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Патент USA US2406527

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Aug. 27, 1946. -
_|_
BERKE
2,406,527 '
ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCE
’
Filed Feb. .26, 1944
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Patented Aug. 27, 1946
; 2,406,527
' ‘ UNITED smw PATENT" OFFICE '
»
Joseph D. Berke‘jNew York, N. Y;
Application February 26, 1944, Serial No. 524,076
10 Claims. ( C1. 32-—14)
1
This invention relates to the art or technique ‘
of orthodontia.
,
The ‘prime object of my invention centers about
the improving of the technique of modern ortho
dontia and the provision of an improved ortho- ~
dontic appliance for treating malocclusion.
In the treatment of malocclusion, different
teeth of a given denture are required to be‘ sub
jected to forces differing both in magnitude and
for theqorthodontist and the patient. Besides
obviously requiring great skill, even after proper
diagnosis, to fairly accurately, predetermine,
both for magnitude and direction, the corrective
forces to be applied, the work‘of bending and
adjusting the arch wire to shape and of properly
positioning and tieing in the ligature wires is
hard and tedious to the doctor and trying and
tiring to the patient.- Moreover, this work and
direction for accomplishing various movements, 10 the initial application of the orthodontic appli
differing with the nature or degree of dislodg
ment of the teeth from the arch line andlthe
plane of occlusion. In general, a tooth or the
teeth may require an uprighting movement for
ance is based upon a static diagnosis whereas a
dynamic condition is brought about as soon as
the teethmove responsive to the applied forces.
The result is that the appliance is soon out of
correction for mesial inclination (inclination 15 adjustment,v and not being built for self-correc
sidewise with reference to the medial plane), an
tion or automatic adjustment, frequent trips to
uprighting movement for correction for distal
the doctor are required or readjustments, to the
inclination (inclination backwards with refer
discomfort both to the orthodontist and the pa
ence to the arch line), a bodily movement to
tient.
'
arch aligning position,’ an elevation or depres 20' In the orthodontia technique of my present
sion movement towards the occlusion plane, a
invention, the proper corrective forces come into
rotative movement for axis orientation, or a com
play by dint of the inherent or designed struc
bination of two or more of these corrective move
ture of the orthodontic appliance rather than '
by the manner in which the appliance is ap
' The orthodontic appliance commonly employed "25 plied to the patient and adjusted. The ortho
in modern orthodontia in the treatment of mal
dontic appliance of the present invention also
occlusion comprises a ribbon or equivalent arch
comprises ‘a band bracket and an arch wire,
mechanism.
This a mechanism consists of a
Without more, however, and both of specialcon
bracket’on av tooth‘ enveloping band and a suit
struction, so designed that the following results
ably anchored arch wire or ribbon seated in a 30 and advantages are'accomplis'hed: '
suitably slotted or receptacled part. of the brack
1. The arch Wire is directly mountable on and
et.‘ Lig'atures anchored to the band are con
“ receivable by the bracket, without prebending or
nected by the orthodontist to the arch wire and
distortion or any other adjustment'and without
this connection is ‘made so as to apply, both
theme of ligature wires or other locking or con
ments.
’
,
directionally and magnitudinally, the proper cor
rectiveforces to the tooth. ‘The ligature wire
also serves to hold the arch wire seated in or to
the bracket. To make effective the various cor
necting means;
7
2. The forces come into play by the relation‘
ship automatically assumed between the arch
wire and the bracket by dint of theirstructure;
rective forces referred to, the arch wire also has
and these forces that become applicable are sub
to be bent at selected points along its length. 40 ‘stantially correct, both directionally and magni
Thus, for example, for a correction for mesial
tudinally, for producing the desired corrective
inclination, the archwire has to be bent to an
inclined position in a vertical plane-,so as to be
movement or movements of the teeth; and
3. The forces vary in the right directions and
tensioned against spaced points on the bracket
in the right magnitudes as the corrective move
and thereby exert the required turning torque 45 ments take place in the use or wearing of the
on the tooth. Many improvements have been
appliance, whereby self-adjustment ‘takes place.
suggested or devised for this technique, but in
As a corollary,>just as no adjustment is needed
all of them, so far as I am aware, the arch wire
in initially applying the device to the denture,
has to be manually locked to the bracket so as'
s0 no‘readjustments are required as the correc
to be ‘?rmly seated therein and the arch wire has 50 tion'movements of the teeth take, place.
to be manually bent or adjusted to the individual
To the accomplishment of the foregoing ob
teeth‘ of each denture, andin most cases the use
jects and such other objects as mayhereinafter
of ligature wires has to be resorted to.
