Патент USA US2406499код для вставки
Aug, 27, 1946. > J. JANDASEK I ' FLUID 2,406,499 ' TRANSMISSION, ‘ Filed Aug. 23, 1945 INVENTOR. _ Jésepé Jélzddsei BY - ' ‘ Patented Aug. 27, 1946 ~ ‘ 2,406,499 UNITED STATES PATENTIiOFFICE‘ FLUID TRANSMISSION Joseph Jandasek, Highland Park, Mich., assignor to Bendix Aviation Corporation, South Bend, Ind., a corporation of Delaware . Application August 23, 1943, Serial No. 499,614 10 Claims. (01. 103-415) 1 2 This invention relates to transmissions and more particularly to ?uid transmissions having trance portion may be controlled by a gular ?uid de?ecting vanes. ' Heretofore in the ?uid transmission art consid erable difficulty has been encountered because the ?uid entering ai?uid energizing or energy absorb ing blade wheel or a guide wheel does not ap proach the ?uid de?ecting vanes at a constant .. movement of the eXit portion. ' ‘ 1 . Other objects and advantages of this invention will be apparent from the following detailed de- _' scription considered in connection with the ac companying drawing, submitted for purposes of illustration only and not intended to‘ de?ne the scope of the invention, reference being had fo angle under conditions of varying speed and load that purpose to the subjoined claims. - 1 ' operations. This variation in the entrance angle 10' In the drawing wherein similar reference char of the power transmitting ?uid causes the ?uid acters refer‘to similar parts throughout the sev to impact againstthe entrance portions of the vanes at an undesirable angle under certain con Fig. l’is a fragmentary sectional view of a?uid eral views: ‘ ' g L I , ditions of operation whereupon eddy currents de?ecting blade wheel adapted for use in a ?uid ' and ?uid turbulence are introduced resulting in transmission to induce orderly ?ow of ?uid with ine?iciency of operation of such transmissions minimumturbulence.v V -. ; ' . , An object of this invention is therefore to pro Fig-2 is a sectional View illustrating a modi?ed vide a blade wheel having ?uid de?ecting vfanes form of the invention. ‘ > I so proportioned as to rectify ?uid ?ow and in Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view of a ?uid‘ duce smooth orderly ?ow of ?uid between the ?uid 20 energizing impeller member having ?uid de?ect de?ecting vanes whereupon turbulence is avoided, and the transmission of power is maintained at ingvanes provided with ?exible exit portions. } Figsgll and 5 ‘are views similar to Fig. 3 illus trating a further modi?ed form of the invention. Fig. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view of an im high e?iciency under varying conditions of speed and load operations. Another object of the invention is to provide 25 peller vane having pivoted ?exible entranceand an energy absorbing turbine or guide wheel hav discharge portions. ing spaced main and auxiliary rectifying vanes to Before explaining in detail the present inven direct the lines of ?uid. flow to prevent ?uid turbu tion it is to be understood that the invention is lence under varying conditions of speed and load. not limited in its application to the details of. Yet another object resides in the provision of a construction and arrangement of parts illustrated ?uid de?ecting ‘channel formed by contoured in the accompanying drawing, since the invention main vanes and spaced rectifying vanes inter is capable of other embodiments and of being posed between the main vanes serving to reduce the number of main vanes and rendering it pos sible to use vanes of thinner contour to attain increased e?iciency of the transmission of power. Still a further object is to provide ?uid de?ect ing vanes having apertures extending through the vanes to substantially equalizing ?uid pressures on opposite sides of the vanes. v A further object of the invention is to provide animpeller for a ?uid transmission having ?ex practiced or carried out in various ways. Also it is to be understood that the phraseology ‘or ter minology employed herein is for the purpose of description and not of limitation. . Referring now to the embodiment of the in vention illustrated in Fig. 1 main and rectify-, ing ?uid de?ecting vanes | I and larespectively are carried by the web or shroud I5‘of a blade wheel such as an energy absorbing turbine or a guide vwheel for operation in a power transmit ible blades operative to automatically vary the ting ?uid circuit. ' . , ~ ?uid energizing characteristics of the impeller in Each .mainvane H has a’ rounded ‘entrance proportion to variations of