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Патент USA US2406543

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Aug~ 27, 1946f I
w. H. HUNTER
_ '
ì _2,406,543
FRIGTIONAL MECHÁNI SM
Filed Dep. ` 3, 1943
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3 Sheets-Sheet 1
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M//sm Ham/‘ÉL
Aug.>27, 1946.
w, H, HUNTER
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2,406,543
-FRICTIONAL MECHANISM
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Filed Deo. 5, 1943
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3 Sheets-Sheet 2
Aug. 27, 1946.
2,406,543
w. _H. HUNTER
FRICTIONAL MECHANISM
Filed Dec. 3, _1945
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-5 Shee‘ts-Sheet 3
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59
_Él/'i//san HEIN/"5a.
‘ J M y@
2,406,543
Patented Aug. 27, 1946
lUNITED» STATES Panam“? oFFlcE
.FRICTIONAL MECHANISM
Willson H. Hunter, Lakewood, Ohio, >assignor to "
The B. F. VGoodrich Company, New York, N. Y.,
a corporation of New York
Application December 3, 1943, Serial No. 512,721
l13 Claims. (Cl. 188-1’52)
2,
l
to 3 thereof, the numeral I0 designates an annular
This invention relates to frictional mechanism
for _rotative bodies such as brakes for the wheels
of aircraft or other vehicles although features of
torque frame that may be fastened through holes
II as by bolts or other fastening means (not
shown) to a flange of a shaft (not shown). The
5 torque frame is formed with a fixed flange I4 at
the invention are useful in mechanisms such as
clutches operated by fluid pressure.
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one side and a removable flange I5 at the other, '
The principal objects ofthe invention are'to
provide a high degree of spring actionwithout
using objectionally stiff springs, to provide high
concentricity of adjacent friction elements with
fastened together by bolts 3l, which define a cir
cumferential outwardly facing channel I2 within.
a surrounding brake drum I3. Seated Within the
a cooperating frictionall member and maintenance 1o annular channel I2 is an annular expander tube
I6 adapted to force the braking surface against
of such concentricity as the blocks movein or> out
the drum'when the tube is inflated. The ex
of engagement with a cooperating frictional mem
pander tube I 6 is' connected by an L-shaped
ber, to provide for protecting an expander tube
metal stem I 'I extending through the torque
from dirt and from direct radiation of heat, and
to provide for facility of assembly.
15 frame Iû to a source of . ñuid pressure (not
shown). The annular channel I2 is also formed
Further objects are to provide for dependable
with a localized depression I8 at the position of
the connection I1 so'that the tube walls will re
operation, to provide for facility of maintenance,
to provide a high degree of equalization in the
main spaced-apart at this position to facilitate
distribution of frictional pressure, to provide flex
ible self-conforming action of the friction surface, 20 initial entry of the fluid and subsequent drainage
thereof.
to provide for substantially concealing the re
Retained within, the channel I2 over the ex
tractor springs within the confines of the friction
pander tube I6` and in direct contact therewith,
elements, and to provide longevity of the mecha
are a plurality 'of brake elements` I9, preferably
These and other objects will appear from the 25 formed of molded, heat resistant composition.
These elements are adapted to be forced into fric
following description and the' accompanying
tional engagement with the brake drum I3 when
the expander tube is inflated and to clear the>
Of the drawings,
,drum when the tube 'isdeflatedv The elements
Fig. 1 isa side elevation,4 partly. broken away
and partly in section, of a frictional mechanism 30 are relatively thin and somewhat flexible so as_to
conform to the opposing brake drum in full circle
constructed inV accordance with and embodying
nism.
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drawings:
the
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invention.
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contact, while providing light weight construc->
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tion.
Fig. 2 is a sectional view taken along theline
2-2 of Fig. l.
.To retain the elements I9 in place in the chan
Fig. 3 is a perspective view of a friction element 35
used in the embodiment of Figs. 1 and 2.
nel I2, >and to prevent excessive undesirable cir
cumferential displacement thereof a series of
`
Fig. 4 is a side elevation, partly broken away
and partly in section, of a modified construction.
