holder, or to
reciprocate said tool holder without rotating the
When the tool holder is to be advanced while
it is rotating, as is the case when drilling, hy
interior ,of the ’m‘otor’casing 3| with a passage?
Way 44. "The “passageway 44 leads through the
plunger “and communicates with a conduit,’ 45
which, in itsturn, communicates with onejend
of the cylinder II and also communicates witha
valve 46. The valve46 comprises a valve casing
41 and a; rotor 48, rotatable in the casing 41 and ' '
draulically operable control means may, accord 60 isprovided with a recess.“ adapted inone posi
conduits‘51 and 99, while establishing ?uid con
through the conduits 51, 69v and the. pilot line
' nection between the latter and the conduit 91.
Pressure ?uid from the pump 19 now‘passes
through the conduits 61 and 69 and the check
12, it actuates the. servomotor 13 so as to-shii't
the pump 19 to neutral ‘or no delivery position. -'
If it is now dsired to reciprocate the tool holder
valve BI into the right hand end portion of the
cylinder bore 29, where it actsupon the right
25, for. instance for broaching or for pressing pur
poses, the operator replaces the drill 89 by a cor‘
hand area of the piston I9 so as to initiate a
responding broaching , device. or by .a desired
retraction'stroke of the piston I9 and piston
pressing plunger. Thereupon the operator closes
shaft 2I and, consequently, also of the tool
the shutoff valve 58 and shifts the valve rotor
holder 25 supported thereby. It will be noted 10 82 in clockwise direction so that themark 92 .will
that the total effective area on the right hand
be inwaligmnent with the mark 91.v It will be
of the piston I9 is larger than the‘ combined area
noted that, during this shifting movement,_ the.
of the pistons I 5 and I1, while the left hand area
valve rotor 82 passesits previous position for.
ofthe piston I9 still remains connected to the
simultaneously advancing and rotating the tool
tank 19. This immediately reduces the resist 15 holder 25. However, since now the ‘mark 99 of
ance encountered by the drill 89. As’ a result
the valve rotor 48 is in alignment with the'mark
thereof, the pressure prevailing‘in the passage
99, the fact that thevalve rotor during the said
way“ and bore 43 is again able to rotate the
shifting movement passes its previous position
rotor 26 and, thereby, the tool holder25 so that
has no effect whatsoever on the tool holder 25.‘
the drill 89 again rotates. Therefore, the pres
When the valve rotor 82 occupies the position
sure in the conduit 45 again drops, which also
in which the marks 92 and 91 register with each
results in a reduction of the pressure in the pilot
other,'pressure ?uid from the line 69 is conveyed
line '14. Consequently,v the‘ spring 66 again
through‘ the recesses 81 and 86, which are inter
moves the plunger 64 and the valve member 59
connected through the passageway. 98in'to the
into their initial position shown in Figure. 1. 25 conduit 53; From here the pressure ?uid passes
through the conduit 55'to the left hand or ad
This re-establishes the previous condition, in
vancing area of ‘the piston I9. Simultaneously,
which the conduits 69 and 51 communicate with
each other, while ?uid connection is prevented
?uid passes from the conduit 53 through the re
between the conduits 69 and 61. The conduit
cess 49 and the conduit 45 to the left end of the‘
69, therefore, is again connected to the tank 19,
and the pressure acting on the pistons I5 and I1
moves the piston shaft 2| and, thereby, the tool
holder 25 to the right. In this way, the advanc
ing movement of the drill is continued for com
pletion of the working operation.
When the working operation has been com
pleted, the operator shifts the valve rotor 82 in
anti-clockwise direction so that themark 92 will
be in alignment with the mark 95. In this posi
tion, the conduits 59 and 51 Will be connected
through the recesses'89 and 81 and the bores 98
with the pressure line 69, while the conduit 53
communicates through the passageway 83, bore
85 and port 8| with the conduit 89 leading to the
tank 19. Consequently,v pressure ?uid from the
pump 19 passes through the recess 86, conduits
59 and 45 into the left end of the cylinders II
and I2.
_ A part of the pressure ?uid in conduit 45
cylinders II and I2.
. >
Since, on the other hand, the conduit 69" is
connected through the three-way'valve 58, the‘
conduit 51, recess 83, bore 85, port 8| and con
duit 89 with the tank 19, the piston I9'moves
toward ‘the right, thereby advancing the'tool
holderv 25. It will be noted that, during this ad
vancing movement of the‘ toolholder 25, no ‘ro
tation of the latter takes place, since pressure
?uid prevails in the passageway 44 as well as in
_‘ the passageway 4I, so that the pressure on both
sides of the motor 21 is balanced and no rotation
of the rotor 26 is effected.
