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Патент USA US2406552

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Aug. 27, 194.6.
c. E. L-UCKE
Filed ‘Aug. '28, 1943
PatentedAug. 27,‘ 1946 .
Charles E. Lucke, New York, N.;.Y., assignor to I
United Aircraft‘ Corporation, East Hartford, ‘
Conn, a corporation of Delaware
Application August 28, 1943, Serial No. 500,335
‘ 6 Claims.
(01. 1234-171)
This invention relates to cooling systems for
internal combustion engines and more particu
Fig. 2 is a longitudinal view of the cylinder
shown in Fig- 1, partly in section, thesection
larly to means for uniformly and effectively “air
cooling the cylinder walls of aircraft engines.
being taken on the plane of line ‘2-2 in Fig; 1.
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal View. of the?cylinder
A primary object of the invention is to provide
shown in'Figs. 1 and 2, taken from the left side
means to cool the walls of an engine cylinder
and associated parts so that the temperature of
the walls will be maintained substantially equal
A feature of the invention that is‘ important is
that a large number of closely spaced and'uni
formly distributed elongated heat conducting
clude the following principal parts: First, an ‘en
15 gine'cylinder having a large number of small
closely spaced substantially radially 1 disposed
standing. generally‘ radially from .thediiferent
portions of the cylinder wall, there being guiding
means for un'iformlydistributing the cooling air
circumferentiallyof the cylinder and about the
elongated heat conducting spines outstanding .
Another feature of the invention that is ad
vantageous is that a cylindrical enclosing jacket
is provided preferably comprising a thin sheet
of high heat conducting metal surrounding the
cylinder and supported in heat conducting con
tact with the spines at their outer ends.
Another object of the invention is’ to provide
der which are now thought desirable, and
Fig. 6, 7 and 8 show several preferred forms of1
spines adapted for a cylinder barrel and its
In its preferred forms, the invention may ‘in-i
members in theform of spines are provided out
Figs. 4 and 5 show selected detail arrangements
for the cooling spines on the surface of the. cylin
circumferentially of the cylinder during operation
of Fig. l.
means’ to guide the circumferentially distributed
cooling air in a direction ‘axially'of the ‘cylinder
therefrom and permanently united to the cylin
der at their innerends as by welding or brazing
so that they are thermally integral therewith;
second, a thin sleeve orjacket of high heat con
ducting metal surrounding. said cylinder and
spines and preferably attached as by brazingv or
otherwise to the outer ends of the spines so that‘
the jacket will be in heat conducting contact
therewith; third, chamber members closely sur-_
Within the interspine space from'a'one end'o-f
rounding the cylinder at the oppositeiends of the
jacket, these members. being attached circumfer
entially to the cylinder and jacket and each
air circumferentially of the'cy‘linder within the:
cooling air to and from thespace within‘,thev
the 'jacket to the‘ other, 'thesenieans also'e?ect? 30 chamber or enclosure having a side openingfor
mg‘ and maintaining uniform 'distributiontof‘lthe
the admission and withdrawal respectiY€ly,,-=Q,f._
A still further object is to provide chambers
surrounding the cylinder and-enclosingjthe oppo;
site ends of the jacket, there'eb'eing‘i'a ‘side’ open--v
to'the,, ?gures
.of- the
drawing, there‘is shown a, conventional or standfj
ard form of internal combustion engine cylinder,
ing for each of these chambers toadm‘it‘ antler;
haust the cooling fluid respéct'ivel'y'to and from
In to which are secured on its outer surfacev a
plurality of closely and regularly disposed elone ,
gated metal spines ll of relatively small cross
the space within the jacket;the chambers pref‘
erably being of decreasing area in cross section
from their openings to the side‘ ‘diametrically
section. Preferably these.’ spines are brazed or'
welded to the cylinder wall l2.- As shown in Figs. _.
6 et. seq_ . the spines Il may be of cylindrical or.‘
uniformly distributed. circumferentially ‘of the
tapered form and‘ solid or hollow» forya portion
cylinder" and withdrawn therefrom'after ‘passing
axially of the cylinder through the‘ jacketed space. ‘ 45 of their length. ‘These spines also preferably‘ are ;.
relatively‘ long and, if desired,.may be thicker I
Other objects and ‘advantages will be apparent '
at their cylinder attached'ends so that their at
from the speci?cation and claims, ‘and from the.
opposite thereto so that the cooling ?uid will ‘be
drawing which illustrates what is now considered '
tachment thereto and heat conducting qualities
to be a preferred embodiment of the invention.
