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Патент USA US2406491

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Aug- 27, 1946.
Filed April 15, 1944
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
1/2 .
Aug- 27, 1946-
Filed April 15, 1944
s Sheets-Sheet 2
Ange 27,1946-
Filed‘AprillS. 1944
3'_Sheets-'Sheet 3 '
Patented Aug. 27, 1946
‘ 2,406,491
2,406,491 -
Bror Algor deyVaern, Riksby; Sweden
Application April 15, 1944, Serial No. 531,141
In Sweden May 2, 1939
(o1. eras-.69)
14 claims.
In internal combustion engines the output may
there may cause dangerous explosions. For this
reason; all of the crank bearings must be directly
lubricated. Such a direct lubrication offers,
however, considerable dii?culties in engines of
bustion chamber than that displaced by the en
gine piston. The additional air may be supplied
by compressors of di?erentkinds, such as of p'is-.
ton or rotor types.
scavenging air intothe combustion chamber and
be increased by supplying more air to the com
the present type in which there are compressor
Particularly in two-stroke engines it is known
crankpins adjacent to engine crank pins which
makes theconventional lubrication’systems use
to adapt the crank case'tooperate as a scavenge
ing air compressor directly associated with; a ,
scavenging air inlet in the wall of the combustion
chamber. The compression caused by the crank
The presentinvention has therefore for its fur
' ther» objectto render possible such a direct lubri-w
case may be improved by-providing an additional .
cation and consists in the provision of a trans
compressor of piston type entirely, or partially
separated from the crank case and communicat
port of lubrication oil fromrthe compressor crank
ing with the combustion chamber via a valve
ably thedisposition is such that the engine crank 7
pins toth'e adjacent engine crank pins._ Prefer
controlled receiver. In this case scavenging air‘
will be supplied by the crank case and additional
air or gas by said additional ‘compressor to the
combustion chamber.
The present invention has for its object, inter
alia, further to increase the compression in the
pin according to the invention is supplied with
lubrication oil from two directions, one oil source
being the adjacent compressor crank pin and the
other oil lsource beingeither a separate source
or another, adjacent-compressor crank pin being
on the opposite'side of the engine crank pin.
combustion chamber without the necessity of in
creasing the dimensions of the engine plant.
with reference to the accompanying drawings on
With this object in view the invention consists
which I
substantially therein that the pistons of the addi 25 Fig. 1 is a longitudinal vertical section through
tional compressor operate in cylinders which at
an engine having a ‘single cylinder ‘according to
their inner ends communicate with the crank case
the invention, whereas"
and at their outer ends with the valve controlled
receiver, the compressor pistons being so cou-_
“Fig. 2 as "section perpendicular to that shown
Fig. 1' and on line 2-—? in the latter.
pled to the engine pistons that‘they contribute 30. in. Fig.
to the compression of the scavenging air inthe
‘a two-cylinder en'ginefaccording to the invention.
crank case.
Fig". 4 shows a portion of the crankshaft on
The invention has further for its object to out
a greater scale, and
_ t
v _ balance the forces of inertia of the engine piston
Fig. ,5 is a modi?ed embodiment of said portion.
by so disposing the driving gear between the en
gine piston and the piston of the additional com
pressor that the latter counterbalances the en
gine piston. This will particularly be the case
Fig. 6 is a vertical cross section of a modified -7
In the embodiment shown in Figs. 1 and 2
there is a single cylinder l and upper andflower
if the “compressor cylinder and engine cylinder
crank case'sections '2 and ‘ . The lower section
lie in the same plane on opposite sides of the 40 3 has two compressor cylinders I‘! and I8 with
crank shaft and the engine piston moves in a
appertaining pistons, I S’and was well as con
direction opposed to that of the compressorpis
necting-‘rods l5‘and l6. .Thecrank shaft H has
compressor crank pins l2 and M and an engine
A further object of the invention is to simplify
crank pin l3 which are displaced about 180 de
the driving gear between the engine piston and 45 grees.‘ To the engine cylinder 9 belongs'a piston
the compressor piston by using a, common crank
shaft as an integrating part of such gear.
In engines in which a common crank shaft 00
8 and a connecting-rod‘ l0. ‘ ‘A duct 22 connects
the underside of the compressor piston IS! with
an air‘ container or so called receiver 25.
From »
operates with both the engine pistons and the
receiver air is conducted through the valve
compressor pistons the lubrication of the crank 50 this
controlled duct‘ 26 and the inlet 21 into the en
pins of the engine connecting-rods will be par
‘gine cylinder 9 when. the piston 8 is in the neigh
ticularly di?icult. This depends, inter alia,
bourhood bf its'lowermost position.
