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Патент USA US2406511

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Aug.- 27, 1946.
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PISTON
Filed June 4, 1943
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'_ 2,406,511
W. A. ROTH
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Patented Aug. 27, 1946
2,466,511 '
I T ED vST».15II`»»IE`„S
0F 1l-.C E
2,406,511
-rls'roN
William Alltoth, St. Paul, 'Minn.
.Application-June 4, 1946,.;‘seria11Nm 469,611.2->
1> `Claim.
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(o1.,123-.78J.
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Myyinve'n'tionfrelates¿coran-'improvement infpis
provide a means fory increasing the amount of
.In the -lower endfof the skirt -Hr Igprovide :a
sleeve `I 4 whichfis 'threaded inside 'the-»lower rend
>of .the fsleeve l|~.I .fa-nd :is adapted .to Vbe fixed by
the pins I5 to the sleeve II of the piston.y"1~lhe
inner> end-of the ‘sleeve :I4: is in »the ‘form «of‘ a
cylindrical wal‘lï‘lfö which is parallel to»V the fwall
:I?l fof> the skirt :of thepiston and thereby Epre
vides -amecess IFI: whichis Y.complemental‘in size
andshape ‘to >the vannular :recess 1'3‘» inside ,of the
fuel and air mixture ?d-rawn finto the l*cylinders 10
head .ofthe-«piston `A.>
rtonsffor internal .combustion engines of :thefour
-cycle type. lA primary object of my invention
.is to remove, during the exhaustxstroke, practi
cally the >entire exhaustzgasesthat arepordinarily
.trapped vin the clearance space of the -present
type-:of internal combustion'fengines.
yAnother object> :of .primary .importance ’is fito
«during the `intake stroke, without 'the use -of ,
supercharger means, when this is Afound to -be
:.desirable.
The foregoing >objects provide a piston for in
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The >"cylindrical" sleeve' lI`-2` andi »the sleeve por
tion I4 :have the vsame-axis and extendin the
same cylindrical plane; being spacedrapartvand
adaptedI to kprovide 6a, :bearing for tlaevlends- of .
ternal combustiony engines to 'increase efficiency., <
power, and a :great :saving'ïin ‘fuel during the
the-‘Wrist >pinisleeve 6B.
»operation of v.the Vinternal combustion engine.
The increased efficiency and -power obtained by
using my piston in 'internal `combustion engines
tends to provide an»;engine -ofsrnaïller -Weight for
the .ends in ’the sleeve B kinfamy lsuitable ‘manner
and 'is _adapted "to support "the `upper end :of vvthe
.
. 1Tire-wrist zpin fIcß îis mounted centrally between
connectingfrod C.
`
the .same power than an internal combustion en
vThe >wrist' pin 'sleeve'. B -is vadalcited >to :slide `in
the ‘.pi’st'on .-Aso that the> skirts 2-0v and 25| on .each
gine .using the ordinary type iof^piston.
end of the :sleevesoperate in a .close-fitting man
.A further feature resides in providing anin
ternal combustion engine with lower intake >and
ner ’in '.-therecesses 'lf3-and IFI, respectively. 'An
oil: îñlm Awhiclfrv lnbrïicates "the piston .A `alsoïlirbri
compression temperatures, #thereby permitting se Cates .the `sleeve B, and an air cushion ‘is `~built
the use of loweroctane fue'lïfor "the same` com
upfîiril the :recesses ~:I 3i and .1I .'I.v :to V<'cushion'tl'1e opera
pression 'ratio, yor 'higher compression ratio `for
tion fof >Ttlaepiston A `with `thex'sleeve B as "the
the same octanefrating.
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piston' :reciprocates in the ¿engine cylinder A.22.
My piston "is applicable fto airplane motors,
‘Ilprïovid'e‘a series sof 'large holes €213' `to ladmit
wherein I‘believe it A,willdevel'op >greater efñciency
air
lubricating v'oil to 'the piston and Lsleeve
with a decrease in engine weigh'tßfor thepower
Bïin‘the recesses ‘ISI and ='I"I'„ respectively; I also
developed bythe ¿engine usingfmyfp'istons. These
provide aseri'esse'f `Àsmall’holfesîïll at the bottom, .
pistons may >be used "to .adVan-tageßin automobile,
Diesel, and other engines :of the four-cycle’type,
and ¿a similar Vseries :of` :small .holes V2l! yslightly
above’the bottom, foffeach ‘recess I3 and I1, reé‘
where perfomance as defined herein‘is desirable. 35 spectively, Ito: permit air >and -oil -to gradually 'es
‘The «details and further' features of ìmy @pist-on
cape from‘these recesses vin the l:reciprccation 'of
will' be more fully hereinafter'set forth.
the sleeve B within the` piston. `The size and
In the drawings rforming Ya part of :my speci
number of .the ¿series of holes 23 and `2&1 to 'be
ñcation:
proportioned soy as to :admit the vair freely into
Fig. `V1 .illustrates :a ydiagranmiatic `cross-section 40 the recesses il3‘and '121,:and'to restrict` the escape
of an internal combustion fengine, showing. my
of .fair
the recesses .so that an air `’cushion
may ibe?form'ed'- tovpreventrs'hock .between 'the `pis
Fig. .12 isa cross-’section of-an alternativer »form
ton Auand th-e<ends :of 'itlne sleeve :Bfwhilefin’rapid
of “myy piston.
