Патент USA US2406511код для вставки
Aug.- 27, 1946. - v PISTON Filed June 4, 1943 .\ \ T „T \ '_ 2,406,511 W. A. ROTH -2 Sheets-Sheet l ' _ _„_ _ / 2wC l m . 8 4. . œ 7 yD“ w _d B o0 o ,W H.vla.M0M A. Patented Aug. 27, 1946 2,466,511 ' I T ED vST».15II`»»IE`„S 0F 1l-.C E 2,406,511 -rls'roN William Alltoth, St. Paul, 'Minn. .Application-June 4, 1946,.;‘seria11Nm 469,611.2-> 1> `Claim. f . 1 (o1.,123-.78J. ' ~ . Myyinve'n'tionfrelates¿coran-'improvement infpis provide a means fory increasing the amount of .In the -lower endfof the skirt -Hr Igprovide :a sleeve `I 4 whichfis 'threaded inside 'the-»lower rend >of .the fsleeve l|~.I .fa-nd :is adapted .to Vbe fixed by the pins I5 to the sleeve II of the piston.y"1~lhe inner> end-of the ‘sleeve :I4: is in »the ‘form «of‘ a cylindrical wal‘lï‘lfö which is parallel to»V the fwall :I?l fof> the skirt :of thepiston and thereby Epre vides -amecess IFI: whichis Y.complemental‘in size andshape ‘to >the vannular :recess 1'3‘» inside ,of the fuel and air mixture ?d-rawn finto the l*cylinders 10 head .ofthe-«piston `A.> rtonsffor internal .combustion engines of :thefour -cycle type. lA primary object of my invention .is to remove, during the exhaustxstroke, practi cally the >entire exhaustzgasesthat arepordinarily .trapped vin the clearance space of the -present type-:of internal combustion'fengines. yAnother object> :of .primary .importance ’is fito «during the `intake stroke, without 'the use -of , supercharger means, when this is Afound to -be :.desirable. The foregoing >objects provide a piston for in . ~ f The >"cylindrical" sleeve' lI`-2` andi »the sleeve por tion I4 :have the vsame-axis and extendin the same cylindrical plane; being spacedrapartvand adaptedI to kprovide 6a, :bearing for tlaevlends- of . ternal combustiony engines to 'increase efficiency., < power, and a :great :saving'ïin ‘fuel during the the-‘Wrist >pinisleeve 6B. »operation of v.the Vinternal combustion engine. The increased efficiency and -power obtained by using my piston in 'internal `combustion engines tends to provide an»;engine -ofsrnaïller -Weight for the .ends in ’the sleeve B kinfamy lsuitable ‘manner and 'is _adapted "to support "the `upper end :of vvthe . . 1Tire-wrist zpin fIcß îis mounted centrally between connectingfrod C. ` the .same power than an internal combustion en vThe >wrist' pin 'sleeve'. B -is vadalcited >to :slide `in the ‘.pi’st'on .-Aso that the> skirts 2-0v and 25| on .each gine .using the ordinary type iof^piston. end of the :sleevesoperate in a .close-fitting man .A further feature resides in providing anin ternal combustion engine with lower intake >and ner ’in '.-therecesses 'lf3-and IFI, respectively. 'An oil: îñlm Awhiclfrv lnbrïicates "the piston .A `alsoïlirbri compression temperatures, #thereby permitting se Cates .the `sleeve B, and an air cushion ‘is `~built the use of loweroctane fue'lïfor "the same` com upfîiril the :recesses ~:I 3i and .1I .'I.v :to V<'cushion'tl'1e opera pression 'ratio, yor 'higher compression ratio `for tion fof >Ttlaepiston A `with `thex'sleeve B as "the the same octanefrating. “ .. ' ` piston' :reciprocates in the ¿engine cylinder A.22. My piston "is applicable fto airplane motors, ‘Ilprïovid'e‘a series sof 'large holes €213' `to ladmit wherein I‘believe it A,willdevel'op >greater efñciency air lubricating v'oil to 'the piston and Lsleeve with a decrease in engine weigh'tßfor thepower Bïin‘the recesses ‘ISI and ='I"I'„ respectively; I also developed bythe ¿engine usingfmyfp'istons. These provide aseri'esse'f `Àsmall’holfesîïll at the bottom, . pistons may >be used "to .adVan-tageßin automobile, Diesel, and other engines :of the four-cycle’type, and ¿a similar Vseries :of` :small .holes V2l! yslightly above’the bottom, foffeach ‘recess I3 and I1, reé‘ where perfomance as defined herein‘is desirable. 35 spectively, Ito: permit air >and -oil -to gradually 'es ‘The «details and further' features of ìmy @pist-on cape from‘these recesses vin the l:reciprccation 'of will' be more fully hereinafter'set forth. the sleeve B within the` piston. `The size and In the drawings rforming Ya part of :my speci number of .the ¿series of holes 23 and `2&1 to 'be ñcation: proportioned soy as to :admit the vair freely into Fig. `V1 .illustrates :a ydiagranmiatic `cross-section 40 the recesses il3‘and '121,:and'to restrict` the escape of an internal combustion fengine, showing. my of .fair the recesses .so that an air `’cushion may ibe?form'ed'- tovpreventrs'hock .between 'the `pis Fig. .12 isa cross-’section of-an alternativer »form ton Auand th-e<ends :of 'itlne sleeve :Bfwhilefin’rapid of “myy piston. ‘ . motion with respect. to reach. other. 