Fig. 5 is a detail face view, partly broken'away
and partly in section, of the embodiment of Fig. 4. 40
Fig. 6 is a perspective view of a friction element.
Fig, 7 is a side elevation, partly broken'away
narrow torque bars 20, of‘a length sufficient to
bridge the width of the channel, extend between
circumferentially, adjacent brake elements I9 and
through opening 2|, 22 in the flanges I5 and I4
respectively.
’
The torque bars may be secured to one of the
flanges> as by heads 20a of the bars engaging
against the flange I5 and welded thereto as at
Fig.'8 is a detail face view, partly broken away 45 23. The other ends of the bars extend through
fiange I4 and may be secured thereto as by a
and partly in section, of the embodiment of Fig. 7.
washer 24 and a cotter pin 25, or other` suitable
Fig. 9 is a side elevation, partly broken away
fastening means.
and partly in section, of still another modiñed/
and `partly in section, of a further modified con
struction.
.
form of the invention.
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The elements I9 are rabbeted about the mar-v
Fig. 10 is a cross-section thereof, taken on line 50 gins of their drum-engaging faces to provide ad- jacent their supporting faces circumferentially
I0-I0 of Fig, 9.
extending marginal ledges 26 and terminal ledges
Fig. 11 is a detail view vof the braking face of
2l (see Fig. 3). The ñangesM, I5 of the torque»
the structure shown in Fig. 9, parts being broken
frame have inwardly directed circumferential
away and parts shown in section.
`Referring tothe drawings, and'ñrst to Figs. 1 55 flanges orl ledges .28, 29 respectively extending
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over the circumferential ledges 26 of the elements
in overlapping relation for retaining them in the
channel I2. The flanges 28, 29 define circumfer
ential channels or passages with the elements I9
for confining leaf springs 30, 3i.
The terminal ledges 2'I of the elements I9 ex
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ments to clear the torque-resisting lugs and the
springs.
Leaf springs dâ, for retracting the elements are
housed in the passages provided between vthe
Cil torque frame flanges and the elements. Each
spring 56 has an end portion 5I of U-shape adapt
tend beneath. the torque bars 26 and provideclear
edk t0 engage about a torque lug 41 and has out
Wardly bowledpo-rtions; 532, »55 near'its ends for
»engaging underV the marginal ledges 42a, 43a
with the bars shield the expander tube from heat. l0. while its central portion is inwardly bowed to en
gage the ledge of the element. y The arrangement
radiated from the drum I 3.
The retractor springs 36, 3| are preferably of“
is such that each spring is tensioned between the
ance space- therefor while` the ledges’of successive
elements approach each other under the bars and
flat spring wire and extend completely around
adjacentV element and the inwardly turned over- `
the torque frame. Each springv is> corrugated tp
provide inwardly bowed portions 32' adaptedV tor
press against the ledges 26 ofthe elements to
force the elements radially inward. of the torque
frame, and inwardly bowed portions 33Í for err
gaging about the torque. bars 2E), with outwardly
lapping margin` of the torque flange thereover
‘ and- yacts to force the element radially inward
when the expanderr tube is deñated.
» f Referring to theembodiment of the invention
bowed portions 34, 35 at" each side of the cross
bars] to restrain-’the spring against circumfer-`
ential‘ displacement- and to bear against the ledges
28,., 29. The ends >365 3,6 of the spring maybe
overlapped; The arrangement is' such that in-`
flation of the expander tube ISca-uses; the springs` 25
to be flattenedat their- bowed portions 32 by‘pres~
sure of the, ledges 26 outwardly with the bowed
portions 33>nrst fulcruming about the torque bars
21%)'a1'id‘ then about the ledges 28,V 29;
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illustrated in Figs. 7 and 8; a torque frame 60
that may be fastened through holes 6I to a flange
of a shaft (not shown) is formed with` a cir
cumferential-channel 6-2 definedl by` a fixed ñange
63» at one side-«and a removable ila-nge 6'4- at’the»
other.' Seated-'within the annular channelKSZ‘,
with its inner face» irl-continuous contact there
with is an annular expander tube 65 adapted tc~
force the braking surface against a cooperating
frictional drum (not shown).
