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A1185 27, l94‘5- I
2,406,526
A. H. BENNETT ¿TAL
` 'MIcRoscoPE
Filed Aug- 2s. 1945
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A. H. BENNETT i-:rAL
" 2,406,526
MICROSCOPE
Filed Aug. 2s, 1945
5 sheets-sheet 4
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INVENTOR.
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0 $04 m eraf/neas
BY
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`
702405K. '
Patented Aug. 27, 1946
2,406,526
UNITED STATES PATENr ottici-:f>ï`>
2,406,526
MICROSCOPE
Alva H. Bennett, Kenmore, and Oscar W. Rich
ards, Snyder, N. Y., assignors, by mesne las
' s'ìgnments,
to
American Optical
Company,
-Southbridge, Mass., a voluntary 'association
Application August'23, 1943, Serial No.`499,596Y
11` Claims.
(Cisa-395 A
1
.
-This invention relatesv to microscopes Vor the
like and has particular reference to anew and
improved stereoscopic binocular biobjective type
2
.
„
instruments however it has been necessary that
the amount of stereoscopic effect be ñxed be
causein order to obtain any different stereo
scopic effect it was necessary that the interpuz
microscope, that is, a' m’croscope for obtaining a
stereoscopic effect in the viewing `of the object e~ pillary distance„„that- is, the distance between
theoculars or eyepieces be also altered. ` ` ,
or specimen, and has particular reference to such
It will be apparent that this allowed no useful
a device wherein the degree or amount of stere
adjustment .of the stereoscopic eiîect because if
oscope effect may be easily and quickly altered
the interpupillary distance were altered` appre
-without any change in the position of the oculars
ciably the oculars would no longer be 'aligned
or eyepieces.
y
.
with. the two eyes .as required for viewing through
An object of the invention is to provide a bin
ocular microscope wîiereby a stereoscopic view
Thebest known stereoscopicmicroscopes were
of the object under examination may _be ob
first a construction in which two separate micro-V
tained and with‘which different degrees ofstere
scopes were‘employed with the microscopes beingA
oscopy, hyper, ortho,_`or hypostereoscopy, that is,A
the apparent depthof the object may be en
held in a rack„ Next aform was constructed
whereinvtwo microscopes were adjustably` hinged
hanced or reduced easily andquickly withoutin
together. It will be seen thatwith either 4ofthe
terfering with the position- or setting of' the
above constructions that it lwas ,impossible Íto`
oculars or eyepieces forthe particular interpu
20 alter the stereoscopic eiïectiof theinstrument to
pillary measurement of the observer.
' ,
any extent without simultaneously ldisturbingtor
An object of the> present .invention is to pro
interfering with >the interpupillary distance vor~
vide a stereoscopic binocular microscope which
setting of the oculars `and therefore to obtain any
allows the viewing of an object with different
appreciable change in stereoscopic eiiect was not
degrees of stereoscopic appearance without
change of objectives or magnification andvwith
out interfering with the interpupillary distance
The next >forrnand which‘is the form now gen
of the observer;
'
.' '
.
erally employed is a construction wherein the
the microscope.
practical..
Referring to the dra'wir'igs:`
v
i.
v
.
Fig. 1 is a front View partially insection of .a
microscope embodying the- invention;
'
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`
v
ì
`
.
,
.
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.
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'
angle between the opticalïaxes of the objectivesv
g is ñXed and the objectives'are fixed relative-.to
each other so that it is not possible fto.-o.btain.
any7 change inthe degreefof’stereoscopic effect
Fig. 2 is a sectional'view taken on Cline 2-12
Fig. 1 looking in the directionof the arrows;
Fig. 3 is a sectional view taken on line 3_3 of
with the instrument, that is,.it is not possible to;
Fig. l looking in the direction of the arrows;
Fig. 4- is a sectional View takenon line 4-4 of
seen
It in
is the
pointed
microscope.
>out that in
. ~ many
. , _ cases
y,
.. it would
Fig. l looking in the direction of the arrows; «
Fig. 5 is a Sectional View taken along'line 5--5
of Fig. 1 looking in the direction of the arrows;
Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken alongnline 6_6
of` Fig. 1 looking in the direction of the arrows;
Fig. 7 is a diagrammatic view showing theA
opticlal system< for form of invention shown in
Fig.