speed and~load. 45 edge l1 terminating on they face of the vane in ' Another object resides in the provision of an substantially ?at ?uid de?ecting surfaces l9, 2|, improved impeller blade of resilient material and .23. and‘the back of each main vane vH has. bonded to ?exible material adapted to change its a surface 25 of rounded curvature terminating'in contour in response to variations of speed and a substantially ?at. surface 2",, parallel to the suri; load and to. present a streamlined contour where 50 face 23011 the face of the vane. The trailing by ?uid turbulence'is minimized. ' i ' edge of the vane is contoured as illustrated. at,_29 > A further object of the invention'resides in the. provision of an improved impeller blade having‘ angularly movable ?exible entrance and exit-por tions, wherein’ the1angular relation of the ‘en: to‘provide a smooth-surface connecting the?at surfaces --23 andv 21. ~ .1 . V ' Spaced ducts 3 I, extend through the vane in in-Z. clined , positions‘; from I the - face to the. baclrl 2,406,499 3 4 tends to induce eddy currents and cause ?uid turbulence. This condition is materially over provide fo-r'the ?ow of predetermined volumes of ' ?uid through the vane to substantially equalize come by the use of the ducts 3| and 4| extend ing through the main and rectifying vanes respec ?uid pressures on opposite sides thereof. The rectifying vanes 13 have rounded entrance portions 33 and curved face and back surfaces 35 and 37 respectively converging to the trail ing edges of the vanes as illustrated at 39. These tively to provide for predetermined quantities of ?uid to ?ow through the vanes to substantially equalize ?uid pressures on opposite sides thereof. It will be noted that the ducts 3i and 4! are in clined in the direction of the ?uid ?ow where curved as to direct the ?uid between the main vanes H and induce substantially streamlined 10 upon ?ow of ?uid therethrough is induced. ‘ The embodiment of the invention illustrated in ?uid ?ow free from eddy currents or turbulence. Fig. 2 is similar in many respects to that illus The leading edge 33 of the rectifying vanes trated in Fig. 1. It will be noted that main vanes ‘are arranged slightly in advance of the leading 45 have rounded entrance portions 4'! disposed edges ll’ of the main vanes l I so as to rectify rectifying vanes are of airfoil shape andare so the ?ow of the ?uid and to induce the ?uid to ?ow between the main vanes with minimum turbu at a smaller angle to a line tangential to the web or shroud member 49 to which the vanes are se lence. The rectifying vanes .also have ducts 4i extending in an inclined position through the illustrated in Fig. l. .vanes'from the face to the back to permit prede termined quantities of ?uid to ?ow therethrough cured than do the entrance edges of the vanes I l ‘ The faces of the vanes 45 are formed with 20 curved surfaces 51 extended from the entrance 'so'as to substantiallyequalize‘?uid pressures on edge in an arc terminating in a substantially ?at opposite sides of the vanes. 1 ’ The operation of this embodiment of the in surface 53. The substantially ?at surface 53 ter minates in an are 55 to deviate the ?ow of fluid and direct it to issue from the turbine or guide vention is-as' follows: Power transmitting ?uid entering the turbine or guide wheel channel ini wheel ?uid channel at a desired angle. The backs of the vanes have a substantially ?at sur face 51 extended from the entrance edge and ter minating in an are 59 providing substantial thick-i of the ?uid is recti?ed to a considerableextent ness of Width to the main vane. The back sur and the ?uid is induced‘ by the curved portions 35 and 31 of the rectifying vanes to ?ow between 30 face 59 terminates in a substantially ?at surface 6 IV converging with the arcuate shaped portion 55 ; the main vanes‘! l with minimum turbulence. ’ ' The faces '_of themain vanes H have ?at sur of' Suitable the face of ducts the blade. ' 63 extend 7' ' through a ’ ‘ the ' vanes tially contacts the leading edge 33 of the rectifyf ' ing vanes I3 whereupon the direction of the ?ow faces [9,‘ 2| and'23 causing the ‘?uidto succes ‘ sively ?ow substantial distances along the face of the main vanes with ‘relatively small Stepped ' changes in the direction of ?ow hence maximum energy may be abstracted from the ?uidwith from the face to the back of the vane, preferably , from the curved surface 5i to the substantially ?at surface 5| on the back of the blade to permit ' the ?ow of predetermined quantities of ?uid minimum frictional losses.