‘
I
appear, my invention relates to the orthodontic
The orthodontia technique employing these ap
appliance gas sought to be de?ned in the ap
pliances of the prior art- is most di?lcult both 65 pended claims and as described in the following >
2,406,527
3
.4.
speci?cation taken together with the accom
forces, all as will be further described more in
panying drawing, in which:
detail hereinafter.
,
-
7
Referring now to Figs. 1 to 3 of the drawing,
the button bracket B is ?xed to'a tooth en
bracket made accordingto the‘present inven
circling band 32 as by being brazed or welded
tion;
thereto and in such a position as to occupy the
Fig. 2 is a View thereof taken in cross-section
center of the labial surface of the tooth when
in the plane of the line 2—-2 of Fig. 1;
the band is applied to the tooth. The shank 28
Fig. 3 is a top plan View thereof;
of the bracket may also be provided with one
Fig. 4 is} a front View showing. the inter-rela-‘
tion between- the said band and-bracket and'a 10 or more orifices 34 depending npom the linear
dimensions ‘of the button b‘. f
"
“
‘
component partv or segment of the arch wire
The brackets may be made in a number of
of the present invention used therewith;
Fig. 1 is a‘ perspective view of a band and
sizes particularly with respect to the linear but
ton dimensions depending upon the tooth to
Fig. 5 is a view showing a length of the arch‘
wire used;
.
Fig. 6 is a view of the latter taken iXLOIOSS-r .15 which it is to be applied and the degree of cor
rection needed therefor.
section in the plane of the line 6—6 of Fig‘. 5 ;'
Fig. '7 is a plan view of’a’; denture/showing‘.
the orthodontic appliance of the presentlinven-_
tion applied thereto for. producing a number’of'
types of corrections;
4mg." 8 is a front‘ view'of the orthodonticap
‘ plian'ce'showing thesameapplied for correcting
amesi‘a}- inclination;
‘
e
v
'
p
.
‘e ‘The arch wire‘ may be constructed as best’
shown in Figs. 5 and 6 of the drawing. This
arch‘ wire A may comprise two parallel wire‘
20 strands 36 and 38 connected along their lengths
at-selecte‘dlpointsilsuch as All, til to fornr a-‘s‘eries ’
of loops Z, I each embodying a construction" and
formation such‘ as shown and such as'has‘~ been’
described-in connection WithF‘ig; 4- of: the draw
p
' Fig-L 9~is‘» a side, ‘i'ew of- the latter with parts
shown in section; and‘
'
'
‘
25 ing'.
The’ arch‘ wire may be ‘suitably made from
stainless" steel or from gold'wire and-"at" any
' Fig.‘ 1’0-v is’ an enlargedv View‘ of a development
desired gauge.
of thee-central’andlateral incisors of'iFig. '7' show
The resultingv construction is a
resilient and: flexible arch wire having a‘ series
ing ' the’: orthodontic appliance and exemplifying
of‘ component parts“ each
the form of a loop’
Referring now‘ more in‘ detail to“ the" drawing 7 30 member; capable of functioning in the manner
depicted in Fig; 4- of‘ the drawing and more pare
and having ‘reference first to Figs. 1 to “new
cer?tjairrprinciplesof operation thereof.
ticularly described presently‘.
of, the orthodontic appliance of‘ the present, in
vention comprises a button bracket‘ which may
be attached to, or formed" part ‘of a tooth band
-
' '
From the- construction thus‘ far described; it
will be evident that the arch wire A is directly
mountable on and‘ receivable‘ by a: number of
as‘showm in Figs: 1 to 3‘ of the’ drawing and
brackets such as 3', without necessity of pre
generally,‘ designated as B, and‘ a‘; resilient and
bending or distorting the sameor'supplying any
?exible arch wirev which preferably embodies a
other‘ adjustment‘ and without the use of any
construction as shown in Figs. 5' and 6‘ ofthe
drawing and generallydesignated as A, the said 40 ligature" wires or‘ other locking Or‘ connecting
means: After‘ the bracket bands. are appliedv to
arch‘ wire ,A and‘ the button bracket B.v being
the‘ patient’stooth, the arch wire anchored at
designed‘ to cooperate or become. interrelated as
it's‘ ends‘ in a: conventional“ manner is then ap
-» generically shownii'n‘ Fig. 4‘ of the drawing and
as‘ exemplified‘ by" denture application in the re
inclining‘, ?gures of the drawing.