‘
.
motion with respect. to reach. other.
45
Fig. 3’is asection ’onfthe lined-#L3 Lofï=Fig. `1.
In operation my piston A will :reciprocate'iin
Fig; 4 'is a section cn'thel line ‘f4-4 of .Fi-g. "1;
the 'cylinder '22 >in uthe Ioperation `*of the internal
`My piston A may '.beused in anyftypey ofxf'our
combustion engine; @The imovementof' the-piston
cycle internal combustion "engine, fand isfiprovided
A willbe different with respect .to the sleeveB
with a zhead portion ISU whichfmay be formed-‘in
and the cylinder :ZZzduri-r-Lgv each `fstrolaefof a‘four
.
tegral .with theskirt Il as `illustrated l~in Fig. l'. 60 cycle engine.
The head I0 is formed with a depending- cylin
At the end-vof .the power stroke-and the begin
dricalmsleeve >I 2 îwhich extends into the piston iin
ning foff the exhaustfstro'ke theeupper face ,2:5 Aof
parallel ‘relation to êthe wall of :thexskirtV "Id tto
the `sleeve B ¿will .be-.in-v contact wit-h ~the yface .26
provide a recess 1.63-1-between-'the wall of: the'iskiizt
at »the bottom vof the;` recess ¿|f3, »the »lower part `2|
pistonr therein.
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fI'I ,-andxthefwa'lli.oiîíthe;5s1eeve;l2..
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of. the .sleevefB Wíllbe Withdrawnfronr therecessv
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I1.’ the recess I1 being ñlled with air or gases
from the crank end side of the piston. During
the exhaust stroke the piston A will stay in this
position with respect to the sleeve B until a
point, somewhat more than one-half the length
of the motion of the sleeve B is reached, when
the sleeve B will begin to slow down, the piston
i , A being atits highest rate of speed at this point>
withdrawn from the recess I3, this recess filling
with air and gases from the crank side.Y of the
piston-the piston A holding this position with
respect to the sleeve B up to a point somewhat
less than one-half the length of the stroke of the K
sleeve B.
During this time the inertia force act
ing in opposition to the motion of the sleeve B
decreases rapidly from a high value at the be
ginning of. the-suction stroke to zero -at a point
will tend to continue at this highest rate of speed,
and thus proceed ¿towards the head o-f the cylin 10 somewhat less than one-half the stroke of the
der at aA faster rate than the sleeve B.
Simultaneously, while this action of the piston
A is taking place, the air and gases in the recess
I1 are being compressed, ñrst lightly, to permit Y
the piston A to move freely, and then compressed»,
vmore strongly as the compressed gases'iail'to`
escape through the holes 24 as fast as theyßare
being compressed, thus checking the speed of the
piston A, an-d bringing it to rest, at the end of its
forward motion, at the same time that the sleeve`
B vcomes lto the end of its forward motion, and
thus contact is >made between the faces 21 and
28 of the sleeves B and I4, respectively, without
shock.-V
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' This action of the piston A is the result of the
inertia lforces Aresiding in the Vpiston A.V As the
acceleration at_the beginning 'of the strokel is
high, theinertia force of the piston A holds it in
the position' it hadïat thejbeginningïof the stroke
sleeve B.
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klí‘rom this point on, the inertia is again re
versed, acting now towards the crank end of the
piston, the sleeve B, through the motionrof the
crank and connecting rod, slowing up, while the
piston tends to continue at the same speed, thus
' ‘ the sleeve 2l'being withdrawn from the recess
I1_ whilethe sleeve 20 enters the recess I3, com
pressing the air and gases in the recess I3 and
similarly as in the exhaust stroke, bringing the
piston' A to rest without shock, with the face 25
in contact with vthe face2Iì.v The piston A comes
tothe end of its motion at the same time as the
sleeve 'B comes'to the end of its motion.V That
is, the piston A and the sleeve B come to Vrest
simultaneously, the piston A moving further than
the sleeve B bythe length of the clearance space,
which equals the length of theV motion of the
sleeve B inthe recesses VI3 and I1.
