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Патент USA US2406574

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Aug. 27, 1946.‘
2,406,574:
-‘ F; wALLER ‘ET AL
GUNNERY TRAINING
Filed Oct. 17, 1941
' '11 Sheets-Sheet‘ v2
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FIRNéyDEWHLLEB
~NTOR8
_Aug- 27, 1946-
‘ IF. 'WALLEIé ETAL
' 2,406,574
GUNNERY TRAINING
Filed Oct. 17,- 1941
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INVENTORS
FEED WHLLEB
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BY H. M?ETYN lap/(5e
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'Aug.;Z7,.1946;
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2,406,574
GUNNERY TRAINING '
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"Aug.‘27_. .1946;
F. WALLER ETALM
‘2,406,574 ‘ I
GUNNERY TRAINING
Filed 001;. 1'7, 1941
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Aug-‘Z7, 1946. '
F. WALLER ETAL
GUNNERY TRAINING
Filed 001. 17, 1941
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2,406,574
‘
11 Shejets-Sheet 1o‘
Aug. 27, 1946.
/
I
2,406,574
F. WALLER ET AL
v
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‘
GUNNERY-
TRAINING
Filed Oct. 17, 1941
11' Sheets-Sheet 11 -
INVENTOR5
FRED WHLLEE
14’- ROBERT BEES-SLR
H. MARTY/V B?/(FB
I
W
A'ITORNEYS
-
Patented Aug. 27,1946
‘
2,406,574
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
GUNNERY TRAINING
‘Fred Waller, Huntington, N. Y., and Willis Robert
‘Dresser, Long Hill, and Henry Martyn Baker,
‘ Essex, Conn, assignors to The Vitarama Corpo
ration, New York, N. .Y., a corporation of New
York
Application ‘October 17, 1941, Serial No. 415,374
52 Claims.
(ores-25)
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1
"2
This invention relates to gunnery‘ training
and has for an object the provision of improve
an imaginary ‘projectile from the gun to a point
ments in this art.
,
One of the objects of the invention is to pro
vide training apparatus which in physical appear
ance, setting and mode of use corresponds in the
greatest possible degree to actual service equip
ment, environment and use.
The invention may have a variety of uses, but
as an aid 'to a rapid comprehension of its nature
and advantages it will be described in connec
tion with the training of machine gunners for
of “burst” in the plane of the target, and other
factors, to provide a very accurate control condi
tion relative to or against which thegunner oper
ates. If he matches these control conditions,
‘the apparatus will register his shot as a hit.
The indication of a hit may be given in many
dilferent ways. The necessary impulse having
been provided, a great variety of indications may
‘be possible, as "for example a bell, a light, ‘a touch,
a record mark, or the like.
_ p
The apparatus may also be used for purely
shooting airplanes and other moving targets.
instructive purposes as, for example, to project
At present there is practically .no way to prop?
erly train an airplane gunner except in actual
combat. He may shoot on a range to test his
general aptitude. By this and other tests men
may be selected for gunnery service, but they
'a spot of light together ‘with an image of the
target on the screen to indicate ‘where the burst
‘should be, or to indicate the correct point of ‘aim
‘to make a hit, the trainee following this in his
still need experience of actual conditions in order
to acquire that instant and precise judgment of
"distance, speed, windage, gravitational effects,
time ‘of bullet ?ight and other conditions, which
‘is so necessary for .rapid and effective ?ring re
quired in combat.
-
‘ Practically the only attempt now made to pro
vide service gunnery training is that of towing a
sleeve or other target behind an airplane and
permitting the gunner to shoot at it from an
sights or later attempting to duplicate the situa
'tio'n.
‘
v
>
I
The general outlines of the invention have been
noted and reference has been made to motion
pictures taken and, projected from a gunner’s
viewpoint. A s‘i'ngle'?lin will serve the inven
tion; ‘but ‘for greater realism and more perfect
'25 training .a number of ?lm ‘records are made at
different angles from ‘the gunner’s position.
When these ?lms are projected in the same rela
tionship upon .a concave curved screen, there is
provided a realistic three-dimensional effect.
other airplane. This at best is not very good
‘practice because the lineally moving target is 30 And when to this there is added sound (which
also may‘r be recorded from the gunner’s posi
but a poor substitute for an airplane in combat
‘acrobatics. Moreover, this requires the use of
much expensive service equipment for training
tion) frame number of ‘sources distributed over
the screen, the approach to realism is very strik
only one man at a time, and in addition there is
ing. Such a system of projection with sound
is disclosed ‘in thetco-pending application" of
Fred Waller and ‘Ralph Walker, ‘Serial No.
163,712.v ?led “September 14., ‘1937, now Patent
danger of injury to the personnel or equipment,
or to life and objects on the ground.
According to the present invention, motion
pictures are taken from the viewpoint of a pros.
pective gunner, as of combat airplanes from an
No. 2.280;;2‘06, April 21, 1942.
other airplane. These pictures are subsequently
has a radius of about twenty feet or more, it pro
projected from the same relative position upon a
vides a setting which substantially satisfies the
conditions for correct visual judgment of dis
tance'because, for the average person, the judg
screen, and a gunnery trainee or student is placed
with a dummy gun as near as. conveniently pos
I
When this curved (commonly spherical) screen
ment of distance and perspective beyond about
sible to the projection axis ‘to aim and ?re at
selected objects in the pictures on the screen. 45 twenty feet is not dueto the interpupillary dis
There may be several guns for as many students
grouped closely around the center of projection.
No actual projectiles need be ?red at the screen.
Instead, control apparatus, is operated in accord
ance with the picture projection and gun position
‘at the time of ?ring, which determines whether
a "hit or miss is made and provides intelligence
thereof. This control apparatus is preconditioned
.to account for the position of the target in space,
its distance from the gun, the‘eti-me of flight "of
tance of the eyes, ‘but is due to peripheral vision,
that is, what the eye'sees outside its central area
of sharp focus, and also to relative movement
perspective, and to color or atmospheric perspec
5.0 tive. When a colored three-dimensional motion
picture is projected on a screen of this size to
gether with a three-dimensional reproduction
of the sound record made at the gunner’s posi
tion, or its approximation, practically all the ele
mch'ts of realism are faithfully reproduced.