. When the piston. I9 has reached the end of its
advancing stroke, the pressure in conduit 69 in-'
creases and, being conveyed through the pilot line
12, actuates the servomotor 13 so as to move the
pump 19 to neutral or no delivery position. Con:
sequently, the tool holder 25 comes to a halt.
To effect a retraction stroke of the tool holder
passes through the passageway 44 and into the 50. 25, the operator rotates the valve rotor 82 in
motor casing 3| where it acts upon the vanes 29
anti-clockwise direction until the mark 92.regis-.
so as to rotate the rotor 26. In other words, the
ters with the mark 95. Fluid pressure from the
drill 89 continues its rotation. Simultaneously,
pump 19 then passes through the conduit 69,‘ re
pressure ?uid from the pump 19 flows through
cess‘ 81, conduit 51, three-way valve 58, conduit“
the conduit 69, recess 81, conduit 51, three-way 55 and check valve 6| into the right hand end of the
valve 58 and conduit 69 into the right hand end
cylinder bore 29, where it acts upon the retrac
of the cylinder bore 29 where it‘ acts upon the
tion side of the piston I9. In this position of the.
right hand side or retraction side of the piston I9.
valve rotor 82, the conduits 53, 55 and 45 are con
I Inasmuch as the e?’ective'retraction area of x
nected through the passageway 83, bore 85, port
the piston I9 is larger than the total area of the 60 8I and conduit 99 with the ?uidtank 19. There,
pistons I5 and I1, as mentioned above, the piston
fore, the pressure now acting on the retraction
side of the piston I9 moves the latter and, there—
shaft 2| moves toward the left, while the tool
by, the tool holder 25 toward the left so as to re'-.
holder 25 still rotates. In this way, the drill 89
tract the tool holder 25.
is retracted from the work piece which has just
been machined.
When the tool holder 25 has reached the end
of its retraction stroke, increased pressure builds
When the piston I9 has reached the end of its
up in the conduit 99 and, through the pilot line
retraction stroke, and it is desired to stop rota
12, causes the servomotor 13 to shift the pump 19
tion of the drill, the operator shifts the valve
into neutral or no delivery position. The device
rotor 48 in clockwise direction so that the mark
is then ready for a new cycle and, depending on
99 will be in alignment with the mark 96. This
the position of the valve rotors 48 and 82, may
interconnects the conduits 45'and 53, While pre
again perform a cycle inwhich the tool holder 25
venting ?uid communication between the said
two conduits and the conduit 59. ' Consequently,
reciproeates while simultaneously rotating, or re
the pressure in the conduit 69 soon increases to
ciprocates without rotation. "
such an extent that, . while being conveyed 75.
In case the device shown in Figure 1 isto be;
2. In combination, a reciprocablemember, ?uid
operable advancing and retracting means associ
used for milling, purposes orlfory any purpose“
where-rotation alone is desired, the operator locks
ated with said member “for reciprocating o the
the piston shaft 2| by means of the lock screw 99,
same, ?uid operable motor means operable to ro
thereby‘ preventing any movement of the" piston
shaft 2|. The ?uid pressure then delivered
tate said member while it isbeing reciprocated,
a single valve controlling the supply of ?uid to
, through the conduit 45 and passageway 44 to'the
said‘ motor means for selectively causing; said
motor 21 will then be used merely for rotating
the tool holder 25 which, in this instance'carries
reciprocable member to reciprocate While simul- ,
taneously rotating, or to reciprocate without ro
a milling tool.
_ From the above it will be clear that the device‘ 10 tating, and means responsive to a predetermined
resistance exerted on said member for' tem'e.
ofFigure 1 is offgreat universal use, inasmuch as
porarily halting the reciprocation of said mem—
the tool holder '25 may selectivelyv be advanced‘
and simultaneously rotated, or ,may be rotated
3. In combination, a’ reciprocable
', member, ?uid
without being’ advanced, or may be advanced
without'being rotated.
operable advancing and retracting means associ—
ated with said member .for reciprocating ‘the
It should also be noted that the adjustment of
same, ?uid operable motor means operable sei
the choke valve 63 will control the rate ofiad
lective'ly for rotating said member while it is being
vancement of the tool holder 25, while the speed‘
reciprocated, control 'means ' for controlling the
of rotation of the tool ‘holder 25 may be varied
in accordance with the adjustment of the eccen_ 20 supply, of pressure ?uid selectively to said- ad~
vancing or said retracting meam, pressure 1'62‘
trio 3‘! and the eccentricity of the inner peripheryv
sponsive means responsive to a predetermined
30 of the motor casing 3 I , relative to the periphery’
of the rotor 26.