Retained in the channel «62» over the expander
tube {S5-and in direct contact therewith are-a plu#
Referring to` the embodiment shown in Figs. 41 30 rality ofV brake elements Btg preferably formed of
molded, heat-resistan-t` composition. ~ The ele
andv 5, the numeral; 46' designates a torque frame
ments 66 may be slightly flexible and areadapted
that may be fastened' through holes 4I to a flange
to be forced into» f_rictional engagement with a
of a shaftV (not` shown) .. The torque frame is
brake
(not shownl» when the tube 65 is'in-v
formed with a circumferential channel 42' defined
flated and to be released from «contact with the
by a fixed flange 43' at one side and a removable Y
same when the tube is deflated.
flange '4.4 at the other secured to each other, by
The friction elements 6.6 are retained circum
bolts. . Seated'- within the annular channel- 42 with
ferentially inthe-channel 62- by a series of torque
its` inner ’face in, continuous. contact therewith isk
resisting lugs 61 on th'e flanges of theframe 66.
an annular expander tube 45> adapted to force the
The> corners ofthe elements 66 maybe notched
braking surface against a cooperating frictional
ask at 69? tol clear the lugs 611, when the lugs extend
member (not shown).
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beyond the braking surafaceV >as shown» in-y the
Seatedy inV the channel 42 >over the expander
i l tube, 415,? and in direct contact therewithin close-l
drawings,V so that the elements cannot move ex;->
ly spaced relation,V are a plurality-'of brake ele,-V
cessively circumferentially of the channel 62';
to -be forced» into frictional engagement wi'thf'aV
brake Vcl-rumïénot shown) when. the tube is inf-`
juxtaposition so that directed radiated heatv from
the drum cannot readily reach theexpandertube
ments 4&1 preferably formed of molded Vheat. re.-` du.»- The notches 69Íof >the blocks 6?!l also permit the
adjacent faces 'Ißfof the elements 66 to liein- closey
sist'antcompositiom TheseA elements are adapted
` flated and-releasedfrom thesame when the tube
is deflated., The elements4 may be of thin c'on-> ‘
struction to promote a highv degree-oi concen-Í
tricity for full circle contact.
3
The elements ¿6 are-retained in place in the
65;' Shorter lugsinay beemployed, howevenand
the notchesV dispensed with, if desired.
A reversely-bowed l’eaf retractor spring 'I-I hav'
ing its inwardly arched end portions 'I-2, 'I3 and
anl outwardly- arched center portion, is> fastened.
‘Y channel» 42. againstfundesirable. circumferential
at its central portion, as by rivets 'I6 tothe flanges
disposed between the adjacent'terminal faces of
vthe elementsßß. These lugs 4'! maybe formed by>
inwardly bending a section»l of- the flanges 42 and.y
and 'I5 of the spring 'II- are adapted to ride on, a
movement by a series of torque-resisting lugs d?, " . t3 and` 64 of the frame 66.
The curved arms 'I4
circumferential ledge 'I7 vof the element 66 so as
to urge >the element 65' radiallyy inward to; a
smaller diameter when the pressure is' released
43' for a short distance at'positionsrbetween the
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adjacent elements 46. The elementsfinay have` GO from the'expander-tube 65.’
' their corners notchedfas at 48. to receive the lugs
4l so, that` the space 49» between adjacent` ele
ments >¿i6> is relatively> small to shield the tubellâtV
fromradiated heat, or where the lugs extend only
the width of theY ledges, hereinafter described
notching ofthe elementsv may be dispensed with.v
For retaining'the elements radially withinthe
desired range of movement, the flanges42, 43y
are. provided ywith inwardly turned- circumferen
tial margins or ledges 42a, 43a, and the circum-`
ferential margins of the elements. 4S- are rab
beted‘ at their drum-engaging Vfaces to- provide
laterally extending ledges underlyingthe ledges
1
42a, 43a of the, flanges, as.- shown inFi'g'. 6., .This
>provides 'annularpassages at the sides of theele
The torque» flanges 63 and 64 mayA have'in
wardly turned marginal ledges 'I8 to cover the '
spring 'II~, to facilitate'alignment of the blocks
56 in the channel 62, and limit the radial travelr '
of the blocksthe-channel 62 by- engaging over
the ledgesfI-'I'I in overlapping relation.
