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Патент USA US2406499

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Aug, 27, 1946.
2,406,499 '
Filed Aug. 23, 1945
Jésepé Jélzddsei
Patented Aug. 27, 1946
~ ‘ 2,406,499
Joseph Jandasek, Highland Park, Mich., assignor
to Bendix Aviation Corporation, South Bend,
Ind., a corporation of Delaware
Application August 23, 1943, Serial No. 499,614
10 Claims. (01. 103-415)
This invention relates to transmissions and
more particularly to ?uid transmissions having
trance portion may be controlled by a gular
?uid de?ecting vanes.
Heretofore in the ?uid transmission art consid
erable difficulty has been encountered because the
?uid entering ai?uid energizing or energy absorb
ing blade wheel or a guide wheel does not ap
proach the ?uid de?ecting vanes at a constant
movement of the eXit portion.
. Other objects and advantages of this invention
will be apparent from the following detailed de- _'
scription considered in connection with the ac
companying drawing, submitted for purposes of
illustration only and not intended to‘ de?ne the
scope of the invention, reference being had fo
angle under conditions of varying speed and load
that purpose to the subjoined claims. - 1
operations. This variation in the entrance angle 10' In the drawing wherein similar reference char
of the power transmitting ?uid causes the ?uid
acters refer‘to similar parts throughout the sev
to impact againstthe entrance portions of the
vanes at an undesirable angle under certain con
Fig. l’is a fragmentary sectional view of a?uid
eral views:
ditions of operation whereupon eddy currents
de?ecting blade wheel adapted for use in a ?uid '
and ?uid turbulence are introduced resulting in
transmission to induce orderly ?ow of ?uid with
ine?iciency of operation of such transmissions
An object of this invention is therefore to pro
Fig-2 is a sectional View illustrating a modi?ed
vide a blade wheel having ?uid de?ecting vfanes
form of the invention.
so proportioned as to rectify ?uid ?ow and in
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view of a ?uid‘
duce smooth orderly ?ow of ?uid between the ?uid 20 energizing impeller member having ?uid de?ect
de?ecting vanes whereupon turbulence is avoided,
and the transmission of power is maintained at
ingvanes provided with ?exible exit portions. }
Figsgll and 5 ‘are views similar to Fig. 3 illus
trating a further modi?ed form of the invention.
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view of an im
high e?iciency under varying conditions of speed
and load operations.
Another object of the invention is to provide 25 peller vane having pivoted ?exible entranceand
an energy absorbing turbine or guide wheel hav
discharge portions.
ing spaced main and auxiliary rectifying vanes to
Before explaining in detail the present inven
direct the lines of ?uid. flow to prevent ?uid turbu
tion it is to be understood that the invention is
lence under varying conditions of speed and load.
not limited in its application to the details of.
Yet another object resides in the provision of a
construction and arrangement of parts illustrated
?uid de?ecting ‘channel formed by contoured
in the accompanying drawing, since the invention
main vanes and spaced rectifying vanes inter
is capable of other embodiments and of being
posed between the main vanes serving to reduce
the number of main vanes and rendering it pos
sible to use vanes of thinner contour to attain
increased e?iciency of the transmission of power.
Still a further object is to provide ?uid de?ect
ing vanes having apertures extending through the
vanes to substantially equalizing ?uid pressures
on opposite sides of the vanes.
A further object of the invention is to provide
animpeller for a ?uid transmission having ?ex
practiced or carried out in various ways. Also it
is to be understood that the phraseology ‘or ter
minology employed herein is for the purpose of
description and not of limitation.
Referring now to the embodiment of the in
vention illustrated in Fig. 1 main and rectify-,
ing ?uid de?ecting vanes | I and larespectively
are carried by the web or shroud I5‘of a blade
wheel such as an energy absorbing turbine or a
guide vwheel for operation in a power transmit
ible blades operative to automatically vary the
ting ?uid circuit.
, ~
?uid energizing characteristics of the impeller in
Each .mainvane H has a’ rounded ‘entrance
proportion to variations of speed and~load.