45 Fig. 3’is asection ’onfthe lined-#L3 Lofï=Fig. `1. In operation my piston A will :reciprocate'iin Fig; 4 'is a section cn'thel line ‘f4-4 of .Fi-g. "1; the 'cylinder '22 >in uthe Ioperation `*of the internal `My piston A may '.beused in anyftypey ofxf'our combustion engine; @The imovementof' the-piston cycle internal combustion "engine, fand isfiprovided A willbe different with respect .to the sleeveB with a zhead portion ISU whichfmay be formed-‘in and the cylinder :ZZzduri-r-Lgv each `fstrolaefof a‘four . tegral .with theskirt Il as `illustrated l~in Fig. l'. 60 cycle engine. The head I0 is formed with a depending- cylin At the end-vof .the power stroke-and the begin dricalmsleeve >I 2 îwhich extends into the piston iin ning foff the exhaustfstro'ke theeupper face ,2:5 Aof parallel ‘relation to êthe wall of :thexskirtV "Id tto the `sleeve B ¿will .be-.in-v contact wit-h ~the yface .26 provide a recess 1.63-1-between-'the wall of: the'iskiizt at »the bottom vof the;` recess ¿|f3, »the »lower part `2| pistonr therein. . » fI'I ,-andxthefwa'lli.oiîíthe;5s1eeve;l2.. ' » U U' of. the .sleevefB Wíllbe Withdrawnfronr therecessv 4 3 I1.’ the recess I1 being ñlled with air or gases from the crank end side of the piston. During the exhaust stroke the piston A will stay in this position with respect to the sleeve B until a point, somewhat more than one-half the length of the motion of the sleeve B is reached, when the sleeve B will begin to slow down, the piston i , A being atits highest rate of speed at this point> withdrawn from the recess I3, this recess filling with air and gases from the crank side.Y of the piston-the piston A holding this position with respect to the sleeve B up to a point somewhat less than one-half the length of the stroke of the K sleeve B. During this time the inertia force act ing in opposition to the motion of the sleeve B decreases rapidly from a high value at the be ginning of. the-suction stroke to zero -at a point will tend to continue at this highest rate of speed, and thus proceed ¿towards the head o-f the cylin 10 somewhat less than one-half the stroke of the der at aA faster rate than the sleeve B. Simultaneously, while this action of the piston A is taking place, the air and gases in the recess I1 are being compressed, ñrst lightly, to permit Y the piston A to move freely, and then compressed», vmore strongly as the compressed gases'iail'to` escape through the holes 24 as fast as theyßare being compressed, thus checking the speed of the piston A, an-d bringing it to rest, at the end of its forward motion, at the same time that the sleeve` B vcomes lto the end of its forward motion, and thus contact is >made between the faces 21 and 28 of the sleeves B and I4, respectively, without shock.-V _, ' ` ~ ' This action of the piston A is the result of the inertia lforces Aresiding in the Vpiston A.V As the acceleration at_the beginning 'of the strokel is high, theinertia force of the piston A holds it in the position' it hadïat thejbeginningïof the stroke sleeve B. v Y klí‘rom this point on, the inertia is again re versed, acting now towards the crank end of the piston, the sleeve B, through the motionrof the crank and connecting rod, slowing up, while the piston tends to continue at the same speed, thus ' ‘ the sleeve 2l'being withdrawn from the recess I1_ whilethe sleeve 20 enters the recess I3, com pressing the air and gases in the recess I3 and similarly as in the exhaust stroke, bringing the piston' A to rest without shock, with the face 25 in contact with vthe face2Iì.v The piston A comes tothe end of its motion at the same time as the sleeve 'B comes'to the end of its motion.V That is, the piston A and the sleeve B come to Vrest simultaneously, the piston A moving further than the sleeve B bythe length of the clearance space, which equals the length of theV motion of the sleeve B inthe recesses VI3 and I1. ì ' The_timing of the openingof the suction valve until the inertia becomes zero at a point-a little 30 must -be such that as the- piston v'A leaves the more 'thank one-half thelength ofthe stroke of the sleeve B where the-inertia force is reversed,V I cylinder head, thel valve follows the piston vA closely withoutrbeing in contact with it. 