2,406,574
Basically, therefore, the pin hole, cross, or
other indicia hereinafter referred to, might be
provided directly in each frame of the actual
picture ?lm band. Preferably, however, a sepa
When a trainee is placed near the projection
center of such an environment and ?res at a
moving target, say a moving'airplane with its mo
tors operating and its guns ?ring blanks, there
is provided an opportunity to observe not only
rate band (or hands) , which will be referred to as
his judgment but also something of his psycho;
a control band, is usedinstead, for a number of
logical reaction under conditions which almost
duplicate actual service conditions.
reasons.
'
For one thing, the picture ?lm’may have many
natural light spots which might be confused with
To this there may be added mechanism for
reproducing the sound of ?ring the type of gun 10 the “hit” spot, hence it is more dependable to
use a control ?lm band which is wholly opaque
which is‘represented by the dummy gun; and
except for the purposely made control spots.
,
the dummy gun may be vibrated when the trigger
Further, if the hit spot were made in the pic
is pulled, to Simulate its normal vibration in use.
ture band it would be projected On the screen
Also the trainee’s mount may be similar to that
and this would‘ confuse or unduly guide the
in service and arranged ‘ to. have. movements
trainee. For certain instruction purposes it may‘
which simulate to some extent those of an air
be placed in the picture band, as explained
plane in combat; and elements of surprise or
shock may be provided to obtain the trainee’s '
reactions. These effects may be varied 'to suit
different service requirements or the instructor's
fancy. They are mentioned to illustrate how
_
and the full frame'of picture ?lm is required for
the projection beam at the moment of projec
tion.
Further, it is desired to compute the distance
almost wholly duplicate actual service condi?
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.
Further, it is desired to utilize the hole or spot '
in a frame to control certain auxiliary apparatus
the invention can be carriedv forward to provide
test conditions which are realistic and which
tions.
vhereinafter.
from’the gun to the target-which may be done 7
by known photographic triangulation methods
The invention provides for obtaining a highly
which need not be described here-and set
accurate test of the trainee’s gunnery ability and
against it the time of ?ight of the projectile
a great deal of precise gunnery practice for a
taken from ballistic tables of the particular gun
large number of studentseat a relatively small
expense, and this under conditions where imme 30 and ammunition, and other pertinent data-in
order to properly place the spot on the band. It
diate indications of results are given to the
can be seen that it would not fall at the spot on r'
trainee or his instructor. This is in contrast to
the picture frame where the hit will occur, be
“towed sleeve gunnery,” mentioned above, where
cause of the time of ?ight and'other factors.
the sleeve can be examined for hits only after
the ?ight 'is vover, and to “camera gunnery” 35 Only if the target were located at zero distance
from the muzzle of the gun would the aim and
where the record must be developed, during
hit spots coincide on the picture ?lm. It is de
which time’ the student has forgotten many of
sired to take account of the time of ?ight in
the conditions under which the record was made.
placing the aim spot on the control band. .This
Moreover, camera gunnery does not provide for
time of ?ight, windage, gravity, airplane speeds 40 has a further function which will be explained.
and the like. 7 To merely sight directly on a mov
Further, it is desired to’ give immediate intel
ing target is to miss it‘compl'etely under most
service conditions, just as is true in skeet, trap
shooting, bird shooting or the like. Incidentally,
these sports may also be" effectively taught or be
ligence or indication of a hit, and this cannot
be done conveniently with the picture ?lm be- ,
cause the target has not arrived at the point'of
the burst at this time. It is preferred to place
this indication on a separate control band which
used as a source of amusement according to the
present
invention.
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’ Having seen how a plurality of ?lm bands and
associated eifects maybe employed to obtain
realism of environment, we may, for simplicity, 50.
return to the consideration of a single ?lm band.
Say atarget airplane is seen approaching in a
certain sequence of pictures in this band.
A
may be, in effect, displaced longitudinally rela
tive to the picture band to take care of this sit
uation.
-
.
'
Moreover, when a plurality of picture ?lm
bands are employed to project a mosaic of sep- ‘
arate areas which form 'a composite picture on
a large or spherical screen, the target may not
remain on a single band while it is in the range
projectile, more commonly a plurality of projec
‘ _ tiles, as when a machine gun is used, is ?red with 55 of the gun. When a separate control bandis em-‘
ployed it may be proportioned ‘to the total area
sufficient “lead” toiarrive at a given point in
of the screen or of all ?lm bands or to the coordi
space, taking account of time of flight, etc"
nate range of movement of the dummy gun, and
when a given vulnerable part of the airplane ar
the indicia provided in suitable proportionate .
rives at the same point, and a hit is made; The
airplane image at that time is located at a given 60 relationship on the control band to the locational
coordinates of the target inthe picture.
,
position or coordinate point on a single picture
In some instances it may be desired to form
or frame of the ?lmband. It also occupies a
corresponding coordinateposition on the pro
I the control band of metal or other durable ma
jected picture area'on the screen. Ifa light spot
terial, though a sensitized band is still contem
were'leftv on, the screen _where the burst was 65 plated when prints are desired and where the
placedyand if a small pin hole, cross or other
weakening effect of holes can be avoided by pro
viding transparent spots. Also it may be de
transparent area‘were made in the frame where
the hit was to be made on the airplane, then
sirable to use longer or wider frames to permit
when the airplane reached thesame place, the
of greater distances and accuracy and to per
hole or~“hit” spot would exactly coincide with 70 mit more equipment to be mounted about the
the burst spot. For the moment gravity drop,
control frame zone. For example, the frame of
which would require the aim to be. vertically dis
the control band may equal two picture frames
placed relative to the hit spot, ‘and windage,
in length. Or it may be desired to provide con
which would‘ require the aim to be horizontally
ventionalized indicia of the targetpositions on
displaced relative to the target, areneglected.
the control band.