' Y
thereon that in engines supplied with scavenging
01‘ course; air'm'ay Y?ow‘ directly into the cyl
air from the crank case so called spray lubricaé
inder through the duct 26 and inlet 21 without
tion cannot be used as the oil drops follow the
usingthe valve disposed therein‘if' the difference '
wiping-off ?ange 3|, which throws out the oil on
theinside of the annular shield 36. Through the
‘ in level between'the outlet 28 and the inlet 21 is
‘ adapted to suit the desired air and gas currents.
Also the valve 23 may be left out if the pistons
l9 and Zllrespectively are‘provided with an inlet
25 according to the ‘so called
; duct to the receiver
. two-port system.
w I
' channel 34 the oil then reaches the engine crank '
pin l3.
necting-rod an additional lubrication can be pro
vided through the other crank according to Fig. 4.
The duct G9 connects the crank case 42 with
l the engine, cylinder when the piston 8 takes up“,
‘its lowermost position in which ‘air previously, 10
1 sucked into the crank case through‘th'e valve 2!“
3 now flows into the engine cylinder.
When using only one compressor with one con
Through the lubrication pipe'd? the lubrication
oil enters'the system on the inside of the annular
?ange 36 of the crank arm and flows therefrom
through the channel 35 to the engine crank pin
' I3‘.
In this way the engine crank pin receives
The engine operates as follows. When the en
double lubrication. When using two connecting
3 gine piston 8 is approaching its upper'extreme . v rods for each compressor cylinder, a disposition
. position in the combustion chamber the com
quite similar to that on the left hand sideof the
pressor pistons l9 and 20 are approaching at the ‘15 - engine crank pin‘ may be provided on the right
3 same time their diametrically opposite extreme :, ‘ . hand, sidethereof, the lubrication being the same
- _ 1 positions, compare Figs. 1 and 2, so that. ;i
‘that- above described.
I sucked into the crank case 42 through the valve T . as
‘ The device shown in Fig. 5 differs from that
; 2L. Concurrently with this movement the air‘in " " " shown in Fig. 4 substantially therein that the
' the receiver 25 is compressed through air supply 20 compressor crank pin I2 is designed as an excen- <
tric disc with‘ such large diameter that an an
I through the duct 22' and the valve 24'.- ' When: now
‘ the pistonsreverse their directions of movement
, and movetowards the crankshaft the air sucked
nularrecessB'S can be provided directly'in said;
crank pin.’ The channel 39 extends therefrom
i into the crank case 42 is compressed whereas the z
radially. The annular flange- 33 is in this case‘
; undersides of’ the pistons l9 and 20 suck air
on the outside of the recess 33. r This deposition
is more compact; counted in the direction of the .
1 through the duct 22 and the Valve 23. - When. the
‘ pistons are approaching the crank shafttheout- j
let 28 is uncovered by the piston8 so-that 'com- »
crankshaft, than the disposition according to 7
When the pistons move
towards the crank shaft, the pressure of the com-_
bustiongas falls until the duct 49'is uricoveredv1
1 bustion gas flows out.
pressed in the crank houseflows above the piston
into the engine cyl'inder. Nearly at the same
moment as the duct 49 is uncovered‘ the‘valve 26
is opened and air flows’ from the receiver 25
mately on the same side of the engine cylinden
They may alsobe provided quiteclose to one an-'‘
ders, it may be preferable,v particularly from
economical reasons, to provide more thanv one
common compressor pistonfhaving-two connect
ing-rods onboth sides of the? engine connecting
compressor for each engine. '
rod maybe provided. If desired, only one com-v
vid'edioil-d-raining outlets 2.’: which are independ-i
ent- of the closed lubrication circuit passingv
the balancing of the forces of inertia will, how
through-thel-crank pin bearing; Therefore the oil
ever, not be-quite as good as in the case of two
j 1
' '
As may be seen from Figs. 1 and 3- there areproe '
pressor connecting-rod may be used in'which" case ‘
Alsowhenthe engine has more thanttvorcyliri- '
Instead of two compressor pistons l9 and 20, a
engine cylinder above one another and'approxi-i ‘
' ". through the valve 26 and theinlet 2l'into the en
posite sides thereof; In‘ certain cases it might be
preferable to arrange the scavenging ducts in the
The pressure is then so low that the air com
gine cylinder.
,_A-bove it has been assumed that the scaveng
ing air ‘ducts in the’ engine cylinder enter-on op
in saidicircuit cannot be'mixedi- with impure waste
oil» from the engine cylinder or cylinders.
