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Патент USA US2406538

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Aug- 27, 1945-v
- Filed Oct. 8, 1945 1
v2 Sheets-Sheet 1
ALB/N A. amp/5,42
Patented Aug. 27, 1946
Albin A. Gradisar and Gustav E. Guellich; Buff
falo, N. Y., assignors, by mesne assignments,
to American Optical Company, ‘Southbridge,
Mass, a voluntary association ‘
Application October 8, 1943, Serial No. 505,488
' lClaim.
This invention relates to new and improved.
means for forming the contour or pro?le of ar
ticles and more particularly relates to new and
improved means for providingillumination dur
ing theforming operation.
An object of the invention is to provide new
and improved meansfor forming the pro?le or
contour of. objects which makes such forming
" to each other to form the desired contour or pro
?le on the work blank. Also, where illuminating
means has been employed to illuminate the work
and. tool, due tothe character of illuminating
I means employed it. was not possible to obtain a
' Well de?ned image of the tool and blank and it
was found necessary to provide a mask on the
light source or betweenthe light source ‘and work
and then to continue adjusting said mask from
Another object of the invention is to provide 19 time to time as the forming or cutting proceeded,
or else to use a different mask as the cutting or
new and improved illuminating means for form
forming proceeded, and also necessary to use a,
ing apparatus which facilitates the forming op
different mask for each object of different con
eration and allows more accurate forming of
simpler and more economical.
" tour. to be formed. , Such errors inthe image, even
Another object of the invention is to provide 15. though slight, still introduced errorsrin the size
of the ?nished article.
new and improved means for illuminating a tool
and an area of a work piece in relative position
and for viewing said work piece and tool over a
It will be seen from the above that in order to
obtain the proper contour or pro?le on the object
a well de?ned image thereofmust be obtained,
considerable area whereby the relative position
20 which-is not alwayspossible or feasible by merely
of said tool and work piece may be adjusted.
adjusting a mask or by providing new masks for
Other objects and advantages of the invention
the illuminating means as cutting proceeds and
will be apparent from the following description
for each differently contoured object, such being
taken in connection with the accompanying
time consuming and expensive.
drawings. It will be understood that many
It, therefore, is a principal object of this in--_
changes may be made in the details of construc 25
vention to provide new and improved'means ‘or
tion and arrangement of parts without departing‘
apparatus for forming thecontour or pro?le of
from the spirit of the invention as expressed in
the accompanying claim. We, therefore, do not
wish to be limited to the exact details of con
objects wherein uniform illumination will be ob
tained over the entire illuminated area and a well
struction and arrangement of parts shown and 30 de?ned image of the tool and work may be ob-_.
tained at all times without the necessity of marl’
described as the preferred form has been given by
ing the light source as necessary with prior art
way of illustration only.
Referring to the drawings:
Referring more particularly, to the drawings
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view,_ partly in section,
35 wherein similar reference. characters designate‘
showing the apparatus in operative position;
corresponding parts throughout the several views.
Fig. 2 is a sectional view taken on line 2-2 of
the apparatus embodying the invention and
Fig. 1 looking in the direction of the arrows and
adapted for carrying out the forming process is
showing the tool and work in operative position;
shown in Fig.‘ 1 and consists of a viewing micro
Fig. 3 is a sectional view of the illuminating ap
paratus shown in Fig. 1 but on an enlarged scale; 40 scope which comprises an eyepiece I andan ob
between which is positioned the roof
Fig. 4 is an end view showing the grinding tool
directing the image received by the
in operative position relative to a round blank;
objective 2 into the eyepiece and also for inverting
said image.
Fig. 5 is aview similar to Fig. 4 but showing a
Aligned with the objective 2 is provided the
work blank similar to that shown in Fig. 1.
tubular member 4 containing the window 5.
In the past, machines for forming the contour
In alignment with the microscope and adapted
or pro?les of objects have been provided with
be viewed therethrough is provided the work
viewing means and in some cases with illuminat
piece 6, on which the desired contour or pro?le
is to be formed, and the grinding wheel or other.
Where the viewing means has been employed
tool ‘I for forming such contour.
without illuminating means it was difllcult if at
all possible to view the tool and blank and it was
not possible to obtain. a well de?ned shadow of
at least a portion of the blank and tool to allow
For illuminating an area of the work piece and
the tool is provided the illuminator 8 which is
shown in section in Fig. 3 ‘onan enlarged scale.
This illuminator 8 comprises a tubular body
the operator to guide the tool and work relative 55
‘ member 9 having the supporting flange l0 secured
of the objective lens system II. This arrange-7
thereto for securing the illuminator in desired po
ment provides more uniform illumination over
the entire illuminated area and also simpli?es the
‘ sition' on the machine'relative to the tool, work
i andv microscope. This flange It] may have bolts
positioning of’ the lamp is relative to the dia
extending therethrough for use in securing the 5 phragm aperture l3 and therefore obviates the
3 illuminator‘ in operative position: and may.‘ also
otherwise necessary accurate positioning of the
be provided with leveling screws for‘. aligning the’
lamp I'B relative to the diaphragm aperture I3.
illuminator with the microscope as well as the
.It is also pointed out that the size of the pin
‘ work and tool.