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2,406,674
5
6
.
of. the. target airplane again being. superimposed
. For: usual service. requirements it will be sum
cient to record the hit or; project an. image oi the
in dotted lines and the: conditions being'thez same
as inFig. 2.;
I
burst spot on the screen, or both, when. the target
Fig. 7 is a. view of. a length of control band used
arrives at itsgiven position. For‘ certain; serv
ice it may be desirable to represent the burst on U1 when the. functions; of. the apparatus: of Figs. 1
and: 2 are combined, the same being a. composite
the screen as soon as; the gun is fired, and to
preserve the. spots on the screen a: certain length
of. the bands shown in Figs. 4 and 6;
Fig. 8. is: a. View showing. several. forms: of aim
of time, as by using a phosphorescent. coating
registering apertures which may be advanta
on. the: screen. The last bursts will appear more
.- '
brilliantly and fade or decay ‘progressively so. as 10 geously employed;
to gradually disappear.
,
. Fig. 9. is a view of one unit length or frame of '
For ,this. type of,‘ spot projection. and: also for
the‘ delayed spot‘; projection itmay be. desirable
toaprovide correction for; deviationsof theproj'ec
control band when the functions of the apparatus
of Figs. 1, 2. and 3; are combined;
tile from straight line flight; to; .talrezaccdunt of ’
paratus adjacent the control band of Fig. 7;‘
Fig. 1021s an isometric view‘ of the actual ap- ‘
winda‘ge; gravity drop, ‘parallax; and. otherv vari
.Fig. 11. is avertical sectionalv view of apparatus
for‘ proiecting the delayed hit spot when the gun
able factors". “ Preferably this is. done: by‘ regulati
ing. the. position; of the. spot projector from one
itselt is left free for continuous aiming move—~
or more controlbands which: have been. prepared
ment;
'
to compensate for-‘these. displacements. One: con. 20 Fig. 12 is a. vertical section taken approximately
on the line‘ f2-ll2’ o-f‘Fig'. 11;
trol band maybe used for all purposes" but the
Fig. '13 is a. front perspective view‘ showing an
last mentioned" factors may be accommodated by
exemplary arrangement when ?ve projectors‘, a
one or more control bands apart from the control
band which; registers hits; and’. projects the de
spherical screen and four dummy guns are used;
layedburst' 'spotiafter. the: correct time‘ of ?ight. 25
Fig. 14 isv an isometric view of part of the‘ ap
paratus of Fig. 10 when a device for ‘punching
This avoids undue. complications for beginners,
crossmarks in the ?lm is substituted for part of
yet requires advanced: students to take into ac
the indicating apparatus»;
count more; of. ‘the factors of" actual service. In
Fig. 15 is a‘ perspective View of apparatus for
thisrway' special problems: may be taught. These
regulating aim accuracy as shown in Fig. 10 or
iactorsmay or'may not: be. taken intoa account
for photographically making crosses of variable
in preparing the control band. with aim spots
size as shown in Fig. 5‘;
for indicating hits. If theyare, the sights may
Fig. 16 is a longitudinal section. through a part
be required; to. be aimed higher’ or lower to com
pensate for gravity drop. and other factors. which
of
affect elevation; 01" with more or' less lead than 35
Fig. 17 is a perspective View of apparatus for
making the lagv apertures shown in- Fig. 4; and
that; required for time of ?ight of‘ the projectile
to compensate for windage, direction of‘ ap
proach,. speed of gunner-"s airplane, and other
factors which affect train.
’
and advantages of vthe invention: will? appear
from the. following description of’ certain em
bodiments: of’ the invention, reference being made
to the accompanying ‘drawings, wherein: ‘
‘Fig. 1 is a schematic view of‘ apparatus for
furnishing immediate intelligence of correct aim
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15;
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Fig. 18 is a view showing control apparatus
operated‘ by the equipment shown in Fig. 3 and
the third zone of‘ the control band shown‘ in
‘
The enumerated and other‘ objects; features
o'r'hitsi;
Fig.
'
Fig; 2:‘i‘s a schematic view (:‘whi'ch is to be re
Fig. 9;
'
Referring ?rst‘ to Fig. I, a projector 20 is prop
erly associated with a screen 2 I» to project there‘
on» a series of pictures from a picture ?lm‘ band
22?. For a concave screen of double curvature,
such as the spherical screen illustrated, a plural
ity of projectors may be used, as illustrated in
Fig. 13, and» as explained in the patent referred
to above. Preferably the projectors are arranged
behind the geometric center C (Fig. 13')‘ and» have
garded as: combined with Fig. 1) of! apparatus ‘
for furnishing an indication of’ hits at the time 50 their optical axes located on radii through the‘
they are: made, allowance. for time of‘ ?ight hav
ing beenmad'e;
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3 is a schematic view (which is to be re
garded' as combined with Figs. I and 2') of appa
center C. The pictures aretaken by cameras ar
ranged‘ in approximately the same way at the
gunner’s position, preferably in actual mock
combat conditions; In Fig. 13 ?ve projectors
ratus'. for automatically adjusting the‘ delayed 55 are. shown but the number may be varied.
hit; or burst spot to take account‘ of‘ wi'ndage,
gravity drop, advancing or receding target speeds,
parallax and‘ the like ;'
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"@Fig. 4a is a view of'a length of control film band
All of" the projectors are run in
and the ?lm bands are started and
just as‘ the pictures were taken by
cameras. Perfect synchronization
synchroni'sm
run together
synchronized
may be re
used‘in the apparatus- shown in Fig. 1‘, the image 60 ali-zed in many different ways, mechanical drive
and-connections being employed» in the» apparatus
of the target airplane being superimposed in
used; butmit is ‘not necessary to explain the well- ’
I ‘dotted lines to showiwhat its relationship‘ to the
known practice of‘ drive synchronization here.
aim-‘punch mark‘ ‘or' ‘cross would ‘be if the punch
markiiiwere‘made "in the projection ?lm hand
- A dummy gun 25 is placed as‘ near the center
(‘here assuming that 'one'andr' not several ?l'm 65 C as conveniently possible. Ther'emay be a num
ber of‘ these guns, as shown in: Fig. 13‘. In pra'c'i
bands is: used? torprojection, that a projection
tic‘e the dummy guns may be‘ made to resemble
speed‘ of’ sixteen frames per second‘ is used, and
actual equipment in appearance and 'ieelT, but
that the target airplane ismoving- parallel to the
any desired departures may be made to properly
focal plane at a distance of one-half second‘ time
of'?ight) ;*
i Fig. 5 is: a similar view with. apertures of‘vari
70 dispose parts needed to satisfy the present invenf
ti'on.
ahl'e. size, it- here being: assumed~ that: the‘ airplane
is moving straight. toward7 the gunner;
Each dummy’ gun 2551s mounted to move‘in ele
vation in vertical planes upon shafts 26 having a
Fig. 6 is a‘. view of a. length of. control‘?hn band
' horizontal? aXisc'Theeshatts; 26$ are mounted- in a
used in the apparatus shown in Fig; ‘2-1, the. image 75 support it,
includes‘ a verticar shartfz'ayto
2,406,574
7
8
permit ‘the gun ‘to move in train in horizontal
planes about a vertical axis.