;
..
l
control the apparent perspective of -the image
be highly advantageous to be able tofstud'ydif
ferent objects with different degrees of»y stereo
scopic effect andl in some cases it would be highly
advantageous to. be able to observe or study a.’
single object with diiferent degrees of stereo-v
scopic _effect and without >interfering with the(
interpupillary ydistance or setting of the' eyepieces
or oculars;
Fig. 8 is a view similar to Fig. l of another
'
`
It therefore is an object of the present inven-V
form of the invention and showing but onehalf 45 tion to .provide a new `and improved meansjand‘
thereof.
.
_
`
method whereby a single object >or Áseparate o_b
Y
Fig. 9 is a side orend view of the construction
shown in Figs. 8; and
Fig. '10 is a View showing
ment shown in Fig. 9.
.
part of the arrangefv
f
.
In the past considerable efforts have been ex
jects inaybe viewed with different degreesrof
sterer'is'copic` eifect'> and wherein i the apparent'
depth> or stereoscopic effect ‘can `be controlled-ande"
' changed easily and quickly during the actualob'
servation of the specimen without interfering
pended toward obtaining’microscopes of the bin
ocular biobjective type which would give a
stereoscopic image or reveal depth in -the speci-,
wherein similarv reference characters „designate
men.
Corresponding parts throughout the several views,
In the design and construction of such
with the interpupillary'setting of the oculars; '
Referring more particularhT to the drawings `
2,406,526
n
.4. ,
i the form of the invention shown in Fig, 1 com
. 1 prises a pair of Yeyiepieces orV oculars I and 2
f gears 21a, 28a and 21 which gear is directly con
nected to the mount for the prism I I.
Y
§ mounted on the upper edge of the casing 3 and
. oculars relativeto each other may also be of the
The form> of the invention shown in Fig. 8
will give a wider range of change in stereoscopic
eiîect because the adjustment is not limited by
the adjustment of the oculars for interpupillary
distance as is the form shown in Fig. 1.
Theprisms "I in the form shown in Fig. 1 are
each mounted for adjustment with its respective
ocular I or 2 and is adapted to be automatically
horizontally adjusted upon adjustment of its re
y conventional type.
spective ocular.
. which oculars I and 2 are adjustable relative‘to
1 eachother in order that `they may be adjusted
to the particular interpupillary distance of the
» l user of thel instrument.
These oculars I and 2 are of the conventional
î type and the means (not shown) vfor adjusting >
` the interpupilllary distance by adjusting said-`
'
There is also provided a pair of objectives 4
«
In the form of invention shown in Fig. 8 the
and 5V which are optically aligned with the oculars .
prism I is fixed as may be the lens 32Y but the
1 I and 2 respectively andvvhich are adapted -to-V 15 prism member 3| is Divotable about the axis of
,
` focus on a specimen under examination on the
lens 32 as isthe ocular in order to adjustfr the
l
oculars to desired interpupillary distance.
stage 6.
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~
Optically aligned With the ocular I- are the re
vThedirect` vision inverting prism III is of the
ïflectin'g prisms 'I and 8, _the lens 9, the direct
«vision inverting prism I Il and the double dove
prism II. The prism 8 and prism I_I) are adjust-1
f ably mounted as a unit relative to the prism l»
and are adapted to be adjusted as a unitY by
type known as Pechan prism and serves to invert
the image in one direction only.
'
’
The form of theinvention shown in Figs. 8 and
10 are substantially the same as the form shown
in Figi except that'the. housing of the prismv
` means of the threaded member I2 which has the
member 3| is pivoted and the range of travel of
-knobs I3 and I4 :at the opposite sides of the cas 25 the prisms`8 is increased, the prism 'I remaining
ïing respectively and which hasthe'portions I5
fixed during pivotal movement ofthe prism mem
1' and I6 oppositelyuthreaded into the Vthreaded
ber 3l and 1ens32.
l
, y
.