Y ReferringV to Figs.4 9 toll' of. the drawings, the,
numeral 86’ designates a Itorque frarnel-iavingl a.
circumferential outwardly facingchannel 8|. de
fined by radially extending flanges 32533.»r The:
ñange 82 is lfixed with respect tothe torqueframe,
whereasthe iiangeÃ` 8-3 is removable, and> secured»
by bolts 84. Seated.l within the. channelßlis anl
. expander tube85 of resilie'ntrubber orotherrub
ber-like material. Within the'channel over'the
2,406,543
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expander tube and in directpontact therewith
element,«which'provides a mechanical advantage'
are a seriesof arcuate brake elements 86 of heat
in the force applied to the drum.
what flexible.
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Variations may be made without ‘departing
from the scope of the'invention as it »is defined`
resistant friction material which maybe some
The elements 86 are seated on the
by the following claims.
expander tube and are closely spaced to provide
substantially full circle contact with a surround
`I
claim:
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1. Frictional mechanism for controlling rela-- .
tive -rotation of rotatable parts, said mechanism
expander» tube from direct radiation of heat.
comprising a pair of concentric members, one of
For retaining the elements in the channel for
limited radial movement the circumferential 10 said members having an annular channel open
toward the other, an inflatable expander located
margins of the elements are rabbeted from >the
in said channel, friction elements onv said ex
braking face thereof to provide marginal retain
pander within the channel, said channel and said
ing ledges 81, 88, and the flanges 82, 8_3 have their
outer circumferential margins turned inwardly , elements having circumferentially extending'v
to form circumferential shoulders 89, 90 respec 15 marginal> ledges in overlapping krelation defining
tively, 'extending -over the ledges. The radial
passages at the sides of said elements, and spring
spacing> of th‘e ledges 81, 88 from the shoulders
.means located at the sides of said’elements withinA
89, 90 is such as to define circumferential spaces
said passages for retracting said elements;
therebetween at all times.> Located within such
2.' Frictional mechanism for controlling rela,
circumferential spaces are a series of leaf springs
tive rotation of rotatable parts,vsaid mechanism
9| preferably of flat spring wire. The material y comprising a pair of ‘concentric`members, one of
of the flanges 82, 83 is pierced with U-shaped cuts
said membersV having an annular channel open t0
at regular intervals and the enclosed portions are
ward the other, an inflatable expander located in
turned into the channel to provide torque lugs 92. _ „ said channel, friction elements on said expander
The elements 86 have laterally extending pins 93 2'5‘ within the channel for engagementwith the op
in their rabbeted portions projecting into the cir
posing member, torque-resisting means >extend
cumferential spaces between th'e successive torque
ing into said channel from the side walls there
lugs. ' Each leaf spring 9| has one end 94 looped
of, saidl side Walls and said elements having cir
about one of the torque lugs and the opposite end , .. cumferentially extending marginal ledges in over
thereof looped about a pin 93. Between its
lapping relation defining passages at the sides of
looped ends, the spring is bowed outwardly as at
said elements, and spring means anchored to
95 so that it bears outwardly on the shoulder
said torque-resisting means within said passages
thereover as a fulcrum. It also bears against
for retracting said elements.V
the ledge 81 or 88, near the pin 93 and is stressed
3. Frictional mechanism for controlling relative
between the ledge and the shoulder so as to press al rotation of rotatable parts, said mechanism com
th'e element toward the expander tube. The ar
prising a pair of _concentric members, one of said
rangement is such that the blocks 86 are pressed
members having an annular channel open toward
against the expander tube 85 by the springs 9|
the other, an inflatable expander located in said
which also act to resiliently hold the elements 86 4.6, channel, friction elements directly seated on said
ing brake drum (not shown), and toprotect th'e
circumferentially against all buty limitedmove
expander within the> channel, said sidewalls of
the _channel and said elements having circumfer
ment afforded by straightening of the springs
under torque, while fluid under pressure admitted
to the expander tube 85 will’- force the elements
radially outward against the brake drum.
entially extending marginal ledges in overlapping _
relation deñning passages at thesidesof saidele
ments, and spring means located at the sides of
said elements within said passages for retracting
A
This arrangement has the advantage of cush
ioning circumferential shock when braking forces
said elements, said spring means comprising
are applied while the same cushioning Ameans'acts
to retract the friction elements quickly when the
braking force is released.
bowed `leaf springs anchored to the channel and
impingirig against a ledgeof a friction element.