The gun, thusmounted, has coordinate move
ment,.which may be limited in any suitable man
'ing a similar- cross-shaped aperture 60 which is'
7 ner'to con?ne its range to the area of the screen
or any desired portion thereof. The gun is pro
vided with sights 33 of any suitable type to per- '
mit the gunner to aim at the proper point rela
tive to the target. A trigger, 3| may be employed
positioned very close to the control band. The
lamp, lens and ‘mask may all be mounted on
the movable control mount or. support 35, and, if
desired, the'light sensitive element‘ or cell 55
may also 'be mounted thereon.
However, as
shown in Fig. 10, it may be satisfactory to mount
‘the element carrying the aperture 60» alone on
the movable support, the projected beam and
to control a switch 32 to initiate the actionof the 10 light receptive cell having‘ enough latitude to
‘control mechanism. Closing the trigger switch
cover the movement of the aperture. The ener
gizing connections 6| of the lamp and the'leads
is- referred to as ?ring the gun,
A number of sound reproducing devices S are
v62 from the cell 56, if mounted on the support, .
‘ provided at various places about the screen .to re-'
will be of such a nature as to furnish no resistance
produce sounds in imitation of their positional
andvolume occurrence as registered in direc
to its 'free movement;
"
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c
“.It will nowbe clear that when the conical mask
tional sound recording devices at the gunner’s
has been properly‘ positioned by the coordinate
movements of the-support 35 due to movements
appropriately prepared. Several synchronized
of the gun 25, ,the'aperture?llin the mask will
phonographs, sound tracks on several ?lms, sev 2.0 coincide with the aperture 55 in the frame which
eral sound tracks on a single phonograph record,
is halted in frontof it and the light beam will
' . position or, itmaylbe, arti?cial sounds'which are
several sound tracks on aseparate sound ?lm
band of a synchronized projector, an arbitrary
selected sound of any type, or any other desired
sound-accompaniment
may ' be
provided 7b
known practices. I
<
The coordinate movements of the gun in ele
vation and train are transmitted by suitable cone
nections to a control mount or support 35 which
reach the cell 56 to cause the indication of a hit
or correct aim to be registered. This may be
evidenced by a bell 65 through a control box 56.
25' In order to guard against giving an indication
while the control band 36 is moving, any suitable
interrupting means may be' provided, such as a
light, shutter, switch, or the like. In Fig. 1 a
switch is shown‘ for simplicity, this here com
has
corresponding ' coordinate
movements. 30 prising a rotating contact bar 61, fast on an in‘?
Whereas the amplitude of movementof the gun
sulating ring on' the motor shaft 52, which is
sights may be enough to cover the area on the
adapted to connect a pair of contacts 68 to
screen, the amplitude of the mount 35 or such
complete the “ready” circuit of the cell 56. The
motion receiving means as may be provided‘ is
trigger switch 32 is held closed for the instant
limited to the size of a ‘frame or control indicia
necessary to furnish the indication. It is placed
zone of the control band 36 which at any given
in circuit with one of the contacts 68 ‘through a
time is stopped in front of the mount. As stated,
conductor lead 69, and with the bell 65 through a
this band 36 may be the picture ?hn band, or a
‘lead 10. A lead '1 I’ connects the-other contact 68
band of the same or a different size or character
with the control box 66, and a lead" connects
which is run in synchronism and step with the .40 the hell with the control box.
'
picture ?lm band or bands, or an optical enlarge
ment of any portion of any of these bands.
v Any desired mechanism may be employed for
transmitting the coordinate ,movement of the
gun to the mount 35. As illustrated, a pair ‘of
equalized cords, cables, bands or chains 39 trans-v
mits the movement‘in elevation and a similar
pair of members 40 transmits the movement in
train. Changes of direction'are accommodated
by pulleys 4| or the equivalent.
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i
In Fig. 1 it is merely indicated by arrows there.
on that the mount 35 has coordinate movement,
but in Fig. 10 the actual mounting on coordinatev
slides is shown and will be explained later.
The control band 36 is carried by reels 41, 48
and (is, fed downward by the intermittent drive
mechanism 49 powered by a Geneva shaft .59
from a motor M through a sprocket chain 5|,
The motor shaft 52, through a sprocket chain 53,
drives'the mechanism of the projector 23.
By
this-or equivalent mechanism, drive synchronism
Inasmuch as the aperture cross 55 in the con
.trol band provides an'immediate indication of a
hit when the gun sights 30 have been aimed at a
point or burst spot in space which will be reached
by the projectile and the target after the time'of
"?ight, it will be seen that if the cross were actu
ally placed in the projection picture ?lm band it
would not coincide with the image of the target
on that frame. It‘ will be where the target is
shown on a later rframe—later by the time of
?ight of the bullet. Fig, 4 illustrates this situa
tion. Here the target 15, shown in dotted lines,
reaches the position of the. cross eight frames
after the shot was ?red. This will be noted by
following the vertical coordinate of the aperture
cross 55 in the lower frame Fl upward to the
eighth
frame
F8. 7 The
control
band moves
' downward as it does in the illustrated apparatus,
as shown by the arrow alongside. The plane .or
target, of course, has moved forward an equal
between the picture ?lm band 22 andthe control
amount by this time, it having for simplicity been’ ,
assumed to rnOVe.p_aral1el~._.t0qthe picture plane ‘' g
band 36 is accurately maintained at all'times. 1 ;
Means are provided for furnishing an immedi
ate indication of a hit if made. As stated, the’
and to have remainedgat adistance of 4/2 second
away.