' blocks I'Iand I8. >Opti'cally 'aligned with the
' Also this form is provided With the cam 2t'vr and
ocularV 2 arere?lecting prisms'l :and 8', lens 9y
andl directvisionfinverting prismIIl and double
rider 33 in place of theA gear'system shownl with
the prior form. Both forms contain the objec
tives 4 and 5 which are interchangeable with other
dove ' prism Y I I corresponding to'j these rpreviously
. described in connection With the ocular I. lItis
1 pointed out that the system is a binocular'biob
l jective systemV for obtaining stereoscopic vision.
objectives to obtain thev desired magniñcation.`
The twolens systems are identical'and mayjbe
l adjusted relative to each other by means of the
35 member VIll therebyY causing movement o_f the
j knobs I3 and I4 as described above.
„
I
„
„
" lThe slide ymember I9 as shownin Fig„ 10 is
It will be seen from Fig. 8 that rotation of the
member I4 will cause rotation of the threaded
memberZ'I and prisms 8 and Il] with the direc?
tion of suchV movement depending upon the di->
rectionV of turning’of the'knob I 4' and threaded . '
‘ adjustably mounted in the dove tail slide 29 _and ' l member. I6 and the yoke'member ZI will move
is adapted to be actuated therein by means of the 40 the prism support "25 in the dove -tail 24. The'
` knobs I3` `and `III> which actuate; the. threaded
prism II on >its support 23 is carried bodilyin
ìmember I2 and simultaneously With theadjust
ment of the slide I9 the’v member 2| which has
the forked portion 22,adjacent the lower end>
the same direction bythe prism support 25 with Y lV
thereof causes> adjustment of the support 23 for
1 the dove prism I I Whichcauses said prism Isup.
the cam rider> 2S ,resiliently urged against the'
face of the cam member or track`30 by the spring `
29 to properly angle said prism, member. II and
objective 4 or 5. Y
direction of movement ofthe member 22 and also
'
In Fig? is shown the optical layout forlthe
lport and prism to be` ,adjusted` according to theV
` form of device shown in Fig. 1;
'
‘ '
'
The dove prisms I I serve'to turn the light rays
In both theY form shown in Figli andthe form 50 coming from the objective into the axis of prism
I0 and said prisms II may be angularly adjusted
i shown in Fig. 8A the suppori'filâV is slideably posi
according to its position.
. l
Y
` . .,
¿tioned in the doveY tail slide 24yand in .the form
The prism 3| and lens .32 and mechanical ar
`shovvn in Fig. 1_such movement by means of the
rangement therefore as shown in the form of the
ïgears 21,2141;- 28 and 28a causes'rotation ofthe
Í causes movement of the support‘25. j -
`dove Aprism II to proper angular relation- In
55 invention of Fig. 8 could be employed in the form
of invention shown yin Fig.V 1v and in fact would
‘the form shown in Figs.' 8 andl I0 the cam rider
considerably increase the range of depthvision
26 causes pivotal adjustment of the double dove
in that form._v In this Case the lense would be
`prism II angularly relative to> the optical axis
replaced by the lens 32.
'
.
lof thejprism It and lens 32 Vand simultaneously'
In the forms of invention- shown the conven
adjusts Vthe optical axis ofthe objectives 4 and 60
`5 according to the amount of adjustment of .the
screw member I2 to vary the angle from which.
ithe specimen is observedrwhich permits true, in.
‘creased or decreased depth or Vthe appearance of
the third dimension.
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i
` The gears 21, 21a, 28 and 28a as shown inFigs.
‘1- and 4 vare mounted on the sliding support ¿25
and are adapted to be moved or adjusted-there
' with.
>The» racks -30a. andBIa'are securedtojthe
leasing 3' and-'each rack ifs-‘always in' mesh withY
`its respective gear 28 so'that movement» of the
sliding'suppo-rt 25 will automatically cause rota
tional coarse and fine adjusting mechanism may
be
employed.
'
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„
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`
From the >foregoing it will be seen that Wehave
provided simple, efficient and'economical means
for obtaining all of the objects and advantagesV
of the invention.