(hole or aperture l3 must .be such as to eliminate
Adjacent the upper end or the tubular-106d? 1i}v excessive-diiiraction patterns and yet allow su?i
fmember 9 is provided the telescope objective lens?" 1
cient light to be provided to the objective H to
provide illumination of su?icient intensity.
‘system H which is corrected for spherica1 aber
ration, coma and color.
Adjacent the opposite‘ w
lend of said tubular bodymemberttisr provided" ‘
' In Fig. 4there is shown a circular work piece. ‘
Z2 is shown rotating on the
' 1the diaphragm member !2 having‘the circular-.Ll5fishaf?23landgthe circular work blank 26 is'shown
laperture or opening l3 over which is positioned ' “
the groundfglass disc l4.
rotating on the shaft 25.
' >
This groundgl'ass disc 1
5 is shown an end'view of a Work-blank
‘l4 may be either colored or clear although“ we 7' of the.’ type shown in Figs. 1 and 2 and showsthe
prefer to make the same- of a green glass to avoid
t'o‘o112‘6 rotated on the shaft’ 27 relative tothe
fatigue in the eye sighting‘ against the light source 20 work blank 28 on which the desired contour or
through the microscope and also to eliminatethe
‘e?ect .of'chromatic aberration. If such disc 14
r is of gireenrglass as stated; the light provided by’
the'illuminator will also be substantially mono-1
‘chromatic. This glass disc I4 has one surface,
' pro?leistobe formed;
' It willnbe'seen by employing the parallel light ’ _'
“ illuminating arrangement'of thelpresent applica
tion» that a well de?ned’ shadowizone of the same
cross section as the contour'pof the object Willvbe 1 >7
preferably its upper surface 2'! ground" but not
‘polished. Behind the disc M- is provided the
‘obtained; and therefore any errors in focusing '
?ampsocKetI-S supporting the lamp I61 and also
and that'uniform illumination and light'inten- '
V ‘ sity will be obtained over the entire illuminated
and’ consequent errorsv in size willube eliminated;
having the'plug H for connection with a source
of current to illuminate the lamp It. The mount 3'0 area;
“EB-for‘ the lamp socket'may be connected to the
tubular member 9 (by screws» orthe like l9 or
From the foregoing it'will be seen that we have
provided simple, efficient and economical means
and'process,for'obtainingv all-of the objects and
could be soldered thereto as‘ desired and thesock
v‘et i5 is secured‘ in) said mount l8 by‘means of?
advantages of the‘invention, v
{the set screw: or the like 20; Thegbody member $5 Having described our‘ invention, we “claim?
"9 may be provided'with'slotsl adjacent thelamp'
In apparatus for use with a contour forming
:Hi, asshown; for ventilation purposes.
machine an illuminator for silhouetting a por
7 It is pointed out that the objective lens system
tion‘ of a? forming'tooli onsaid machine and an
.I i must; be ofsuch optical construction as to pro
> adjacent‘ portion of‘ a workpiece also carried
vide substantially parallel light‘ for illuminating '40 thereby‘ and’adapted to bev pro?led by said form
at leasta'port-ionof the’ tooland an area of_ the
a l ‘ In'order to form on the work the desired pro?le
. ingtool; said illuminator comprising an elongated
' tubular housing, a'telescopeobjective lens sys
t'cmcarried adjacent and’ completely enclosing
or contour it is necessary‘ that the work and tool _ an end of said tubular housing, said lens system
be adjustably mounted relative to each other and 4° being corrected; for spherical aberration and coma,’
that the microscope also be adjustably mounted ' a fixed partition disposed transversely within said
' to allow the scanningr'or viewing of a consider
able area’ of the workpiece Without the necessity
of stopping the forming operation to ‘readjust
the position of the workpiece and tool; In order
"that thefw'ork‘ jahdpft'ool‘ may be observed within
a considerablerange it is necessary that'lthe clear '
housingiintermediate the ends thereof and ar- "
ranged to divide the interior of the housing into
separated? front’ and rear compartments, an .
aperture of relatively small diameter as com
pared to the; diameter of the ‘said lens system
formed in said partition‘‘ in- axial alignment with
aperture of the objective ll be considerablyin
said lens system, said aperture being located at
‘excess of the diameter‘ of the ?eld of'rthe‘o-bje'c if, the
rear focal point of said lens system, a mono- V
tiv'e 2, that-is, the clear aperture of the objective ‘0 chromatic
?lter’ within said rear compartment
l'l' should equal the amount'of travel of the‘ mi;
and positioned to overlie said aperture, means
croscope and microscope objective '2; Thus the
?eld‘ illuminated" by‘ the illuminator' 8’ will‘ be’ of
such'are'a that the microscope may be adjusted
through a considerable range and‘ the relative‘ po
sition of 'said- tool‘ and work may be viewed
throughisa'id‘ range without the necessity of stop--'
for securing said ?lter in such position; a diffus-J
ing- surface formed on the forward face of said
filter“ and positioned closely adjacent said aper
ture, and a lamp within saidv rear compartment
and located" closely adjacent said ?lter. whereby
a beam of‘parallel light of a single color may. be
ping the‘forming operation as described above. 7
‘ projected by saidilluminator when employed for
I It is pointed out that the upper surface 2| of
the glass.‘ disc: I diwhi'ch is a rough ground surface, 65 silhouettin'g said forming tool and workpiece.
as describedtfabove, is: positioned at the focal'point
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