‘ The angular rela tion of v the’ successive'surfaces I 9, 2 l and . 23' be. therethrough to substantially equalize ?uid pres; ' sure on opposite sides of the blade. ' ing quite small does not subject the ?uid to suf-v 40 Rectifying vanes 65 are interposed between the main vanes 45 and are of small relatively thin ?ciently rapid‘deviation in its ?ow' to introduce high turbulence or cause eddy currents of a pro‘ ' cross‘ section embodying’ considerable curvature. I It. will be noted that the rectifying vanes are positioned deep in the ?uid circuit, being spaced desired generous ?llets may be provided at the junctures of the ?at surfaces l9,_2l and 23 to 45 considerably below the entrance/edges 41 of the main vanes‘45; and terminating preferably above . further minimize turbulence. ' ' ' ' the‘discharge ends '61 of the main vanes; The ‘ It has jbeenfound that ?at surfaceson the rectifying vanes are preferably disposed opposite faceof the blades is desirable because such sur the curved back surface 59 of the main vanes to faces cause the ?uid to ?ow over the face of the nounced nature. It will be understood that if blade. predetermined distances without rapid 50 provide considerable guidance for the ‘?uid and prevent the introduction of eddy current and changes in its direction of ?ow so that maximum turbulence frequently caused by the curvature of energy may be absorbed from the ?uid. The the ?uid channel. ' ~ _ l ?uid ?owing over the curved back surface 25 of The operation of this embodiment of the in‘-v the main blades I l is induced to follow the curva ture of the blades because of known principles 55 vention is as follows: The entrance edges 4‘! of the main vanes 45 being at aless angle to a line whereupon cavitation and eddy lossesrare sub tangential to the web or shroud member 49 per stantially prevented. The substantially parallel mits higher speed ?uid to be guided into the ?uid surfaces 23 and 21 adjacent the outlet of the main channel with minimum turbulence, and the arcu-' vanes H. guides the ?uid in a desirable manner without causing any material change in the direc‘y-u 60 ate curved surface 5| on the face of the vane 45 guides the fluid with minimum change of ‘direc tion of the ?uid ?ow whereupon the ?uid issues tion to the substantially flat surface 53 ‘disposed . from the turbine or guide wheel channel with at such an angle that maximum energy may minimum turbulence. ‘ It will be noted that the centrally disposed ?at‘ surfaceZl materiallylincreases the thickness of 65 abstracted from the ?uid. 1 ‘ ‘ The back of the vane is contoured in such a manner as to guide the ?uid through the channel the channel is narrowed intermediateits length . r with minimum turbulence whereupon a-portion' of the power maybe absorbed by‘the rectifying ' to provide a'desired Venturi’ action which still vanes 65, however the rectifying vanes primarily further minimizes'?uid turbulence and eddy'cure' 70 function to prevent the introduction of eddy'cure the central portion. of the main blades hence T911135». ‘Alsfthe ?uid. ?ows over ,"the mainandjrectify-j ' r ing vanes H and I3 respectively there is a tend } encyr for ?uid pressure on the face of the vanes to increase above the ?uid'pressure' on the back of the vanes. This variation of‘ ?uid pressures rents or turbulence between the back of one of ' r , the main'vanes and the face of the'next main vane. The ducts 63 projecting through the. main.‘ vanes'permit predetermined quantities of ?uid to’ ?ow through the vanes whereupon localized highél c ‘ 2,406,499 ‘5 6 or pressure areas». are "substantially avoided, and able bonding operation to secure the‘elements toe turbulence and eddy currents?.are'preventedl ' ' gether. While: the vanes illustrated in Figs, 1 and: 2 are 1 In'the embodiment illustrated in Fig; 5 the ?exible strip forming. the trailing end of the blade is eliminated, and a ?exible. trailing portion. 95 formed of rubber orany other suitable substances is attached to the body portion 65 as: illustrated‘ primarily intended'for use as! energy absorbing turbine. vanes it would be- apparent that they'rnay also function advantageously in guide wheel members to rectify the fluid ?ow and; provide for the transmission of power from a driving member to a driven member with: torque multiplication. Figs, 3. to 6- inclusive illustrate vanes particu larly adapted for use on ?uid energizing impel lers; Referring to the. embodiment of Fig. 3 it at 91. The, ?exible trailing portion 95 may dre ?'ect: under the: in?uence of the load to which it is subjected‘ to compensate. for variations of load in the same manner as the embodiments illus trated in Figs. 3' and ill would be noted that the impeller vane includes: a - . I The. impellerv blade illustrated in Fig; 6 em substantially ?xed body portion 615- havi-ng a con toured nose portion 6.