?ight isThe
knownfand
distance1o£¢§éeor
the/common
1/2 secondti'mewof
photographic
opaque control band 36 is provided with light
apertures 55, here formed in the shape of a cross.
rate of 16 frames per second is assumed. -Obvi-'
ously; the usual projection rate of 24frames pe
These apertures occupy a de?nite coordinate po
sition for each frame of the band which is halted
second may be employed.
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.- The hit or aim spots or light aperture crosses
at .the control gate. A light beam is passed 79 are placed in the control band after the picture
through this aperture to reach a light sensitive
?lm is made, using distances as determined by
element such as a photo-electric cell 56 in order
to initiate the indication of a hit or correct aim.
photographic triangulation (and known airplane
The lightbeam may be produced by a lamp 51,
?ight as determined by ballistic tables and other
a collimating lens 58 and a conical mask 59 have .
speeds as'assistance in some cases) and time of
available dataiv
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erg,
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2,406,574
10
,Asimple and convenient-method of placing the
be readily understood. The gunner, by his sights
hitoraim crosses is to assume that ‘a hit has been
madeand then in theory to move the target back
30,, leads the target, say the juncture .of ~wing
and fuselage of the centralairplane indicated 'by
on its path and to move .the projectile :back into
the .gun until the time of ?ight period is con- *
a vdot 15 on ‘the airplane image {in Fig. 1,.by the
correct distance required by the time of ‘?ight
sumed. Having determined the, time of ?ight,
this could readily be .done .on 'thevpicture film by
and pulls the trigger 3| to close the switch 132,
and ‘a hit is registered immediately.
He may
keep the sights :aimed and the trigger switch
closed continuously and he will register ashit and
get, holding'it in this position, moving the pic?
ture ?lm backward the ‘number of‘ frames it 10 ring the :be1l'65 for :every framewhere his aim
has been correct; i This'represents sustained v?re
moved during this time, and then punching va hole
or what is known *ash‘fhose?ring.”
in the frame which then appeared. yThis is the
plan employed for‘ punching, except that when
, If the rear sight v3!),‘is 'a:lamp and .the front
projecting a hit cross :beam exactly on the tar
sight is a collimatin'g lens, a sharp beam of light
a control film band is employed to take‘ the hit
crosses, the picture ?lm ‘is kept stationary and 15 may be directed on the screen as the sight spot.
This'may .be the regularsighting arrangement for
the control ?lm band is moved backward the re
quired number of frames and then punched.
When the, control {band is ‘moved ‘forward again
to a starting point which ‘is even withtheastart
ing point of the picture ?lm, as is done for pro
J'ection, it can beseen that the hit crosses will
have the proper position and lead to indicate hits
aniindividua‘l gun .and‘each of several guns may
have a different colored light spot. The ini-v
structor 1-m'ay'operate' ‘switches vto throw :a beam
whenever he desires todetermine where the gun‘
ner is aiming. It is particularly useful for an
instructor to have such an .aim spot light avail-
able when he wishes to stop the rapid ‘projece
tion-and illustrate the correct aim, frame by
any sequence of pictures or frames in which the 25 frame. This he may readily do by moving the
gun, with the trigger and commutator switches
target is‘in or near the range ofthe gun or vision,
or correct aim assoon'as the trigger is pulled.
This procedure is followed for each frame of
closed, until an alarm is given. Anassistant
may aid in rapidly aiming the gun .forreXact
and each frame of the control band being fcor
registry by watching the position of the cross ‘in
respondingly set by reference to a prepared tab,
ulation,and marked with the hit crosses; ‘.Frame 30 the mask (Fig. 1-0) relative :to the cross in the
counters may be associated respectively with the
control band. If he then wishes to show the dis
tance to the target he can leave the gun pointed
moving means of the two bands to show their
relative positions from matching zero starting
and turn the picture‘ ?lm forward, counting
positions at all times,a connecting drive with, a
frames as he turns, until the target coincides
with the aim spot. This gives students good
clutch or a differential coupling being employed
judgment of distance, timing and aim forany
to keep them in step. Such counters are indi
particular type of aircraft or anyother target.
cated inlFig. l at 80 and 8| and a differential by
The screen may be coated with phosphorescent
the numeral .82. If desired, a counter may ‘be
provided on the differential to indicate directly
material and a suitable light beam used to leave
the displacement in number of frames between 40 a track of the aim light spot on the screen
the two bands.
}
Y
Y
which may be followed with reference to the
projected imagerof thetarget. If the spot beam
This presumes that the aim registering in
is interrupted periodically it will leave a‘series
dicia are located on crossing coordinates like
the picture ?lm being moved one frame at a time
the target, and that the projection apparatus
of spaced spots which progressively fade “out.
may be used for preparing the control band.
And this may be done, as shown inFig. 10, where
the light beam projection equipment on the
This is readily done by connecting the aim lamp
beam or punch is in the position which the aper
ture 60 will occupy in ‘projection if the aim is
correct, and the band may be provided with the
hit or aim registering cross 55 in exactly the
‘ target area in which a vital hit may be :made
into the trigger switch circuit.
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~
When the control band is provided with the
light apertures 55 it may be convenient to form
movable support 35 may be used to produce a
all of them by a device of unchanging .size, :in
photographic exposure on sensitized ‘?lm :or
where, as shown in Fig. 14, a ?lm punching device 50 which case they will all be the same size, as
‘shown in Fig. 4. This, however, does not neces
P is substituted for the beam control equipment.
sarily agree with theactual situation or most
When a picture frame ,is;projected to throw the
preferred practice. It maybe desirable to pro
target image on the ' screen (‘heat insulating
vide hit apertures of different or variable size.
shutters being provided to prevent injury to the
For example, if the: airplane is approaching, the
?lm) and the gun is sighted on the target, the
increases in size, as shown at 55' in ‘Fig. '5. ; Itis
desirable to take this into consideration, and
this may be done by providing apertures of in
right position. The control band will, of course, 60 creasing size. It may also be desirable to
diminish the accuracy required of beginners,
have been properly positionedrelative to the ?lm
and this maybe done by making all ofthe aper
band for providing each frame with a hit cross
tures in the control band larger or by increasing
at the proper lead in accordance with the tabu
the projection beam, as may be done with the
lation of computations which has been prepared
variable diaphragm device shown in Figs. v10;, 15
for each frame of thisparticular sequence.