' In all the embodiments of the invention, the 50
friction elements may be readily molded or ma
chined from friction brake material and are rel
atively simple to produce. The seating of the
friction elements directly upon the expander'y tube
and their thin, somewhat flexible construction
assures their conforming to the braking surface
and maintaining their concentricity throughout
their movement, while the location of the springs
at the sides of the brake elements provides space
for springs of high amplitude of springing move
ment without excessive stiffness. The arrange
ment of the friction elements, the retractor
springs and the torque pins 'or lugs is suchas to
epFrictional mechanism for controlling rela
tive' rotation of rotatable parts, said mechanism
comprising a pair of concentric members, one of
said members having an annular channel open
toward the other, an inflatable expander located
in> said channel, a series of friction elements di
rectly seated on said expander within the channel
in close formation providing a substantially con
tinuous friction surface for engagement with the
opposing member, torque-resisting means extend
ing into said channel from the side Walls thereof,
60 said side walls and said elements having circum
ferentially extending marginal ledges in over
lapping relation for limiting radial movement of
said elements and defining passages at the sides
facilitate assembly and to protect the tube from
direct radiation of heat while the spring arrange 65 of said elements, and spring means located at the
`sides ofsaid elements withinA said passages andv
ment prevents hanging or dragging of the brakes
associated with said torque-resisting means for
and'affords a quick release of braking contact.y
The springs are so concealed as -to protect them
from dirt, and the arrangement of springs and
retracting said elements, said spring means com
prising a bowed leaf spring resiliently stressed be- ‘
friction elements protects the expander tube from 70 tween the overlapping ledges of a channel side
wall and a friction element.
contact with oil, grease, or other foreign matter
5. Frictional mechanism for controlling rela
which' might damage the tube. Also, the ledges
tive rotation of rotatable parts, said mechanism
at the sides of each friction element provide a
comprising a pair of concentric members, one of
larger surface of the _element at the expander face
thereof than at the drum-engaging face of the 75 said members having an annular channel open
255196,543‘
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tovvardl the other, an inflatable. expander located v
in said channel, a seriesy of. friction elements di
reetlyÍ seated lon' safidi-,exllvanderwithin- the- chan-v '
v8.4> Eric-tionalI mechanism for controlling rela- '
tive. rotationV of. rotatable parts, said.V mechanism
comprising apair of concentric members,v oneof
nel;l in.l close.~¿formation~ providing a. stilestantial-ly>
said membershaving an annular channel- open
continuous friction surfaceïfor engagement with?
tow-ard the other, an inflatable expander. tube
located inv said channel., a. series- of frictionv ele
the opposing mem-ber, torque-resisting meansA ex
tending into said channel from the side» walls
ments directly seated on said expander tube
thereof, said side Walls'and said elementsv having.
circumferentially extending marginal ledges- in
overlapping relation for limiting radial move-
Within- the channelin close formation providing Y
' a substantially continuous friction surfacev for
1o.
nient- of said elements and deñning passages atl
the. sides of said elements, and spring means »lo
cated. at. the. sides of said ’elements Within said
passages and associatedwith said torque-resisting
meansffor retracting said elements, said spring.