Fig. 3 shows the construction ‘of-a two-cylinder
engine, in which for each enginecylinder there
is but one compressor cylinder. "The displace-1
As-ind'icated-inFigs. 1 and 3 one or both end
Wall's-'and/or longitudinal wallsiofthe crank case
and/or, in two or multi-cylinder' engines, one.“ or
mentbetween- each crank pin’ ofthe engine and‘ 50 more
iof the partitions‘ in the crank case" between
that oft-he appertaining compressor is ‘about’ 180‘
adjacent cranks may be formed entirely 'or par;
degrees. There is the same angular displacement
tially as containers 6-, 1, _&preferably for lubricat
between the two compressor crank ‘pins. ‘Theop-l
ing oil.v rsuchicontainersvare preferably arranged‘
eration is-otherwise the same as that in thesingle
cylinder engine;
In order to obtain an economical operation of
the engine types above described, a perfect lubri
cation'isof the greatest importance. In case each.
in-thelupper‘section 240f the crankcase adjacent
the- enginecylinder orcylinders; Oil from-the"
outlets 219 canrbecpuri?ed, if-desired, and’ returned "
to the system.'
In- the/arrangement shown-in Figs. ‘land 5 the
engine cylinder is associated with but onev com
in- the shield 30 maybe considerably
pressorand a corresponding compressor connect 60
larger than the diameter of‘thering? I: Itis only
ing-rod, a lubrication circuit'according to Fig. 4
necessary that the arrangement be such that the
may be used. Similar lubrication conditions are‘
applicablealso when two compressor connecting
oil is thrown out on the inside of the shield‘gl'l‘
and is conducted'therefrom' to the crank pin ['37
Instead of the above'd‘escribed labyrinth pack
engine connecting-rod.
32; 3'3‘of' Fig. 4 there may be used‘, an oil wip
Through the pipe 31 the lubrication oil enters,
ing-oif deviceof-a type’ known per se toprev'ent
an annular recess 4| and is fed therefrom through
the-oil from-being thrown into the crankcase.
the channel 39 to the bearing surfaces. between
_' Above it is assumed'that‘the additional‘ com
the compressor crank pin I2 and the corresponde
pressor l1,‘ l8 pumps air into the-motor. In gas
ingconnecting-rod I5 driving the compressor p154
engines the compressor may advantageously ‘be;
ton l9. The'crank pin 12 is provided with a slot
rods are provided, one being on each side of the;
' 32 and the connecting-rod l5jwith a correspond
ing~?ange 33v whereby the oil is~ prevented from _
used to pump'gas instead (of additionalairinto
the engine;
In the ‘embodiments .shown on the drawings the.
of the connecting-‘rod I5 is provided with an- olive‘ compressor axis or axes is or are provided in the
vdirect-1y entering :‘the crank case; The other side:
longitudinal central plane of the engine. It may,
however, be found advantageous to dispose the
compressor at an angle to this plane sov that the
axes of the engine cylinders form an angle to
those of the compressor cylinders. Such an ar
rangement is shown in Fig. 6. This ?gure relates
v with the inner end of said‘engine cylinder, a
crank shaft mounted in said crank case, an air
compressor cylinder communicating at its inner
end with said crank case, a compressor piston re
ciprocable in ‘ said compressor cylinder and
adapted to compress scavenging air for said en
gine, adjacent crank pins forming part of said
ing type and is particularly suitable when it is
shaft, connecting rods journaled, on said
desired to modify an ordinary internal combus
tion engine so that it may be operated fromv a 10 crank pins and serving to operatively connect
said engine piston and said compressor piston
gas generator delivering for instance wood gas
With said crank shaft, means for feeding oil to the
or coal gas. If so modi?ed the engine will in
compressor crank pin attached to said compressor
crease its output. The axis of the compressor cyl
piston and means for feeding oil from the last
inder 45 forms here an oblique angle of about 60
crank pin to the adjacent engine crank
degrees to the axis of the engine cylinder I. The 15 pin attached
to said engine piston.
connecting-rod l5’ of the compressor piston is
5. An engine as claimed in claim 4 wherein
pivotally connected with the connecting-rod In of
only one compressor crank pin is provided for
the engine piston ‘8. The interconnection is made
each engine crank pin and in which the engine
at a point 45 on the latter connecting-rod be
crank pin is fed with lubrication oil from another
tween the appertaining crank pin and piston pin. 20 source
in addition to the compressor crank pin.
to a two-stroke engine of the crank case scaveng
When the crank shaft rotates in the direction of the arrow the engine piston 8 moves upwards
and the compressor piston 19 is pushed inwards
in its cylinder 45. This movement of the piston
l9 continues also after the piston 8 has passed
its highest position and until a moment when the
pivot point 46 has reached its extreme left hand
position, whereupon the piston I9 is urged to move
6. An engine as claimed in claim 4.wherein
two compressor cylinders are arranged symmetri
cally in regard to and both belonging to one en
gine cylinder and in which both compressor crank
Pins are provided with means for feeding lubrica
tion oil to the engine crank pin.