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The_timing of the openingof the suction valve
until the inertia becomes zero at a point-a little 30
must -be such that as the- piston v'A leaves the
more 'thank one-half thelength ofthe stroke of
the sleeve B where the-inertia force is reversed,V I cylinder head, thel valve follows the piston vA
closely withoutrbeing in contact with it. 'This'
building uperapidly to a valuehigher than it had
action of the pistonA draws a ful] cylinderof
at thebeginning of the stroke.V With the gases
ay gas and air mixture with full throttle opening,
in the recess I 1 building up a pressure rapidly:
enoughtocounteract theinertia force ofthel
this gas and air mixture not being diluted with
piston A, it is' brought'to `the end of its forward
hot exhaust gases, will have a lower temperature
motion and into contact with the sleeve B with-`
out shock, and when timed with the closing of
insuring a lower temperature at the end of the
at the beginning'of the compression stroke, thus
the exhaust valve, which should close at the time 40 compression stroke, and thisV lower compression
the piston comes into- near but not actual con
tact, and close at aboutthe same rate as the
piston 'A movesv near the end of the stroke, thusv
temperature permitting the use of fuel of lower
octane rating since the danger of preignition or,
detonation is absent. Also., the fuel and air mix
ture being free from exhaust Vgases will burn.
expelling practically all of the exhaust gases
above piston head I0. Somewhat better results 45 more quicklyand' completely, thus higher eili
ciency andgreaterlp'ower are assured. When less
may be had when used withsleeve-valve engines.
power is:desired,v part throttle operation will re
The second series of holes 24 somewhat above
sult in the same high efficiency inthe absence of
the bottom of the recess I1 and I3 are 7for the _
the blanketing effect of the vexhaust gases. .
purpose of allowing the compressed air andY gases
At Athe beginning of the compression stroke,
l f to escape more rapidly, thus permitting the pis-` 50
the piston A will remain in the position it has
ton A to more quickly reach a point near the endv
at the end- of the suction stroke; that is, the face
of its motion, but after this’series of holes is
26 will be in contact with-the face 25 and will
closed by the ends of the sleeves B passing them,
remain »in this position throughout thev compres-Y
Vthe remaining holes 24 at the bottom of the re-r
cesses will let the compressed gases out still more 55 sion stroke as well 'as the-power stroke. During
the compression strokel the inertia forces will act,
slowly, thusinsuring that no metal to metal shock
or tend to act, identically the same as during
results. Suiiîcient lubricating oil will enter the
the exhaust stroke, but here during the compres
holes 23 and 24 during the operation of the pis
sion stroke the fuel and air mixture being com-1
ton ~to lubricate the bearing surfaces and to form
a ,seal therebetween to prevent the escape of the 60 pressed, the total pressure on the entire area'of
the head of the piston‘A will rise rto a higher Vvalue
compressed air and gases from the recesses ex
during all parts of the stroke than‘the inertia
cept through the holes 24. Any excess of oil
forces, and thus keep the piston A in the same
tending toaccumulate in the recesses I3 and I1
position with respect to the sleeve By during :the
will be forced out through the holes 24 to prevent
65 entire compression stroke as it had at the begin
ning of the compression' stroke, the force on the
` In order to more completely expell the entire
piston due to the compression of the fuel 'and
exhaust gases during the exhaust stroke, it is`
water-hammer.
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necessary >to modify the shape of the combustion
air charge, -acting counter to the Ainertia- force
during the last part of the piston stroke, the
chamber when my piston is in use.
As the piston A reaches the end of its motion 70 piston A with the sleeve'B acting together as'a
at the end of the exhaust stroke which then be
solid piston.
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During the power stroke, after the gases> have
been ignited, the compressed gas 'and air mixture
piston remains in the position it then has, that is,
will rise to a still` higher pressure,l thus holding
with'the‘bottom edge 2_1 of the sleeve 2| in con
tact vwith the face V28, the upper sleeve 20 ¿being 75 the piston A inthe sameirelatión' tothe sleeve
comes the beginning of the suction stroke, the
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2,406,511
B that it had at the beginning of the compres
sion stroke, during the compression stroke, and
will remain so to the end of the power stroke,
the same as a solid piston.
At the end of the power stroke the cycle will
be repeated as above described.
I claim:
In a gas engine having a cylinder and piston
rod, a piston with outer Walls engaging the in
ner Walls of the cylinder, a cylindrical sleeve 10
connected with the piston rod and reciprocable
within the piston for operating the same and
having annular end walls of substantial width,
cylindrical cups connected with the piston end
walls and shaped and positioned to form annular»
chambers for receiving the annular ends of said
sleeve, and two rings of apertures through the
Walls of both said cups, the apertures of the outer
ring in each case being of large diameter to
admit crank case gas and oil freely into said
annular chamber, and the inner ring apertures
in each case being very much smaller and being
positioned close to the inner ends of the annular
chambers to permit only sloW discharge there
from for effecting a strong cushioning action in
the transmission of the force of >reciprocation
of the sleeve in both directions to the piston.
`
WILLIAM A. ROTH.
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