‘! to. receive power transmit bodies a‘pair of spaced stationary pins. in and H33, which'if desired‘ may be secured in spaced ting ?uid from a turbine or a guide wheel mem impeller and shroud members. ‘A ?exible tail portion W5 is pivotally mounted on the station ary pin MI and is provided with a crown portion posed between spacedj weband. shroud members, H31: adapted to ?t within a forked portion‘ I09‘ one. ofwhich isv illustrated at ‘H to form an im 20 of- a member llrl. mounted on the stationary pin peller channel 1'3: wherein ?uid maybe energized I03. ‘The tail portion “35 is free: to ?ex. angularly as the impeller member rotates in the direction toward the dotted line. position I t3 under the in of the. arrow 1.5.. ?uence of variations of load to which it is sub; The body portion 55' is provided with a pin 11 jected. adapted to receive a: ?exible tail portion 19 formed As the. ?exible tail portion I05 is subjected M! for- example of a piece ofwmetal bent upon itself ay force to move it: angularly in either direction to surround the pin 11 and. project beyond the it pivots about the stationary pin H] I‘ whereupon ber, and direct it over the contoured surface 69 of the vane. The body portion; 65 may be inter trailing edge 8|: of the body portion 65... ' The thickened section of metal or other substance may the crown portion Hll moves the fork- member I09; of the member’ I‘ M to pivot the nose portion N5 of the: member- I [1y about the: pin W3‘ to vary be interrupted at or near the trailing edge. 8%!) of the body section,65 as illustrated at 83 to provide a. rearwardly extending portion 85 of relatively ?exible contour. ‘ The operation of this embodiment of the in vention is as follows: The leading portion 61 of the impeller vane receives the power transmitting ?uid with minimum turbulence and directs it over the contoured surface 69 to energize it. At slow speeds and heavy loads, the ?exible trailing portion is de?ected in the direction of the 40 dot-dash position 81 thereby decreasing the dis 1940, now Patent No. 2,351,516, dated June 13, 1944, and Serial No. 307,285, ?led December'2, 1939, now Patent No. 2,327,647, dated August 24, the device is subjected. .Automatic variation of 1943. I claim: 1. A rotatable wheel, spaced streamline main vanes on the wheel having rounded entrance. a ?uid clutch, the loads to which the vanes are edges and passages through the bodies thereof, subjected are smaller than the loads to which they are subjected when high torque is being transmitted at slower speeds when the device is functioning as a torque converter. At the higher speeds where lighter loads are transmitted, the The embodiment illustrated in Fig. 4 is gener and rectifying vanes on the wheel intermediate the main vanes. 2. An impeller blade for a ?uid transmission comprising a shaft adapted to be pivotally mounted in impeller shroud and web members, a tail portion formed of a strip of ?exible mate ‘ rial bent around said shaft and projecting rear 60 wardly therefrom, a portion of the length of the tail portion being formed of double thickness of material, and a substantially rigid nose portion pivotally mounted on said shaft and extending beyond the shaft to engage a portion of ?exible material of double thickness. be noted that a resilient casing 9| is positioned 3. An impeller blade for a ?uid transmission to (overlie the ?exible trailing portion 85 to 65 comprising a shaft adapted to be pivotally streamline the path of ?uid ?ow from the con mounted in impeller shroud and web members, a toured portion 68 of the body portion 65 and tail portion formed of a strip of ?exible material reduce ?uid turbulence. The resilient casing 9| bent around said shaft and projecting rearwardly is free to ?ex with the ?exible trailing portion 85 whereupon the desired automatic compensation 7%) therefrom, a portion of the length of the tail por tion being formed of double ‘thickness of mate of the diameter of the impeller is provided for rial, a substantially rigid nose portion pivotally variations of load. It will be noted that the mounted on said shaft and extending beyond the casing 9| may be dovetailed into the body portion shaft to engage a