45 edge l1 terminating on they face of the vane in
' Another object resides in the provision of an
substantially ?at ?uid de?ecting surfaces l9, 2|,
improved impeller blade of resilient material
and .23. and‘the back of each main vane vH has.
bonded to ?exible material adapted to change its
a surface 25 of rounded curvature terminating'in
contour in response to variations of speed and
a substantially ?at. surface 2",, parallel to the suri;
load and to. present a streamlined contour where 50 face 23011 the face of the vane. The trailing
by ?uid turbulence'is minimized.
edge of the vane is contoured as illustrated. at,_29
> A further object of the invention'resides in the.
provision of an improved impeller blade having‘
angularly movable ?exible entrance and exit-por
tions, wherein’ the1angular relation of the ‘en:
to‘provide a smooth-surface connecting the?at
surfaces --23 andv 21. ~
. V
' Spaced ducts 3 I, extend through the vane in in-Z.
clined , positions‘; from I the - face to the. baclrl
tends to induce eddy currents and cause ?uid
turbulence. This condition is materially over
provide fo-r'the ?ow of predetermined volumes of '
?uid through the vane to substantially equalize
come by the use of the ducts 3| and 4| extend
ing through the main and rectifying vanes respec
?uid pressures on opposite sides thereof.
The rectifying vanes 13 have rounded entrance
portions 33 and curved face and back surfaces
35 and 37 respectively converging to the trail
ing edges of the vanes as illustrated at 39. These
tively to provide for predetermined quantities of
?uid to ?ow through the vanes to substantially
equalize ?uid pressures on opposite sides thereof.
It will be noted that the ducts 3i and 4! are in
clined in the direction of the ?uid ?ow where
curved as to direct the ?uid between the main
vanes H and induce substantially streamlined 10 upon ?ow of ?uid therethrough is induced.
‘ The embodiment of the invention illustrated in
?uid ?ow free from eddy currents or turbulence.
Fig. 2 is similar in many respects to that illus
The leading edge 33 of the rectifying vanes
trated in Fig. 1. It will be noted that main vanes
‘are arranged slightly in advance of the leading
45 have rounded entrance portions 4'! disposed
edges ll’ of the main vanes l I so as to rectify
rectifying vanes are of airfoil shape andare so
the ?ow of the ?uid and to induce the ?uid to ?ow
between the main vanes with minimum turbu
at a smaller angle to a line tangential to the web
or shroud member 49 to which the vanes are se
lence. The rectifying vanes .also have ducts 4i
extending in an inclined position through the
illustrated in Fig. l.
.vanes'from the face to the back to permit prede
termined quantities of ?uid to ?ow therethrough
cured than do the entrance edges of the vanes I l
The faces of the vanes 45 are formed with
20 curved surfaces 51 extended from the entrance
'so'as to substantiallyequalize‘?uid pressures on
edge in an arc terminating in a substantially ?at
opposite sides of the vanes.
’ The operation of this embodiment of the in
surface 53.
The substantially ?at surface 53 ter
minates in an are 55 to deviate the ?ow of fluid
and direct it to issue from the turbine or guide
vention is-as' follows: Power transmitting ?uid
entering the turbine or guide wheel channel ini
wheel ?uid channel at a desired angle. The
backs of the vanes have a substantially ?at sur
face 51 extended from the entrance edge and ter
minating in an are 59 providing substantial thick-i
of the ?uid is recti?ed to a considerableextent
ness of Width to the main vane. The back sur
and the ?uid is induced‘ by the curved portions
35 and 31 of the rectifying vanes to ?ow between 30 face 59 terminates in a substantially ?at surface
6 IV converging with the arcuate shaped portion 55
the main vanes‘! l with minimum turbulence. ’
The faces '_of themain vanes H have ?at sur
of' Suitable
the face of
the blade.