Y
Y
_
Y
Having described our invention, We claim: I
l. In a binocular stereoscopic biobjective mi-v
VVcroscope, a pair of oculars,.an'_ objective’ for each
of said oculars and each of'said objectivesibeing
optically aligned with its respective ocular,<_an
optical system interposed between each of said
oculars and its respective objective, means for
tionîof the gears 28 and thereby cause ’rotation` ' adjusting certain of the'optical elements of said»v
lof the dovefprisms I I kthrough the rotation @fthe kT CH. optical system relative to other elements of said>
s
2,406,526>
5
6
system and meansactuated'by said adjustment
of said optical elements to change .the angular“
including an objective optically aligned with each
of lsaid oculars, said optical systems each hav
relation of said objectives relativev to each other
to Vary the degree of stereoscopic vision atwhich
a specimen may beviewed through the micro-scope andfor automatically adjusting the angular
relation of an optical element whereby specimens'
may be viewed through'said microscope at dif
ferent degrees of stereoscopic vision without dis
turbing the settingof the oculars for the par
` ing a reflector in fixed alignment with its respec- `
ticular
observer.
,
f
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.
2. In a stereoscopic _binocular biobjective mi
croscope, a pair` of oculars, said oculars being
adjustable lrelative to each' other to allow said
oculars to be adjusted »for the interpupillary dis
tance of the user ofthe microscope, `an optical
system 'opticallyaligned .with each of said oculars
and including a‘pair of objectives with one of
said objectives optically aligned with each of said
oculars, said optical systems each having a re
flector in fixed optical alignment with the ocular
and a movable reflector optically aligned with
said first reflector and said objective, means for
adjusting said movable reflector means relative
to said stationary reflector and means operatively
connected with said means for adjusting said
movable reflector to change the angular relation
of said objectives relative to each other to vary
the degree of stereoscopic vision through the mi
tive ocular, and an adjustable reflector optically
aligned with said fixed reflector means and ad
justable relative thereto, ymeans for adjusting said -
adjustable reflector relative to> said fixedreflector,
and means for changing ther angular relation of
said objectives relative to each other to vary the
degree of stereoscopic Vision through the micro
scope without> changing the setting of the oculars I
forthe user of the microscope and optical means
adjacent each objective and in optical alignment
therewith and with said adjustable reflector for
directing' light from said objective toward said
adjustable
reñector.
'
`
~
6. In a stereoscopic binocular biobjective mi
croscope, a pair of oculars, said oculars being ad
justable relative to each other to allow said ocu
lars to be adjusted to meet the interpupillary
requirements of the user of the microscope, an
optical system in optical alignment with each of
said oculars, said optical systems each having a
reflector in fixed alignment with its respective
ocular and an adjustable reflector optically
aligned with said fixed reflector, an objective op
tically aligned with said adjustable reflector and
means for adjusting said adjustable reflector rel
ative to said fixed reflector and means for chang
croscope without changing the setting of ' the 30 ing the angular relation of said objectives to vary
oculars for the user of the microscope.
>the degree of stereoscopic vision through the mi
3. In a stereoscopic binocular biobjective micro-V
croscope without changing the setting of the ocu
scope, a pair of oculars, said oculars being ad
lars for the user of the microscope and means ad
justable relative to each other to allow said ocu
justed by the adjustment of said adjustable re
lars to be adjusted for the interpupillary distance 35 ilectors for retaining optical alignment between
of the user of the microscope, an optical system
said objectives and said adjustable reflectors.
including an objective optically aligned with each
7. In a stereoscopic binocular biobjective mi
of said oculars, said optical systems each having
croscope, a pair of oculars, said oculars being ad
a reflector in fixed alignment/with its respective
justable relative to each other to allow said ocu
ocular, and an adjustable reflector means optical
lars >to be adjusted to meet the requirements of
ly aligned with said fixed reflector and adjust
the user of the microscope, an optical system in
able relative thereto, means for adjusting said
optical alignment with each of said oculars, said .