pressure at the‘inlet side of said motor means
3/ 7
while said member is being advanced for caus
It will furthermore be noted that byadjusting
thechoke 15 the initiation of the advancement 25 ing a temporary retraction of said reciproc'able
member, and means associated with said pressure
of the tool holder 25, following a temporary re
responsive means and operable subsequently to
traction of the latter, can be more or less delayed,
V the actuation‘of the latter in response to a de
thereby assuring that, when the tool holder is
crease in the pressure at'the inlet side of said
again advanced, a proper advancing pressure is
acting upon the latter.
30 motor means below said predetermined pressure ‘
for again advancing said reciprocable member.
Referring now to therarrangement of Figure 5,
4. In combination, a reciprocable member, ?uid
the‘ operation thereof is similar to that described
operable advancing and retracting means associ
above in connection with Figure 1, By move
ated with said member for reciprocating the
ment of the'valve rotor of the ,valve 46a and
shifting the valve rotor of the valve 52a into the 35 same, ?uid operable rotary motor means associ:
ated with said reciprocable member and oper- V
positions referred to in connection with the de
able selectively to rotate the latter while his
scription of the device shown in-Figure 1, the
being reciprocated, means operable selectively for
tool holders 25a, 25b and 250 may selectively be
varying therspeed of rotation of said reciproé
advanced and simultaneously rotated, or may be
reciprocated'without being rotated. By looking‘ 40 cable member, means adapted in response to a
predetermined resistance exertedlupon said‘re
the tool holders 25a, 25b and 250, by means .of the
ciprocable member, during the advancing stroke
locking screws Sta, 99b and 9&0, and a correspond;
thereof, for retracting said member and, also
adapted, in response to ,a decrease in said re
45 sistance, to again advance said member and‘
being reciprocated.
means controlling the rate of advanoefrom' said
It will be noted that a single pump, namely the
ing position of the valves 46a and 52a, the tool
holders 25a, 25b and 250 may be rotated without
pump 10a, supplies ?uid for actuating the several
tool holders 25a, 25b and 250, while the ?uid mo;
tor in'e'ach of the casings Ilia, “lb and lilc may
be adjusted for any desired ratio of rotary speed,
the actual speeds being a function of the quantity
of ?uid supplied through the valves 88. This con-'
retracted position.
stitutes a material advance and saving over sim
ilar devices heretofore known, in which it was 7
It will be understood that I desire to compree
hend within my invention such modi?cations as I
Having thus fully described my invention, what
6. In combinatioma machine tool spindle, ?rst ’
?uid motor ,means selectively operable for re
ciprocating said spindle to and from work engag'-_
ing position, second ?uid motor means forse'a
lectively driving said spindle in rotation, and
‘I claim as new and desire to secure byjLetters
Patent, is:
reciprocated, channel means in said reciprocate
the toolholders in order to allow operation of
each of the tool holders at a di?erent'speed.
ing member for supplying pressure fluid to said
rotary motor, and a single'valve operable-to con
trol said reciprocab'le member and said ?uid mo~
necessary to provide anelectromotor for each of
come within the scope of the claims.
5. In combination, a reciprocable member, ?uid
op-erabie advancing and retracting means as
sociated‘with said member for reciprocating the
same, fluid‘ operable rotary motor 'rneansv associ-'
atedwith said reciprocable member and operable
selectively to rotate the latter'while it is being
?uid operable means responsive to a predeter
1. In combination, a reciprocable member,
work resistance encountered by said
fluid operable advancing and retracting means 65 mined
spindle for momentarily varying the supply of
associated with said member for reciprocating
?uid to said ?rst motor means for retracting said
the same, ?uid operable motor means operable
spindle from work" engaging position and for re‘-v
selectively for rotating said member while it is
being reciprocated, and means adapted‘ in re
turning said spindle'to work engaging position 7
ing‘ said member, and also adapted in response
or said ?rst motor independently,
sponseto a predetermined resistancevexerted 70 after a predetermined time period, and a single
valve for controlling the supply of ?uid to said
upon said re'ciprocable member, during the ad;
motors for actuating said motors simultaneously
vancing stroke thereof, for temporarily retract;
to‘ adecrease in the said resistance ‘to again
advance said member.
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