7. An engine as claimed in claim 4 wherein a
compressor crank pin is immediately associated
with the engine crank pin and in which the bear
hereby sucked-in through the valve 23 and then 30 ing
of the compressorcrank pin is provided on its
forced through the valve 24 into the receiver 25'.
outside with an oil stopping device adapted to
From the receiver the air or gas is let into the
prevent lubrication oil from being thrown‘into
combustion chamber of the cylinder I in suitable
the crank case.
moments de?ned by a valve 44 which is positively
in claim 4, in which
governed. In a manner known per se scavenging ‘
the bearing of the compressor crank pin is pro
air from the crank case 42 is let-in directly
vided with oil-stopping devices at its end facing
through the inlet 49 in the lowermost position of
the bearing of the engine crank pin which stop
the piston 8.
ping devices are adapted to safeguard the feeding
What is claimed is:
of lubrication oil to the bearing of the engine
1. An internal combustion engine comprising
crank pin.
in combination at least one combustion chamber,
9. An engine as claimed in claim 4 in which oil- an engine piston reciprocable therein, a crank
stopping or oil-catching device is provided at the
case, a crank shaft mounted in said crank case, a
bearing of the engine crank pin, said oil stopping
scavenging air inlet disposed in the wall of said
being constituted by a shield which is ‘
combustion chamber and communicating directly 45 tightened
against the bearing of the compressor
with said crank case, a valve controlled receiver
crank pin by a labyrinth packing.
for gaseous ?uid communicating with said com
10. An engine as claimed in claim 4, in which
bustion chamber, a compressor cylinder com
an oil wiping-01f ring is provided in the bearing of
municating at its inner end with said crank case
the compressor crank and adapted to throw lubri
and at its outer end with said receiver but being
cation oil from said bearing into an oil catching
otherwise separated from said combustion cham
device provided at the bearing of the engine crank
ber and crank case, a compressor piston recipro
cable in said compressor cylinder, and a driving
11. An engine as claimedin claim 1 including
connection including said crank shaft adapted to
transmit power from said engine piston to said 55 an engine connecting-rod and compressor con
necting-rod coupled side by side to the same crank
compressor piston to reciprocate the latter and
shaft and a compressor cylinder disposed outside
urge it to compress said gaseous ?uid in said re
the path of rotation described by the engine crank
ceiver and simultaneously to aid said engine pis
'pin and provided with a baflle plate to stop?ow
ton to compress air in said crank case.
of oil from the oil drainage space of the crank
2. An engine as claimed in claim 1, in which
in a reverse direction.
Air or gas respectively is
there are more than one compressor cylinders 60
12. An engine as claimed in claim 4 including
a draining device, independent of the system of
lubrication of the bearings of the crank shaft and
sponding engine piston.
adapted to drain off from the crank case such
3. An engine as claimed in claim 1, in which 65 waste oil which originates from the engine
the driving connection for each compressor piston
comprises an engine connecting-rod swingably
13. An engine as claimed in claim 4 including
interconnecting the engine piston with the crank
a separate oil lubrication circuit adapted to lubri
and corresponding compressor pistons which co
operate with each engine cylinder and the corre
shaft and a compressor connecting-rod swingably
interconnecting the compressor piston with a
point on the engine connectingerod.
4. An internal combustion engine comprising
in combination at least one engine cylinder form
ing a combustion chamber, an engine piston re
cate in order of sequence the bearing of the com
pressor crank pin and the bearing of the engine
crank pin.
14. An internal combustion engine comprising
in combination at least one combustion chamber,
an engine piston reciprocable therein, a crank ~
ciprocable therein, a crank case, communicating 75 case, a crank shaft mounted in said crank case
i. and driven by said engine piston, a scavenging air
1 inlet disposed in the wall of Said combustion
= chamber. and communicating directly {. With ‘said.
1 crank case, a valve controlled -_scavenging§air re
ceiver communicating with _said combustion
‘ chamber, a compressor cylinder mounted in the
same plane but on the ODPOSite side of said crank
shaft from said combustion chamber, said com
cylindervcommunicating at its inner end
1 with said crank case and at its outer end with said
" receiver, a compressor piston reciprccable in said
‘ compressor cylinder, air admission means cen
neciine with said compressor cylinder, means for
driving said compressor piston. ircmsaid crank
shaft to compress air admitted therein and to de
liver said compressed air to .said receiver, said
driving mcansbcing 50 connected .to said crank
shaft that said engine piston and said ccmpxesscr
piston reciprocate inopposite directions, thereby
simultaneously compressing air in said crank case
and means icr ad iii‘ .a said compressed air for
scavenging purposes into said. combustion chamr
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