’ _,If the target is approaching and the time of
flight decreases, say from, 8A6 to 115' second, one
frame will be markedlike the one preceding to
maintain proper coordination.
If‘ the target is
receding and the time of flight increases, say
from 8156 to 1%? second, and two aperture crosses
are ?gured for a single frame, they will not be
so placed; instead, only one aperture cross will
be made.
‘
and 16.v
‘
The cross with thin arms shown ‘in Fig. 4 re
quires high accuracy because, unless thellight
beam from the mask cross substantially coin
cides throughout with the aperture cross in the
control band, there will not be enough light
transmitted to energize the photo-electric cell
and furnish an indication or alarm. If‘ there
is a partial lack of correspondence in either co
The use of the apparatus shown in ,Fig. 1 will 75 ordinate axis, the indication will ‘not be given.v
2406,574
7
_
lI
.
, form maybe used.
in-Fig. .8.
.
horizontal shafts .26, its support 21, its vertical
shaft 28, its sights 30, trigger 3|,triggerswitch
Several of. these are shown
32, control?lm'band 36, supply reel 41, take-up
Here are shown‘ ahollow. circle or
cross, a hollow square, and a multiple space grat
reel 48, intermittent. 49, Geneva shaft.‘ 50,‘ drive
motor M, motor shaft-52, Sprocket chains SI. and’
ingorgrid with Variable spaces to prevent an
increaseafter a decrease when a similar ?gure
53, .ex'citer lamp .515, collimating lens 58’, photo
electric cell" 56’, energizing connections .6 I’ of the
annulus, a hollow circle with an enclosed hollow _
is passed across it.
.
1
Q
.7
W
eX'citer-lamp and‘leads 62'.from cell V56'3toicon
J
It is possible, though somewhat difficult, to 10
'trol box 66'.
,
Y.
.
addition, the gun isiprovided with. means
varytheiapertures by; mechanical means such as
case'the aimregistering- aperture is- not an’ actual
for directing a beam of light to form- a burst .spot
95-lonithe screen.v Such means ‘may comprise
a lampl9$ and. a lens» 91.. For‘simplicity these
hole intheband but a transparent spot or pat- '
means. are shown in‘ Fig. '2 as being mounted .
punches, but‘byphotographic or beamregulat- '
ing fmeansqiti isrelative'ly easyi In the‘ latter ‘
directlyin‘thefgun, whereas preferably they are
mounted on a support which is movable relative
1, tern-.in an‘ otherwise opaquesframer Thismakes
duplication easy. andf-leaves ‘the band stronger.
i '
12
2|,‘ picture ‘?lm band 22,. dummy gun .25, its
It will be realized that a cross is .very 'discri'min'ati
ing~in-»this ‘respect. But any suitable outline
. toithe gun; as shown
than if-it were punched.»
’
i i
~ A simple. method of making" variable ‘crosses
FigsQll-and 12.:
.
- . Inasmuch'as the burst spot proje'ctori25 is to '
is to pass the exposure beam’ through an expan-'
sible cross-shaped diaphragm 81 similar to a collet
be/left vin a'?xed. position relative to the screen
' ‘chuck, as shown in Figshlii. and 16. " Here-four
from the time the trigger isfpulled until the
burst-appears; theibu'rstspot projecting means
tapered spreading elements 85. are opened or
will‘ belo‘cked in position'during the time of ?ight
closed by. a=tapered sleeve 85 which by turningv
of the bullet ‘or for-any such time as mightv be
ismovedup‘or down the taper.
r
desired. ‘Or, ‘as-shown, the spot may be pro- '
»
.j The size maychange, as shown in Fig. 5, to
correspond-to the apparent size of an advanca
1115.01‘. receding target; or all crosses may be
made ofthe same size,‘~the size depending on
the degree-0f accuracy required._
jected at the time the hit is made and left for
such additional timeas desired; .
_
' The means for locking the support for the
spot projecting means (here shown as being the
30
gun)f_in» position. comprises brakes associated
> As shown in Fig. 10,- the mask cross in the pro?
with the gun shafts. ~The horizontal shaft 26 is
,jector may be similarlyiforrned by an expansible'
providedwith a brake band ‘I00, connectedto a‘
collet 81 to vary the area through which they
toggle IOIV, a solenoid I02 acting when energized
to tighten the brake band and a spring I03 tend
light can reachthe aim registering. or hit aper-j
ture. This will affect the-required accuracy con CAD Cir ing> constantly to release thebrakerbandr- By
siderably, even when the size- of the aperture , leads ‘I04 the'solenoid I02 is connected intoa
power circuit to'be energized when the trigger
crosses'in'the band is not- changed. For a'rela
switch 32 isl'closedQ This brake mechanism is
tively stable condition; similar results may be
obtainedaby varying the intensity of the projece
mounted‘on the support 21.‘
_
7 I
'
7 “
tioniibeam or the sensitivity of ‘ the receptive
Similarly the vertical shaft 28 is provided with
1" equipment. ,But'forvariatlc conditions the vari-‘
able apertures‘ in thecontrol band are most cone
a brake band III), a toggle III, a solenoid II2, a
spring -I I3, vand leads I I4 for energizing the sole
venient.
-
I
>
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noid when the trigger switch is closed.
'
-‘
- By any suitable lock circuit, including the leads
i In Fig. 10 there is also shown one-embodiment’
II5'to the control box 66', the solenoids may be
held in braking position for any desired period
' ' of ' apparatus associated with the‘ control band
‘ gate, Here [the control support 35 is shown to
befmounted in the guides‘of a second slide 89
which moves upon vertical retaining guides of a'.
?xed member 96. The cables 39 for elevation
Means are provided for- timing the period of
projectile ?ight after the shot is ?red. 'This
and the cables 49 for train are‘ also indicated.
period is correctly provided for on each, frame
Amplitude changing arms 9| may be provided;
these having suitable links BIA connecting them
in any sequence, hence is also associated with
the control band 36—-or a separate control band
to-the slides.
and then released.
if desired.
It will be seen that an ‘annular
rotating shutter 92 isghere used instead of a
commutator switch shown in" Fig. '1, but the,
principle of interruption of the‘ light beam except
when the frame is halted at. the gate is the same‘
in bothrcases. A
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-
Such a separate a band is shown
in Fig. 6, ‘and a composite band with two indicia
1s shown in Fig. '7.