'
'
plied‘ by merely slipping‘ the componentv loops
45 2, I over the heads I), b of ‘the band brackets;
\ Referring now'to Fig. 41o£the drawing’, which
after the: manner‘ depicted in Fig; 4 or the draw
orthodontic struct‘uiethe resilient and ?exible
i'ng; E’acn applied'loop: member distendsor ex
pands" itself“ ash‘ is; slipped over. the head of its
ments of strands. ZOI-and. 22' joined or connected
gagement with its associated button'shank‘ and
shows a unit segment or component part'of the
button and contractsv itself" into; engagement. with x
arch wire A. is provided in one ofits segments
with a loop member generally designated as l,' 50 the shank“ of’ ‘such button‘. > Immediately‘ this‘is
done, ‘each used‘ loop‘ member becomes lockedgor
the said loop member. being receivable. by the
held‘ in position‘ by‘ its button head and becomes
button 6' offthe bracket B’. The loop member
effective" to: apply the‘ corrective forces by its en
lis"; formed by top. and bottomcomponent elee
together at spaced points as by means of the 55
linksy? and¢251 which, latter may be suitably
brazed or Welded to the strandsaZD and 2-21.» The
button I) comprisesqa'v shank 23‘ and a head 30'.
The elements of the button. b‘ and; the elements
of’ the loop l'vare elongated‘ and Dl’eferablyin
the"horizontai'direction as clearly sh'owniin Fig.
4. With’ this: construction» the. loop member 1
also withiit's' button head;
1
.
‘
'
'
'
" In Fig. ‘T of‘the drawing, I" show‘ thearch wire
A. applied: to a denture D and to‘a number‘ of
band brackets B, 13-. mounted on various teeth‘lof
the denture. In. this-?gure fillu'strate aenillnb’er
of different types of teeth ; dislod'gments. requiring
di?ierentcharactersof correction.‘ ' Thusjthe cen
trall' incisors.‘ t" and. I? (also shown- in . Fig. 1-0. of
the/drawing) are shown as, requiringan upright?
ing. correctionv for- a'mesial inclination. ‘(shown
when slipped, over the head. 30 ofv the button
bi distends or expands- into the-position shown
inv full lines'in: Fig. 4; and then contracts itself 65 in Fig; 10»)? and also-a/rotative movementifor axis
orientation (‘as» shown.~ in Elsi-7).; The second
intoPengagemer-itwith theshank28 of the button
bicuspid, left;v t3 is~showrr as requiring: a‘ bodily ‘
11' as-fshownby the dotted lines-1 in Fig. 4,», the
movement Ito-arch aligning position and thesec:
normal; con?guration of the loop; the resiliency
0nd bicuspid, right, #1 is~shown~ requiring: a similar
ofgthei elements thereof andlthe anchorage’ of
the strands-thereof at th'e'joined' points. or links 70 correction’ but» one-of:- larger' degrees The: appl-ication of- thei- principles‘: of the»inventionv to-Ythe
24’ and 26; all contributing‘. to causing the loop a
member and. particularly'the strands thereof to
production of ‘ these: ‘different - corrections: will, it
is believed, exemplify the; basic principlesiofsiopé
come; into tensioning engagement with’ the op
oration-“of:v the presentyconstruction. In:
7
positesides of- the" button shank and ‘with the
button. head- to f apply the desired. corrective 75 the; arch wire A is also-shown anchored onpthe
‘meagre?
I
hammers i5 and f6 by means'offthe usual anchor
ciam‘ps‘azend'u.
‘
.