' 63 extend
7' ' through
’ ‘
tially contacts the leading edge 33 of the rectifyf
' ing vanes I3 whereupon the direction of the ?ow
faces [9,‘ 2| and'23 causing the ‘?uidto succes
‘ sively ?ow substantial distances along the face of
the main vanes with ‘relatively small Stepped '
changes in the direction of ?ow hence maximum
energy may be abstracted from the ?uidwith
from the face to the back of the vane, preferably ,
from the curved surface 5i to the substantially
?at surface 5| on the back of the blade to permit
' the ?ow of predetermined quantities of ?uid
minimum frictional losses.‘ The angular rela
tion of v the’ successive'surfaces I 9, 2 l and . 23' be.
therethrough to substantially equalize ?uid pres;
' sure on opposite sides of the blade. '
ing quite small does not subject the ?uid to suf-v 40 Rectifying vanes 65 are interposed between the
main vanes 45 and are of small relatively thin
?ciently rapid‘deviation in its ?ow' to introduce
high turbulence or cause eddy currents of a pro‘
cross‘ section embodying’ considerable curvature. I
It. will be noted that the rectifying vanes are
positioned deep in the ?uid circuit, being spaced
desired generous ?llets may be provided at the
junctures of the ?at surfaces l9,_2l and 23 to 45 considerably below the entrance/edges 41 of the
main vanes‘45; and terminating preferably above .
further minimize turbulence.
' '
the‘discharge ends '61 of the main vanes; The
‘ It has jbeenfound that ?at surfaceson the
rectifying vanes are preferably disposed opposite
faceof the blades is desirable because such sur
the curved back surface 59 of the main vanes to
faces cause the ?uid to ?ow over the face of the
nounced nature. It will be understood that if
blade. predetermined distances without rapid 50 provide considerable guidance for the ‘?uid and
prevent the introduction of eddy current and
changes in its direction of ?ow so that maximum
turbulence frequently caused by the curvature of
energy may be absorbed from the ?uid. The
the ?uid channel.
?uid ?owing over the curved back surface 25 of
the main blades I l is induced to follow the curva
ture of the blades because of known principles 55 vention is as follows: The entrance edges 4‘! of
the main vanes 45 being at aless angle to a line
whereupon cavitation and eddy lossesrare sub
tangential to the web or shroud member 49 per
stantially prevented. The substantially parallel
mits higher speed ?uid to be guided into the ?uid
surfaces 23 and 21 adjacent the outlet of the main
channel with minimum turbulence, and the arcu-'
vanes H. guides the ?uid in a desirable manner
without causing any material change in the direc‘y-u 60 ate curved surface 5| on the face of the vane 45
guides the fluid with minimum change of ‘direc
tion of the ?uid ?ow whereupon the ?uid issues
tion to the substantially flat surface 53 ‘disposed .
from the turbine or guide wheel channel with
at such an angle that maximum energy may
minimum turbulence.
It will be noted that the centrally disposed ?at‘
surfaceZl materiallylincreases the thickness of 65
abstracted from the ?uid. 1 ‘ ‘
The back of the vane is contoured in such a
manner as to guide the ?uid through the channel
the channel is narrowed intermediateits length . r with minimum turbulence whereupon a-portion'
of the power maybe absorbed by‘the rectifying '
to provide a'desired Venturi’ action which still
vanes 65, however the rectifying vanes primarily
further minimizes'?uid turbulence and eddy'cure'
70 function to prevent the introduction of eddy'cure
the central portion. of the main blades hence
‘Alsfthe ?uid. ?ows over
,"the mainandjrectify-j
ing vanes H and I3 respectively there is a tend
} encyr for ?uid pressure on the face of the vanes
to increase above the ?uid'pressure' on the back
of the vanes. This variation of‘ ?uid pressures
rents or turbulence between the back of one of ' r
, the main'vanes and the face of the'next main
vane. The ducts 63 projecting through the. main.‘
vanes'permit predetermined quantities of ?uid to’
?ow through the vanes whereupon localized highél
or pressure areas». are "substantially avoided, and
able bonding operation to secure the‘elements toe
turbulence and eddy currents?.are'preventedl ' '
While: the vanes illustrated in Figs, 1 and: 2 are
In'the embodiment illustrated in Fig; 5 the
?exible strip forming. the trailing end of the blade
is eliminated, and a ?exible. trailing portion. 95
formed of rubber orany other suitable substances
is attached to the body portion 65 as: illustrated‘
primarily intended'for use as! energy absorbing
turbine. vanes it would be- apparent that they'rnay
also function advantageously in guide wheel
members to rectify the fluid ?ow and; provide for
the transmission of power from a driving member
to a driven member with: torque multiplication.