15 iting radial movement of. said elements»Y andde.
means comprising a bovved leaf spring, anchored,
toT torque-resisting means and bearing against, a.
ledge of a friction element.
engagement. with the opposing member, torque--A
resistingfmeans: extending into said channel. from
the sidef‘walls. thereof, said side-Walls andfsaid:
elements. having circumferentially extending
marginal ledges in overlapping relation for lim
‘
6.\Frictional’ mechanism for controlling rela
iiningi circumferential.passages at ther sides of
said. elements, and spring means located at. the
sides of; said> elements within said passages- and
associated. with said> torque-resisting means for»
Y tive' rotation 'of' rotatable parts, said mechanism,
retracting said elements, said- spring meanscoml
comprising a pair> of “concentric members, one of
saidf'members having an annular channel open
’ prisi-ng' a bowed spring having one end-„engage
ing oneof said torque-resisting means andthe
toward“ the otherjan inflatable expanderV locatedv
other end anchored to a friction elementV for
in' said> channel, a, series of friction elements di
rectly seatedïon said expander within the channel
resiliently> cushioning circumferential shock _of
inY close formation .providing a substantially con- ’
engagement.y
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19.. Frictional mechanism>A for controllingrela.-- Y
tinuous friction surface for engagement with the
tive rotation of?ro'tatable parts, saidV mechanism
opposing membentorque-resisting means extend- '
comprising a pair of members, one of -s-aidy mem
ing'in-to. said’channel fro‘mfthe side Walls there,
bers having av channel open toward the` other,
of, said side Walls andi said' elements having cir' 30: an expander in said channel, friction elements
cumferentially extending marginal ledgesin Over
lapping> relation: for limiting radial movement of
said elements and defining passages at> the sides
of said blocks, andspring means located at the
associatedwith» said. expander in said; channel, a
, torque bar secured to said channel. and extend
ing acro-ss- said channel between said elements,
said friction elements having' circumferential
sides of saidel'ements Within said passages and 3,5 axially projecting marginal.V ledges, each ledge»
projectingat the sidevof the element beyond the
associatedl with said torque-resisting means for
friction faceof the element, and retractor spring
e retracting said elements, said spring means com
prising a bowedv leaf spring anchored to one of
means> locatedy within sa-id channel .at` the mar
said torqueéresisting means and bearing against
ginal ledgesy and operable on: said marginal ledges
the-overlapping-ledges o-f a channel side Wall and
of» said elements. i
aïfricti'on
element.
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7. Frictional mechanismfor controlling rela
tive rotation> of; rotata-ble parts,v said-mechanism
i
lil.Y Erictional mechanism as deí'lnedin claim 9
in. WhichI said torque bar" isr insertablef‘throughu a
side of said channel;
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1l. Frictionalmechanism'as defined in claim 9
comprisingv a pair of concentric members, one of
said members having` an. annularr channelY open, 45 in which saidY-retraetor' spring' means engages said
torque bar:- and said ledges of said frictionl ele
toward’the other; an inñatable expander located
in said channel„,aV series of friction elements di;
rec-tlyfseated on said expander Within the chan
l2. Friotionall mechanism. as defined in claim~ 9
in which said retractor spring means comprises
nel in> close‘formation providing> a substantially
continuous friction. surface for> engagement with 50. a spring engaging said torque bar and said ledges
ments.
the opposing 'mem‘ben torque-resisting means
extending into said channel from> the side walls
thereof, said side Walls and said, elements having
circumferentially extending marginal.. ledges in
.
i.
of a pair ofl circum-feren-tially adjacent friction Y
elements:v
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13.l A frictional mechanismY comprising a pair
of' concentricall-y' arranged relatively rotatable
overlapping relation for limiting radial movement 55. members,I one of sa-idgmembers having flanges
of said elements and defining circumferential
defining a channel open~toward the other mem,
ber, an- expa-nder seated in said channeL ai series
passages at the sides of said elements, and. spring
of pressure elements: upon, said. expander Vand
means located at the sides of said elements With
movable »radiallyx of the channelled memben, said
in said >passages and associated with said torque
' resisting means for retracting said elements, said 6.0 pressure ele-ments having: circumferential mar
gins- extending axially- bevond the Working faces
spring means comprising `a, leaf spring extend--V
of. the pressure elements, spring> meanson, said
ing completely about said channel, saidspring
margins> and engaging adjacent elements forV
having portionsjengaging about saidltorque-re.-`
resiliently urging them toward each; other;. and
isting- means, and bowed portions therebetween
bearing against’a ledge 'ofÍ the channel~ side wall
meanst for. limitingA circumferentialL movement’ of `
andi overlapping ledgesv of said' friction elements.`
said elements.`
o
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WILLSON H'. HUNTER.V
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