=
'-
-
or ‘wearing of the ‘appliance,’ selffa'djus'tment
thereby continuously taking place. ' "
"
"Rererrin‘ ‘-'-'now'lto Figs. '8 and cor the drawing‘, .
‘I -- ~
Still vviewing such ?gures as Figs. 8/to'10'of the. I
I ‘Show the appliance as it is mounted on a central
drawingit-will be noted that-each segment-‘or
‘incisor tooth ~t'. These ?gures-are further ex
loop is individual in ‘action, that corrective move;
ment of the tooth is determinedwby the orientation
of the bracket and the interrelation between‘ the
loop of thearch wire therewith rather ‘than upon
any imparted distortion to the arch wire, the ‘line
or plane of the arch not being manually disturbed.
planatory of the interrelation described in con
nection with Fig. 4 of the drawing and show'the
same as it is operative on a tooth requiring a .
correction for'mesiai inclination. Theforces ac
tive here will become clearer from a consideration
now of the showing depicted in Figs. '7 and .10
of ‘the drawing.
'
"
e
‘_ The ‘central incisor t'_ as shownin,
'
-'
i
7 and
It will also be noted ‘that the corrective move
ment depends upon opposite action of the two
component strands ‘of the arch mechanism. This
appliance also eliminates “jiggling” of the tooth
Fig’f‘lO 'of the drawing requi_res_,-as'aforesaid, a
-correction'for"mesial inclination and for axis 15 since there is no unwarranted movement duev to
any action and‘ reaction of a spring arch'i'wire.
'orientationFAs shown in Fig. '10 of the ‘draw
The recoil of band and arch mechanisms incident
'ing, ‘after the loop 1 is slippedover the button
to prior constructions is eliminated.-_ There. is
‘of the bracket, the oppositestrands 20 and 22
complete control of pressure applied to each tooth.
thereof contract and come into engagement with
the: opposite sides 46 and 48 of the button shank '20 The force applied is determined by the relation
ship between the ‘arch and the bracket button,
28. The inclination of the tooth and the corre
predetermined by and‘ inherent in‘ the design and
spending inclination of the button shank, which
structure of these parts. The magnitude of the
latter is extended in a horizontal direction, causes
force is, 'ofcourse, dependent upon the length
the remaining distention or expansion of the loop
as shown) in Fig. 10, with the result that theoppo 25 of the bracket button, the length of the loop-seg
ment and the gauge of the arch wire; and suit
‘site strands 20 and 22 of the loop exert a light
able selections" may be made depending upon the
torque pressure on the opposite sides of the shank
particular case presented by the patient. ‘
e '
1
Z8 creating the turning torque indicated by the
‘Referring now againto Fig.1 '7 of'the draw
two arrows 50 and 52. It will be noted that the
torque exerted on opposite sides of the shank is 30 ing, it Will be seen how this orthodontic structure
operates for producing other types of correc
in :‘the same rotative direction and in‘ a direction
tions. Both central incisors t’ and Bare shown
for correcting for the mesial inclinationof the
requiring'axial orientation. ‘.From‘ Fig. '7 it will
incisor t’. In this ?gure is also shown the ad
be seen that the engagement of the strands of
jacent central incisor t2, which, however, is shown
to require a smaller correction for mesial inclina 35 the ‘arch wire with the button heads 30, 30 of ‘the
button brackets makes operative turning‘forces
tion. Here it will be noted that because ofthe
represented by ‘the arrows 58 and 60'flor effect
correspondingly smaller inclination of'the button
ing this desired correction. The same action
shank 28' and the resulting smaller distortion
takes place, that is, the engagement of the loop
or distention‘ of the loop Z’, the turning torque
wire
with, the button head, for correcting for
40
forces represented bylthe arrows 54_and 56' are
distal inclination. Where a toothsuch as the
quantitatively smaller than those operating upon
second bicuspid t3 requires a short ‘bodily move—
the.v tooth, t’. Thus from a consideration of Fig.
ment to arch aligning position, the arch wire may
10 of the drawing, it will be apparent that by
be directly connected to the button bracket as
virtue of the inherent or designed construction
in Fig. '7; and here again the tension or
of the bracket buttons and the arch wire,‘ not - shown
pullis
the
result of the engagement of the strands
only do the corrective forces come into play auto
'of- the loop with the head of the bracket but
matically‘as soon as the arch wire is applied,
ton. Where,’ however, atooth such as the sec
‘but that-for corrections for 'mesial inclination the
forces that become ‘operative automatically are ‘
correct not only directionally but magnitudinally
to correspond to the existing corrective needs.