adjustable reflector relative to said fixed reflector,
optical systems eachhaving a fixed reflector and
and means operated by said means for adjusting
a prism member optically aligned with an ocular
said adjustable reflector for changing the angu
and with said fixed reflector, an adjustable re
lar relation of said objectives relative to each
flector optically aligned with said fixed reflector,
`other to vary the degree of stereoscopic vision
an objective optically aligned with said adjust
through the microscope without changing the set
able reflector and means for adjusting said ad
ting of the oculars for the user of the microscope.
justable reflector relative to said fixed reflector
4. In a stereoscopic binocular biobjective micro
and means for changing the relation of said ob
scope, a pair of oculars, said oculars being adjust
jectives to vary the degree of stereoscopic Vision
able relative to each other to allow said oculars
through the microscope without changing the set
to be adjusted for the interpupillary distance of
ting of the oculars for the user of the microscope
the user of the microscope, an optical system in
-and optical means adjacent each objective and
cluding an objective optically aligned with each
angularly adjustable simultaneously with said 0b
of said oculars, said optical systems each having
jective for directing light from said objective to
fixed reflector means in alignment with its re
ward said adjustable reflector.
spective ocular, and adjustable reflector means
8. A stereoscopic binocular ,biobjective micro
optically aligned with said fixed reflector means
scope comprising a pair of oculars, a pair of ob
and adjustable relative thereto, means for adjust 60 jectives one for each ocular, each objective being
ing said adjustable reflector relative to said fixed
pivotally mounted for swinging adjustment in
reflector, and means connected with said means
dependently of its ocular on an axis transverse to
for adjusting said adjustable reflector for chang
its optical axis while said optical axis remains di
ing the angular relation of said objectives relative
rected upon the object to be observed, and light
to each other to Vary the degree of stereoscopic
directing means cooperating with each objective
vision through the microscope Without changing
for directing light between said objective and its
the setting of the oculars for the user of the
respective ocular, each light directing means be
microscope and direct Vision inverting means be
ing adjusted by movement of its respective ob
tween said adjustable reflectors and said objec
jective to maintain the latter in optical alignment
tives.
`
with its respective ocular.
5. In a stereoscopic binocular biobjective mi
9. A stereoscopic binocular biobjective micro
croscope, a pair of oculars, said oculars being ad
scope comprising a pair of oculars, a pair of ob
justable relative to each other to allow said ocu
jectives one for each ocular, each objective being
lars to be adjusted for the interpupillary distance
pivotally mounted independently of its ocular for
of the user of the microscope, an optical system 75 arcuate adjustment while the optical axis of each
2,40655265;
7
objective remains Vdirected upon the object to be'w
observed, the radius of said arc-being' the distance
î ¿from the objective .to the objectv toy be observed,v
' and light directingmeans cooperatingwitheeach
tween said objectives Yand' said ,ocularsg and com.;l
mon adjusting means‘for simultaneously swing-`
Y ing' said objectives and adjusting said lightdi
rectingmeans to maintain each objective in op'«
\ objective for directing light between said obj'ec-„i î tical alignment with its respective ocular.î
l Vtive-V and> its respective ocular, and common ad-j ‘ »
justing-means for arcuately swinging said> Objec; ï '
tive and for maintaining> its'respective» light di- ‘
recting means in opticalalignment therewith and
with its respective ocular.
'
16'. A stereoscopic binocular biobjective micro-l
scope comprisingra pair of; oculars;r a pair of ob
jectives one for each ocular, said objectives being y
. 11." A stereoscopic binocular VVbíobjective micro-4
scope comprising for each eye ari-ocular, an‘ob->
jective, light directing means carried on a com
,mon mounting with said objective, means for'
adjusting said mounting ’to swing said objective l
about the object to be observed while the optical
axis of the objective remains directed'upon said
object, and adjusting means actuated by said first
mentioned adjusting means for maintain'ingfsai'di
mounted for swinging adjustment, independently
of the oculars, about substantially the same point 15 light directing means in optical alignment with
in the Vplane of the material to be observed: While ‘
the Yoptical axis of each remainsdirected substan- v
tially upon said point, light directing means be
said objective and with its respective ocular.` ‘f
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fALVA
H.
BENNETT.
Y
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