-
'This control band 36, Figs. 2, 6 and 7, is pro
vided with light apertures I20 for each frame,
the apertures, as before, being either punched or
e’
‘Having; considered the apparatus for furnish?
ment the gun is ?red, we‘ may now consider the
made photographically. They may be rectan
gular instead of cross-shaped, as were-the apere
tures 55. Instead of being located on two coordi
apparatus shown in Fig. 2 which‘ furnishes’ the
nates in a given frame area, as were the crosses
delayed light spot or any other desired indica
tion1of a hit' when 'made, or,'it may be, the
all located in a single transverse band outside- '
ing a'njimmediate indication of a, hit at the mo
striking point of a projectile or a burst or explo
sionin the plane of the‘ target whether a hit
been-made or not.
‘ ,
55 shown in Figs. 4 and 5, the apertures I20 are
65 that area. They: are disposed at different dis
tances from a'given'marginal' line near one edge
.
‘ ' jThisrapparatus accommodates the time lag or‘
delay required for the time of ?ight of'the bullet,
hence continuous or “hose ?ring” which was 70
of'the control band, and this distance determines "
the'p‘eriod of delay between ?re and burst, that
is, the time of ?ight.
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~
'
It may be assumed, in approximate relation
previously described is replaced by periodic firing
ship to actual conditions; that the longest effec
in which the burst spot projecting mechanism is
tive shot may be taken to have'a time of ?ight ‘
‘ locked 'in position'from the time’ of ?ring until
of 1 second or 16 frames of motion’of the'pic
ture andcontrol bands. A given transverse dis
’ I , FHefe, asibeforeiwe‘ ?nd the'iprojector '20, screen‘ 75 tance acrossithe control band may then‘ repre-f
the hit is, or should have been made‘?v - r
QATOBJWZL
sent .‘lilsecond, and when ‘this “distance is divided
into sixteenv parts, :each part represents a period
of‘ 1/16‘ of a second.
'
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v
I
A scanning plate I2I, provided with a light
aperture I22 is arranged to travel at a predeter
14
provide tor this, :as shown in 'Figs'llll and I2, the
spot :proiec‘tor support 1112 is mounted adjacent,
andsinlithis :case within,the-=gun ‘£25.. The spot
projecting lamp 915 and lens S‘Iare mounted on
this support andv the Igunlhas .an end lopening
ple "case its speed may be taken as constant. Its
large enough ‘to permit the relative angular move
mentwithoult obstructing-the spot. The essential
speed Lmay besuch, for example, that its aperture
traverses the horizontal band in which the aper
ofdthe ‘gun is its sighta?-h'ence ilts physmar-ccn
structioniiotherwise ‘may be varied ‘as much :as
minedspeed across the control band. For a sim
tures I29 are formed in one second, and when 10
the aperture I22 coincides with ‘the aperture I20
for 1any particular frame, a ‘portion of the light
beam from the lamp '51’ and‘lens 58’ passes
throughto the photo-electric cell 5.5’ and ini
desired“,
" I ‘Thelhori-zorital
"
l'i . shaft ~brake
. . -=I 00 andi-ts-solencid
.~
I192 are now-mounted on the ‘support for}; ~2~1N
and the ‘vertical shaft brake iI-I'Il andrits ‘solenoid
‘IiI-“Lare'
position.mounted
' -»on-a‘par-t'2i5'A which
is '
~
'
tiates the action of the control apparatus in the
' -¢Opposed springs JI'43 or'othe-r suitable means
control box 616'. This willcontroli-the circuit 123
vcause the spot projector to return to "a normal
of the burst spot projecting lamp 95, the .sole- »
vertical position relative “to the ‘gun, ' and another
noid lock circuit H5, and any other desired cir
pairv of-uopposed springs IM or other suitable
cuits. Means in the control box 66’, or the rela
tive sizes ‘of the apertures I20 and I22, may deter 20 means causes the support-to return-to- :a normal
horizontal position-relativeto ‘the ‘gun when re-v
mine how long the burst spot J95 will be main
leasedifrom the brakes.
tained after the ‘burst indication is initiated.
i .‘Me’ans are provided for'actuating ‘the scanner
plate I2I in the desired manner. Such means
burst projectors
.w-Tlllere- may be a plurality; of
and scanners ‘associated, with onegun to speed
;
may, ‘as shown, comprise a spring I241tending 25 up the ‘practice.
In Fig. 6 a lengthoi control band iSB'Wliththe '
apertures-‘I20 is shown. ‘The time ‘of ‘?ight, as
before, is assumed to be 1/2 or is/msecond and to
remain constant because a situation has-"been
moves easily along horizontal guides shown in
assumed in which the target airplane ?ies par;
Fig. 10.
.
allel to the focal plane and remains at one given
The cord Ii25 is'wound on a'drum I25 secured
range. There?ore, since the width-in the range
to a magnetic or friction drive disk I27, which
to hold the .plate in one direction and a cord or
cable I25 adapted to move the plate at times ‘at
a constant rate in the other direction. The plate
is placed near a, mating disk I28 of a constant
across ithe'band is taken as representing "one sec-.
ond, the apertures I2iJ-.will:a‘I-l be “at-the vertical
ously. The drum I26 ‘and its drive disk I2‘; are 35 center of 'the band, that isli?e from the starting
speed drive motor MI, which rotates continu
free to rotate and move vertically in ?xed bear
or leftedge, as shown.
I
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1
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»
'Thel'compos'iteiband 315, which carries both ‘the
aim registering apertures or crosses-<55and _~the
up by a vspring I35 but are moved downward- to
burst-‘projecting apertures I120, is shown in
7.
bring the disks I21, I28 into positive'd'riving en
gagement by a solenoid I3 I when- the trigger 40 Here :the cross-shaped‘ aim {registering apertures
55Iare progressively spacedac'ross the band ‘along
sv'ritch;32.is closed. The circuit I32io‘f'the sole
the‘ll'ength, as in
4, while the rectangular
noid is controlled jointly. by the ‘trigger vswitch
burst projecting ‘apertures remain atlthe center,
1 and vthe lock circuit I I5 from the control box
ingsfor their shaft I29. .Normally theyuare held
as in‘Fig. 6_'
'
I
1
G??whereby the solenoid, once energized 'by the
triggertswitch, is maintained in action until'the 45 'To avoid an’indicaltion except when a frame is
halted, a-switch 61', V63' (Fig.2) or the equivalent ‘
scanner aperture I22 coincides with an aperture
in iarshutter 192' (Fig. 10) maybe providedas
I20. to provide the delayed burst indication, and
for "as much longer as may be provided for.
vThecon'trol of the scanner movements as well
as‘ other actions or indications may be assisted
by limit circuits associated with the scanner,
these including limit contacts I35 and 135 (which
may be adjustable if desired), .a lead ‘I31 to the
scanner plate, and leads I38 and I39 to the con
before.