portion of ?exible material of 55 as illustrated at 93 by a molding or other suit double thickness, and a thin layer of resilient ally similar to that illustrated in Fig. 3. It will ‘ The pins HJI and I03 together with the actu ating crown and fork members I01 and H19 may be covered by means of a shell H9 molded or This is a continuation in part of my co-pend the impeller diameter in accordance with varia tions of speed and load is thus achieved. At high speed and light load conditions of op eration as when the transmission is operating as power results. jected during rotation of the impeller member in the direction of the arrow I I9. ing applications Serial'No. 337,037, ?led May 24, 85 is of course dependent on the loads to which tained large whereupon e?icient transmission of jected to move toward. the dotted line. position l H under the in?uence of forces to which it is? sub otherwise suitably attached thereto. charge angle from the impeller and effecting a reduction in the diameter of the impeller. The amount of ?exing of the ?exible trailing portion ?exing of the trailing portion 85 is therefore less than when heavy loads are being transmitted and the effective diameter of the impeller is main the angular relation, of the nose portion N15; The» ?exible nose portion Il:5.is also free to ?ex under the in?uence of the load to Which'it issub+ 2,406,499 ‘7 nonemagnetic material molded onthe tail por tion. I r .' : 4. An impeller blade'for a ?uid transmission having impeller shroud and web members com prising a pair of spaced shafts pivotally mounted in the shroud and web ‘members, a ?exible tail portion pivotally mounted intermediate its length on one of the shafts and having a forwardly extending actuating member and a rearwardly ' 'I. A turbine vanefor a'?uid transmission com prising ‘a body portion having, a curved back, and a face formed of a plurality of substantially ?at angularly related surfaces, the included angle be tween each surface and its succeeding surface be; ing lesser progressively and in the same direction ,from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the vane. , 8. In a ?uid transmission, a turbine having a 10 plurality of spaced ?uid de?ecting energy absorb ing vanes, each vane having a rounded entrance portion, a body portion having a plurality of sub said actuating member pivotally mounted on the extending ?exible ?uid de?ecting member 0f vari able ?exibility, a bifurcated member receiving stantially ?at angularly related surfaces on the face thereof and a curved back portion terminat 15 ing in a substantially ?at surface extending par cated member to de?ect ?uid. , ‘ allel with one of the ?at surfaces of the face 5. 'In a ?uid transmission a blade wheel having ‘of the vane; , spaced ?uid de?ecting vanes forming a power 9. In a ?uid energizing impeller, a vane com transmitting ?uid channel, each of the .vanes prising spaced pins on the Vane, a ?exible tail having a rounded entrance portion to receive power transmitting ?uid‘with minimum turbu 20 portion pivotally mounted 'on'one of the pins, 9. ?exible entrance portion pivotally mounted on lence, an enlarged body portion having a plurality the other pin, and-motion transmitting means of flat surfaces on its face and an extended trail carried by the tail and entrance portions whereby ing portion having substantially ?at parallel sur the position of'one of said portions is in?uenced faces to guide the ?uid as it leaves the ?uid chan by the‘ position of the other portion. nel thereby minimizing ?uid turbulence. 10. In an impeller, 'a' vane, spaced stationary 6. In a ?uid transmission a blade wheel having, members on the vane, a tail portion pivotally spaced ?uid de?ecting vanes forming a power mounted on one of the members, an entrance transmitting ?uid channel, each of the vanes hav portion pivotally mounted on the other member, ing a rounded entrance portion to receive power motion transmitting means between the tail and transmitting ?uid with minimum turbulencaa entrance portions whereby‘the angular position body portion having ?at surfaces'on its face, and of one portion is in?uencedby the angular posi a trailing portion having substantially ?at par tion of the other portion. allel surfaces extending over more than one-third of the length of the vane to guide the ?uid as it JOSEPH JANDASEK. leaves the ?uid channel to substantially prevent other of said ‘spaced shafts, and a forwardly ex-, tending de?ecting member carried by the bifur eddy currents'and ?uid cavitation.‘ ‘ .