'This' building uperapidly to a valuehigher than it had action of the pistonA draws a ful] cylinderof at thebeginning of the stroke.V With the gases ay gas and air mixture with full throttle opening, in the recess I 1 building up a pressure rapidly: enoughtocounteract theinertia force ofthel this gas and air mixture not being diluted with piston A, it is' brought'to `the end of its forward hot exhaust gases, will have a lower temperature motion and into contact with the sleeve B with-` out shock, and when timed with the closing of insuring a lower temperature at the end of the at the beginning'of the compression stroke, thus the exhaust valve, which should close at the time 40 compression stroke, and thisV lower compression the piston comes into- near but not actual con tact, and close at aboutthe same rate as the piston 'A movesv near the end of the stroke, thusv temperature permitting the use of fuel of lower octane rating since the danger of preignition or, detonation is absent. Also., the fuel and air mix ture being free from exhaust Vgases will burn. expelling practically all of the exhaust gases above piston head I0. Somewhat better results 45 more quicklyand' completely, thus higher eili ciency andgreaterlp'ower are assured. When less may be had when used withsleeve-valve engines. power is:desired,v part throttle operation will re The second series of holes 24 somewhat above sult in the same high efficiency inthe absence of the bottom of the recess I1 and I3 are 7for the _ the blanketing effect of the vexhaust gases. . purpose of allowing the compressed air andY gases At Athe beginning of the compression stroke, l f to escape more rapidly, thus permitting the pis-` 50 the piston A will remain in the position it has ton A to more quickly reach a point near the endv at the end- of the suction stroke; that is, the face of its motion, but after this’series of holes is 26 will be in contact with-the face 25 and will closed by the ends of the sleeves B passing them, remain »in this position throughout thev compres-Y Vthe remaining holes 24 at the bottom of the re-r cesses will let the compressed gases out still more 55 sion stroke as well 'as the-power stroke. During the compression strokel the inertia forces will act, slowly, thusinsuring that no metal to metal shock or tend to act, identically the same as during results. Suiiîcient lubricating oil will enter the the exhaust stroke, but here during the compres holes 23 and 24 during the operation of the pis sion stroke the fuel and air mixture being com-1 ton ~to lubricate the bearing surfaces and to form a ,seal therebetween to prevent the escape of the 60 pressed, the total pressure on the entire area'of the head of the piston‘A will rise rto a higher Vvalue compressed air and gases from the recesses ex during all parts of the stroke than‘the inertia cept through the holes 24. Any excess of oil forces, and thus keep the piston A in the same tending toaccumulate in the recesses I3 and I1 position with respect to the sleeve By during :the will be forced out through the holes 24 to prevent 65 entire compression stroke as it had at the begin ning of the compression' stroke, the force on the ` In order to more completely expell the entire piston due to the compression of the fuel 'and exhaust gases during the exhaust stroke, it is` water-hammer. ` ' l necessary >to modify the shape of the combustion air charge, -acting counter to the Ainertia- force during the last part of the piston stroke, the chamber when my piston is in use. As the piston A reaches the end of its motion 70 piston A with the sleeve'B acting together as'a at the end of the exhaust stroke which then be solid piston. ' ' Y f ’ During the power stroke, after the gases> have been ignited, the compressed gas 'and air mixture piston remains in the position it then has, that is, will rise to a still` higher pressure,l thus holding with'the‘bottom edge 2_1 of the sleeve 2| in con tact vwith the face V28, the upper sleeve 20 ¿being 75 the piston A inthe sameirelatión' tothe sleeve comes the beginning of the suction stroke, the 5 2,406,511 B that it had at the beginning of the compres sion stroke, during the compression stroke, and will remain so to the end of the power stroke, the same as a solid piston. At the end of the power stroke the cycle will be repeated as above described. I claim: In a gas engine having a cylinder and piston rod, a piston with outer Walls engaging the in ner Walls of the cylinder, a cylindrical sleeve 10 connected with the piston rod and reciprocable within the piston for operating the same and having annular end walls of substantial width, cylindrical cups connected with the piston end walls and shaped and positioned to form annular» chambers for receiving the annular ends of said sleeve, and two rings of apertures through the Walls of both said cups, the apertures of the outer ring in each case being of large diameter to admit crank case gas and oil freely into said annular chamber, and the inner ring apertures in each case being very much smaller and being positioned close to the inner ends of the annular chambers to permit only sloW discharge there from for effecting a strong cushioning action in the transmission of the force of >reciprocation of the sleeve in both directions to the piston. ` WILLIAM A. ROTH.