may be most e?icient, in relation to heat trans
Fig. 1 is a plan view of a cylinder provided‘
50 fer from the surface of the spines to ‘the cooling
air flowing past them.
with one embodimentv of. the present inventionp
some of the parts being shown in'section to more
clearly disclose their construction, the section be
ing taken on theplane of iinev lJ-J in‘Filg. .2. '
The surface provided
with spines shown in the drawing is cylindrical,
‘butit will be understood that irregularly shaped
portions of a cylinder barrel or its head maybe we
provided with spines formed to accommodate
3 .
cylinder It) forms a duct constraining the cooling
?uid to flow in a direction axially of the cylinder
Within the interspine space after being initially
uniformly distributed about the spines circumfer
entially of the cylinder by the upper closure mem
bers M. The upper member M forming the space
about the cylinder, admits the cooling fluid to the
different portions thereof.
In Fig.v 6 is shown a special bifurcated spinev
the smaller end beingwelded or brazed to an
5 - external cylindrical surface and the bifurcated or
outer end contacting .a jacket to increase the
spine surface along its vlength and equalize the air'
?ow area between’ spines radially in the interest
of good heat transfer from the spines. to cooling 5'
7 In Fig. .7 is shown a solid tapered spinegthe
7 upper end of this duct within the jacket [3. and
10 ‘the lower member l5 permits the ‘withdrawal of
‘ > _
cooling .fluid after the
aboutthe spines while being distributed uniformly
.circumferentially about the cylinder. By reason
vof " the uniformly decreasing cross sectional area
. .
In Fig. 8 is shown a form ofrspine formed to ac
commodate a portion of a cylinderhead where
the cylinder wall is'concave and has a jacketed
air has passed axially
through the space surrounding the cylinder and
smaller end-being attached to the cylinder ‘wall
and the larger end to a’ jacketLto .keepthe air»_
,flow area between spines _-.equalized along the
length of the spines.
In operation, the jacket I3 surrounding the
5' themselves to the curvature of the cylinder at ,
of the spaces within the closure members I4 and
-l StransVersely of the cylinder the cooling air may
more evenly circulate and be distributed more
' uniformly circumferentially about the cylinder
portion contacting the enlarged end of the spine,
thus equalizing the heat transfer through the
It yvill be understoodalso that the spines maybe 20 cylinder, walls circumferentially of the cylinder
v bent lengthwise to accommodate variousportions
andleliminating distortion from circular section
'of acylinder head or other irregular surface and
' due to temperature stresses ‘that may be ‘setup
promote good heat transfer.
within the cylinder walls by uneven circumferen
The'spacing of the spines about different PDT-,
tial temperatures.
tions of the surface to be cooled may vary but as
.Itisjto ‘be understood that the invention is not
shown .in Figs; v4 and 5 preferably may be" regu~'
' limited to the speci?c
larly distributed in rows in line orstaggeredand
separated .by distances equal to or slightly differ
entrfrom their‘ diameters asmay'be best ‘for heat ,
In the embodiment of the invention selected for
embodiment herein illus
trated and described, but may be used in other
ways without departure from the spirit of the
invention as de?ned by the following claims.
I claim:
'1. A cooling construction for internal combus
tionengine cylinders comprising in combination,
spines of .elongated cylindrical form are employed,
an’ engine cylinder, spine cooling members ther
‘these spines being spaced preferably uniformly . mally
integral with the wall thereof and project
about the cylinder barrel as indicated jinthese - ing generally radially outward therefrom, a heat
detail description and {shown .in Figs. 17, 2,'and 3
Surrounding the spines H is ,a cylindrical sleeve
‘ V or jacket 13, preferably of thin sheet metal such
as copper, aluminum, or other metal having good .
heat transferring properties. This jacket [or
sleeve contacts the outer ends of the spines H
and preferably ‘is united thermally thereto'as by
conducting jacket surrounding said cylinder and
spines, ‘said jacket being thermally united to ‘said
spines, and an inlet member having an opening
at one side thereof and attached to and surround
ing said cylinder and jacket at one end thereof
foradmitting air to
’ .space within, said jacket
uniformly distributing said air circumferentially
brazing or welding so that by heat conduction
from the ‘spines I] to the .jacket .13 the surface of 45 of said cylinder, whereby saidycooling .air may
pass axially through said jacket and aboutrsaid
the jacket maybe utilized .to transfer heat to the
.At opposit endsof the sleeve or jacket 13 are
closure members I4 and I5 in .the form of annular
members. ?tting over the ends of the jacket. .