Figs, 3. to 6- inclusive illustrate vanes particu
larly adapted for use on ?uid energizing impel
lers; Referring to the. embodiment of Fig. 3 it
at 91. The, ?exible trailing portion 95 may dre
?'ect: under the: in?uence of the load to which it
is subjected‘ to compensate. for variations of load
in the same manner as the embodiments illus
trated in Figs. 3' and ill
would be noted that the impeller vane includes: a
- .
The. impellerv blade illustrated in Fig; 6 em
substantially ?xed body portion 615- havi-ng a con
toured nose portion 6.‘! to. receive power transmit
bodies a‘pair of spaced stationary pins. in and
H33, which'if desired‘ may be secured in spaced
ting ?uid from a turbine or a guide wheel mem
impeller and shroud members. ‘A ?exible tail
portion W5 is pivotally mounted on the station
ary pin MI and is provided with a crown portion
posed between spacedj weband. shroud members,
H31: adapted to ?t within a forked portion‘ I09‘
one. ofwhich isv illustrated at ‘H to form an im 20 of- a member llrl. mounted on the stationary pin
peller channel 1'3: wherein ?uid maybe energized
I03. ‘The tail portion “35 is free: to ?ex. angularly
as the impeller member rotates in the direction
toward the dotted line. position I t3 under the in
of the. arrow 1.5..
?uence of variations of load to which it is sub;
The body portion 55' is provided with a pin 11
adapted to receive a: ?exible tail portion 19 formed
As the. ?exible tail portion I05 is subjected M!
for- example of a piece ofwmetal bent upon itself
ay force to move it: angularly in either direction
to surround the pin 11 and. project beyond the
it pivots about the stationary pin H] I‘ whereupon
ber, and direct it over the contoured surface 69
of the vane. The body portion; 65 may be inter
trailing edge 8|: of the body portion 65... ' The
thickened section of metal or other substance may
the crown portion Hll moves the fork- member
I09; of the member’ I‘ M to pivot the nose portion
N5 of the: member- I [1y about the: pin W3‘ to vary
be interrupted at or near the trailing edge. 8%!) of
the body section,65 as illustrated at 83 to provide
a. rearwardly extending portion 85 of relatively
?exible contour.
The operation of this embodiment of the in
vention is as follows: The leading portion 61 of
the impeller vane receives the power transmitting
?uid with minimum turbulence and directs it over
the contoured surface 69 to energize it.
At slow speeds and heavy loads, the ?exible
trailing portion is de?ected in the direction of the 40
dot-dash position 81 thereby decreasing the dis
1940, now Patent No. 2,351,516, dated June 13,
1944, and Serial No. 307,285, ?led December'2,
1939, now Patent No. 2,327,647, dated August 24,
the device is subjected. .Automatic variation of
I claim:
1. A rotatable wheel, spaced streamline main
vanes on the wheel having rounded entrance.
a ?uid clutch, the loads to which the vanes are
edges and passages through the bodies thereof,
subjected are smaller than the loads to which
they are subjected when high torque is being
transmitted at slower speeds when the device is
functioning as a torque converter. At the higher
speeds where lighter loads are transmitted, the
The embodiment illustrated in Fig. 4 is gener
and rectifying vanes on the wheel intermediate
the main vanes.
2. An impeller blade for a ?uid transmission
comprising a shaft adapted to be pivotally
mounted in impeller shroud and web members, a
tail portion formed of a strip of ?exible mate
‘ rial bent around said shaft and projecting rear
wardly therefrom, a portion of the length of the
tail portion being formed of double thickness of
material, and a substantially rigid nose portion
pivotally mounted on said shaft and extending
beyond the shaft to engage a portion of ?exible
material of double thickness.
be noted that a resilient casing 9| is positioned
3. An impeller blade for a ?uid transmission
to (overlie the ?exible trailing portion 85 to 65
comprising a shaft adapted to be pivotally
streamline the path of ?uid ?ow from the con
mounted in impeller shroud and web members, a
toured portion 68 of the body portion 65 and
tail portion formed of a strip of ?exible material
reduce ?uid turbulence. The resilient casing 9|
bent around said shaft and projecting rearwardly
is free to ?ex with the ?exible trailing portion 85
whereupon the desired automatic compensation 7%) therefrom, a portion of the length of the tail por
tion being formed of double ‘thickness of mate
of the diameter of the impeller is provided for
a substantially rigid nose portion pivotally
variations of load. It will be noted that the
on said shaft and extending beyond the
casing 9| may be dovetailed into the body portion
shaft to engage a portion of ?exible material of
55 as illustrated at 93 by a molding or other suit
double thickness, and a thin layer of resilient
ally similar to that illustrated in Fig. 3. It will
The pins HJI and I03 together with the actu
ating crown and fork members I01 and H19 may
be covered by means of a shell H9 molded or
This is a continuation in part of my co-pend
the impeller diameter in accordance with varia
tions of speed and load is thus achieved.