The pressures or forces required physiologically
are extremely light and steady; the natural re
siliency and ?exibility of the arch Wires and their
component'loops and the relationship between
the component loops and the bracket buttons are
such as to produce this very light yet steady
pressure.
ond, bicuspid it‘ requires a large bodily move
ment to arch aligning position as shown in Fig.
7, ligature wires may then be ‘resorted to. To
this end, the shank of the button is provided
with the ori?ces 34, 34 heretofore referred to, and
a ligature wire 62 is then used the same being
threaded through these ori?ces to connect the
bracket to the elementsv of the arch wire. It will
be evident that for producing an elevation or
depression movement towards the occlusion
plane, the action of the arch wire will be one of
From a consideration of Fig. 10, it will be also 60 tensioning engagement with one side ‘ (top or
evident that the orthodontic appliance is self
bottom) of the elements of the button. Thus
adaptablefor the dynamic condition which exists,
the device is adapted for the various corrections
and that it does not require the continued adjust
met with in orthodontic practice.
ments which characterize orthodontic appliances
The orthodontic appliance of the present in
now in use.
From a comparative consideration 65 vention, the manner of its use and the many
of the two central incisors t’ and t2, it will be
seen that as the tooth moves in response to the
turning torque forces from a position such as
is assumed for the tooth t’ to a position such as
is' assumed for the tooth t2, the turning torques
automatically become smaller and smaller until
a balanced condition is obtained when the tooth
is fully uprighted. Thus the applied forces vary
in the right directions and in the right magnitudes
as the corrective movements take place in the use 75
advantages thereof in the technique of ortho
dontia will in the main be fully apparent from
the above detailed description thereof. It will
be further apparent that while I have described
my invention in the preferred forms, changes
may be made therein'without departing from the
spirit of the invention de?ned in the following
claims.
I claim:
1. An orthodontic appliance comprising in
,
7
‘i7
trhetihe iteeli into engagement with ~the;.-§hehl$
a?tQmhina?i?n
‘600th, said buttenqhraelhethevihg-h.hhttpnrehhnk
1a. hhttenzhreelseh attaehahle to’
{and head, and a; resilient, :ehd :?exthh zereh
wiremevideh
a resilient ehslhexihmJeQP
member, .
of the button, the said 100p memh?hhaélihgx?lp
v.ahrl 'hettem strands ?exibly. endecheei ehtlrhet
ing en 92190§i§§ hides ef the hutheh; e hank. he;
in the earn-e rotath’e direetienho geehreet‘ifgr
mesialdnelination and acting on thehuttenh and
to eolereet ier distal inclination and t9 Preemie
staid’ leep ‘ member; ?eeing. *neeeiwehk
.hy he button 01 ;s 'hhreehet; lthehloep member
exmhsiing 1.3451113 : .1s1hepedhver-the heed ei- :rth‘e
button, ,anerzeentrhctihe itself into i‘engagerhent
,aX-is eriehtatioh 9f the teeth ,
1
e
‘
“he. shank-e:- the hhtteh, the hate Jqqpwem»
v6. ‘All’ .erthedontie ehhlienee "comprising; “in
her ?exibly and resiliently Banting oheeid-hhhtqh 210 eegmbinqtiqn a plurality ‘of ‘butter; brackets 181i}?
hraeket to ‘apply the 'ehrheetwe .ier-ees tethe
taqhable to the ,teeth of .avedentllre :liegllil‘i’hg £9
teeth-y
rection, each of said button braeketg haVQixrg'eY-lg -
»
'.
~
erthedentie :eihhlience ,>comprisi,-hg .in
button shank and a; head, arrq a resilient )and
(cembihetieh e bendettacheble to a tooth, abut? > ,?exibleaifch wirehcemprising a-seriesqf veehnegte
{ten hraeket 0h eeid bend, ehid button bracket .15 ed resilient and ?exible IQQP membehs, iaglegp
.h ‘ng ebutten shank.