These ‘members. I 4 and l 5 closely engage .the walls
.of the cylinder l0 and the ‘jacket _l3_and each has
a side opening ‘l5 and ‘Ilrespectively. vThe upper ‘
or, inlet member M has its opening l5 facingin
. the direction of the air stream and ‘the lower or
outlet member ‘I5. preferably'has' its opening ll’
facing .in the opposite direction. The cross-sec
tion areas, of. the spaces within ‘these ‘members
2. A cooling construction for internal combus
tion engine cylinders comprising .in combination, I,
an engine cylinder, spine cool-ing members there
mally integral with the wall thereof and pro‘
‘jecting generally radially outward therefrom,;a
heat conducting jacket surrounding {said cylinder
and'spines, ‘said jacket being thermally united
tosaid spines, a laterally-extending inlet mem
her for admitting 'air to the space within said
jacketat one end thereof, and a laterally ex-> ‘7
. tending outlet member for withdrawing air there-'
from at the opposite end thereof, whereby cooling
varies so that their areas decrease from their
air may pass from said inlet member'axially :of
openings to the sides opposite thereto.
The outside peripheries of these chamber mem 60 the ‘cylinder within said jacket‘and to said outlet;
, bers-Hi and B5 are, as indicated in Fig. l, disposed
3. A cooling construction ‘for internal combuse‘ '
ec'centrically relative to the cylinder wall Hi. The
chamber within-eachof these closure members is
tion engine-cylinders comprising in combination,
therefore formed so that there is a greater space
an ‘engine cylinder, spine :cooling members ther
within the chamber members adjacent their open
mally ‘integral with ‘the ‘.wall thereof and pro‘ '
ings and the size ‘of this space decreases sym
jecting generally radially outward ‘therefrom, a
metrically andgradually toward the side directly
heat conducting jacket surrounding said: cylinder 1
opposite‘the opening. Cooling air entering the
and spines, said jacket'be'ing thermally united to
opening 'I 6 at one side of the member M can,
spines, a laterally extending inlet member
‘therefore, distribute itself uniformly circumfer
for admitting air to the space within said jacket,
entially- about the cylinder ID. Similarly, the
and a laterally extending outlet member for with- I
cooling air after traversing the interspine space
drawing air therefrom, said inlet and outlet‘mem-v
within the jacket I3, enters the closure member
bers "being connected .to and surrounding ‘said.
l51andis exhausted therefrom through the lat
cylinder and jacket at ‘opposite ends thereof,
eral opening [1. >
whereby cooling air may pass from said inlet
member axially of the cylinder within said jacket
and to said outlet member.
area from its opening circumferentially of said
cylinder,. and an outlet member at the opposite
end of said jacket, whereby said cooling ?uid ad
mitted to one end of said jacket will be substan
4. In a cooling construction for internal com
bustion engines, the combination of an engine
tially equally distributed circumferentially around
cylinder, cooling spines projecting from said cyl-_
said cylinder and about said spines, and may
inder, a jacket surrounding said cylinder and
spines and forming with said cylinder a duct for
directing cooling ?uid over said spines in a direc
tion axially of said cylinder, said jacket being
thermally united to said spines and ?uid dis
tributing members for uniformly distributing said
?uid circumferentially of said cylinder having
side inlet and outlet connections and surrounding
said cylinder and attached respectively to said
cylinder and jacket at opposite ends thereof,
whereby cooling air may pass from said inlet"
member axially of the cylinder within said jacket
pass axially through said jacket about said spines
and then to said outlet member.
6. In a cooling construction for internal com
bustion engines, the combination of an engine
cylinder, cooling members in the form of spines
extending generally radially outward from said
cylinder and distributed generally uniformly
about said cylinder, a cylindrical jacket sur
rounding and enclosing said spines, said jacket
being thermally united to said spines, an inlet
member for cooling ?uid having a side opening
and attached ,to said jacket at one end thereof,
and then to said outlet member.
and an outlet member for the cooling ?uid hav
5. In a cooling construction for internal com 20 ing a side opening and attached to said jacket
bustion engines, the combination of an enginev
at its opposite end, said members forming cham
cylinder, cooling members in the form of spines
extending generally radially outward from said
cylinder and distributed generally uniformly
about said cylinder, a cylindrical jacket surround
ing and enclosing said spines, said jacket being
thermally united to said spines, an inlet member
bers having decreasing cross-sectional areas from
their openings circumferentially of said cylinder,
whereby said cooling ?uid admitted to one end of
said jacket will be substantially uniformly dis
tributed circumferentially around said cylinder
' and about said spines and exhausted therefrom
for cooling ?uid having a side opening and at
after passing axially through said inter?n space
tached at one end of said jacket, said member
within said jacket.
forming a chamber of decreasing cross-sectional 30
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