At high speed and light load conditions of op
eration as when the transmission is operating as
power results.
jected during rotation of the impeller member in
the direction of the arrow I I9.
ing applications Serial'No. 337,037, ?led May 24,
85 is of course dependent on the loads to which
tained large whereupon e?icient transmission of
jected to move toward. the dotted line. position l H
under the in?uence of forces to which it is? sub
otherwise suitably attached thereto.
charge angle from the impeller and effecting a
reduction in the diameter of the impeller. The
amount of ?exing of the ?exible trailing portion
?exing of the trailing portion 85 is therefore less
than when heavy loads are being transmitted and
the effective diameter of the impeller is main
the angular relation, of the nose portion N15;
The» ?exible nose portion also free to ?ex
under the in?uence of the load to Which'it issub+
nonemagnetic material molded onthe tail por
tion. I
4. An impeller blade'for a ?uid transmission
having impeller shroud and web members com
prising a pair of spaced shafts pivotally mounted
in the shroud and web ‘members, a ?exible tail
portion pivotally mounted intermediate its length
on one of the shafts and having a forwardly
extending actuating member and a rearwardly
' 'I. A turbine vanefor a'?uid transmission com
prising ‘a body portion having, a curved back, and
a face formed of a plurality of substantially ?at
angularly related surfaces, the included angle be
tween each surface and its succeeding surface be;
ing lesser progressively and in the same direction
,from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the
8. In a ?uid transmission, a turbine having a
10 plurality of spaced ?uid de?ecting energy absorb
ing vanes, each vane having a rounded entrance
portion, a body portion having a plurality of sub
said actuating member pivotally mounted on the
extending ?exible ?uid de?ecting member 0f vari
able ?exibility, a bifurcated member receiving
stantially ?at angularly related surfaces on the
face thereof and a curved back portion terminat
15 ing in a substantially ?at surface extending par
cated member to de?ect ?uid.
allel with one of the ?at surfaces of the face
5. 'In a ?uid transmission a blade wheel having
‘of the vane;
spaced ?uid de?ecting vanes forming a power
9. In a ?uid energizing impeller, a vane com
transmitting ?uid channel, each of the .vanes
prising spaced pins on the Vane, a ?exible tail
having a rounded entrance portion to receive
power transmitting ?uid‘with minimum turbu 20 portion pivotally mounted 'on'one of the pins, 9.
?exible entrance portion pivotally mounted on
lence, an enlarged body portion having a plurality
the other pin, and-motion transmitting means
of flat surfaces on its face and an extended trail
carried by the tail and entrance portions whereby
ing portion having substantially ?at parallel sur
the position of'one of said portions is in?uenced
faces to guide the ?uid as it leaves the ?uid chan
by the‘ position of the other portion.
nel thereby minimizing ?uid turbulence.
10. In an impeller, 'a' vane, spaced stationary
6. In a ?uid transmission a blade wheel having,
on the vane, a tail portion pivotally
spaced ?uid de?ecting vanes forming a power
mounted on one of the members, an entrance
transmitting ?uid channel, each of the vanes hav
portion pivotally mounted on the other member,
ing a rounded entrance portion to receive power
motion transmitting means between the tail and
transmitting ?uid with minimum turbulencaa
entrance portions whereby‘the angular position
body portion having ?at surfaces'on its face, and
of one portion is in?uencedby the angular posi
a trailing portion having substantially ?at par
tion of the other portion.
allel surfaces extending over more than one-third
of the length of the vane to guide the ?uid as it
leaves the ?uid channel to substantially prevent
other of said ‘spaced shafts, and a forwardly ex-,
tending de?ecting member carried by the bifur
eddy currents'and ?uid cavitation.‘
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