.eeheeh, and a ‘re:
member being individual. the JO.reneket,v eae h
;diviclual 100p member beihg xeeeivable- "by -the
ash-heat and flexible areh ‘whee l-previded with. ‘a
button ‘of its-bracket, such 100p member ‘ex?
:resihent erred-?exible leenmemben the said. 109?
member Jeeing receivable he the ‘button of said
‘pending as it is elipped Werthe head 9f til-161ml?
bracket, the loop hlemher' exhandihg Yes it '18 :20 ten and ‘contracting itself into engagement ‘with
.ehppedpver the head 10f the button and eon
the shank" of the button, such .lehnmemher ?eh
.i-hly and. resiliently acting eutematieelly en- the
Machine itself into. :e?ga$5€m§1'1§ with the ishank 'ef
‘ ' the :huttQh; the vsaid 100p ‘member ?exibly rand
shank or head or bethiof said hutton hmekethte
:reeihently aetine on said rbuttonbracket to apply
apply the eQr-reethre forces to the tooth,‘ hsuehes
the-eerreetivemrees-te the teeth.
fer. mesial inclination, ‘distal inelmetiohlexihmir
The hrthedentie appliance of claim ,1 in
ventatioh, elevation prvdepression, and arch @11 n
whiehthe batten head and veh'emk are elongated
vrechens;ing, ‘or for ‘producinge eombihetipn
' - , qffsuehh
e
»
' 2.
in a, horizentaldireetien.
v
7- t'lfhe orthodontic appliance Qf hhmie in
mmbihetien a button’ hreeket htteQhamerw 1a :39 which the resilient “and flexible .ereh wire mm
e A, An :orthodqntie vahnliemce. -,eomprisine in’
‘privses. two parallel wire ‘strands. united ht epeee?
intervals to form the series o.f eednneeted ‘loop
teeth. :seid hhtten v.hr-aeket hat/mere batten :shehk
ejhd:.a'heed,ehd 1e resilient and z?exible arch Wire
@hevisied Vwith‘a resiilent and ?exible 1009 mm
=be1t .thersaid leep member being receivable by
members,
which
'?-jil‘he
theorthodontic
butter; head
'
appliance
and' hshehks
’ of 1 claim
Qf I. the ‘16
but.’
the hutton-of said bmcketthe ,loep member eX .315
pending (as :is slipped over the head of .the .,b.u.t—
ten brackets are elehgated in a l,lrlhrizenite11 dime:
tehéand contracting itself imp engagement with
hen, and in which the shanks are pen?eliatesi Z69
reeeive‘liga'bure wires,
4
,
the ishank of the buttoh. the said 1.190;!
9- The orthodontic apnl'iahee ‘of
6 in
having- :tep end bottom strands flexibly end ;r.e
lsihentls' eetihg on opposite hides ef the butter!
which the ‘button ‘heed hnhsheriks 9f theibutr
but in the samerrotetive idireet'iqn vt0 cor.
‘wire
‘ton
tien,brackets‘are
eomiprisesrtwo
and‘in whiche‘longlategina.jhorizqntal
the
parallel
resihent‘a'hd
wire'stranqs
fLexih di [ed
rest for "mesial inclinatipn DI ‘the, “teeth. _
,5;
erthodentic' applianee ' ‘gqrqprismg ‘in
at vspaced. intervals to form ‘the series pf e911:
' veccvmbyinati‘on a, band attaehablertofa \toothvarbut-x
‘ton’ ‘bracket ‘on ‘saiq band, t-said butter; bracket
45
enected-loop'members.
'
"
‘
‘
"
having a. button shankhangl :a .head, and are-s11,‘
‘ieht'and ,?exihle arch wire provided with .a re..
?exible arch wire comprising two parallel wire
§ilientjand ?exible loop'member, the said loqp
(strands united at spaced e-iht-ervals‘to‘ ‘fqrmfga,
member-being receivable by the-button .Qf said -
series of connected resilient
bracket, the 190:) member expanding ,as his
lsl-ipped'over the head .of the'butten and eon- 7
10-. 'ln-anorthodont-ic appliance,’ a re's?ientagd I
members.
'
'
'
,
JOSEPH ‘D. "‘BERKER
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