> ‘The amethod of forming ‘the apertures I2'Il~is
'
very simple.
Having made ' a tabulation ‘of time
of 'il'ightffor-leach sequence of picture frames, the
‘ corresponding 'framecf ‘the control band is
punched, or otherwise» provided with the trans
parent area at the proper distance fromfthe vin
tacts >135 and I36 respectively. The ‘leads ‘may 55. itial edge'of the horizontalzone allotted for such’
be connected through‘the contro1 box ‘66 ‘for the
' The aperture 2I '20 \may'conveniently be punched
desired ‘actions.
'
by the apparatus shown in Fig. 17. Herefthe
In the operation of the burst projecting ap
band'i36' is led by ‘a sprocket I45 provided wane;
paratus of Fig. 2, the gun or light'spot project-_
inglmeans is locked up the .moment the trigger 60 frame counter {45. A punch M1 is carried by a
slide I48 and to the ‘slide I48~~there is ‘secured "a
switch 32 ‘is closed. The scanner plate I 2I is
proportional ‘lever I49‘ which moves over an en
also started moving across the control band at
larged scale 159. ‘In this case the scale is di
constant speed. When the scanner has trav
vided Iin'ito sixteen ‘parts ‘WithinMthe range ‘of
elled across until its aperture I22 coincides ‘with
movement
of the lever "I49. This apparatus in
65
the aperture I529 in the control band, the burst
creases accuracy of location of the punch ‘and
indication is given. This may ‘be the energiza
keeps account of the frames being punched. If
tion of the leads ‘I23 oil-the lamp 95 to project a
apertures.‘ '-
burst spot 95 on the screen. After the predeter
>
'
.
desired, the punch may ‘be'replaced'by photo
graphic means as in Figs. 1-0 and 14 for the aim
mined lapse of time the lamp is de-energized
‘
'
and the spot projector or gun-is taken from under 70 registering apertures.
the locking ‘action of the brake solenoids I02 and
- ‘For simplicity of description it has largely ‘been
H2. The aiming and‘ ?ring actions'may then be
assumed that the target was ‘near ‘and ‘that the
repeated.
'
l
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~
‘
7
7
Usually it will be desirable to leave the gun
projectile travelled a straight line, in‘ which
case the burst-spot would ‘coincide with‘ the point
free lfor following-the target atWall-times'. ' To 75 of’ aim-in- the gun sights. Forv some-types‘ of
15;
’
training practice,‘ greater re?nement for closer
16."
‘ relative to the gun 25.
duplication of actual conditions may be, required.
The drop of the projectile due to gravity and the
lead or lag due to windage when ?ring from the
It is shown to be mounted
onahorizontal shaft 26",ona shaft support 21'," '
which in turn is carried on a vertical shaft 28!’.
mounted on the gun.
side of aspeeding airplane and other factors may
'
"
The horizontal shaft 26" is provided with an,
need to be taken into consideration.
arm 26A which is pulled upward with a constant
' This may be done simplyand easily with they
force by a spring 26B and pulled downward with
equipment already described by plotting .and
a;variable force by the solenoid 26C. Leads I60
placing the aim registeringapertures in accord
extend from the solenoid 26C to the control box
ance with the existing conditions.
66".
When the
gravity drop is plottedit will be necessary ‘for the
gunneri to aim_ above the targettozscore a hit.‘
The burst spotv will thenincorrectly be located
above the image. of the target on the Screen.
r
i
The vertical shaft 28". is provided with an arm
28Aiwhich may be operated as described above
or pulled in one direction with a constant force
by a spring 28B and in the opposite direction
Similarly when windage is plotted it will be nee-1 15 with a variable force by a solenoid 280; A mating '
essary to train‘ the gun sights aheador behind‘
spring 28D opposes the spring 28B and if‘ no
the normal straight line ?ight position in order,
other forces are applied the springs maintain
to score a hit. The burst spot in this case will‘
the arm 28A in a central position; A solenoidv
again be incorrectly shown on the screen.
I
_ __ But it maybe desirable to have the burst spot
take into account the curvature of the projec
28E» when energized pulls the arm 28A with a a
2o.
variable force against the constant force of the
spring 28D. Leads I6I extend from the solenoid
28C ‘to the control box, 66" and, similarly, leads
‘I62 extend from the solenoid 28E to the control
tile.- This may also be desirable when a contin-w
uing indication of projectile travel is registered
on‘ a- phosphorescent screen.’ The intermittent
projection of the light spot will then simulate
the effect of tracergbullets. ,
,
_ ,
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>‘
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For less frequent indications orr‘tracersp
the
I
bOX.
.
.
\
.
In the operation of the. apparatus shown in
Fig. 3, the strength of light impulses trans;
mitted by the cells 56" will determine the
amount of pull on the solenoids 26C, '2 8C and 28E
and the amount of deviation of the spot beam.
For more frequent indications or tracers, a light 30 When a progressive relay action is employed, the
spot may be more frequently projected to leave a‘
number of light impulses transmitted will'then
{track}v of closely'spaced spots on the screen. In
determine the amount of deviation of the spot
the latter case, neithenthe gun‘ nor the spot‘
beam. The action is continuous from frame to
projector will be locked up.
‘frame or maintained until changed, hence the
In, order to placev the spot relative to the tar-1
deviation is maintained or varied without'per
apparatus described in connection with Fig. 2,.
which accounts for time of ?ight, may be used.v
get to take account of various factors, there; may
beprovided the compensating vor deviation con
trol apparatus shownin Fig. -3-
_
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': , :
' .
I Here, again,_»we find the picture projector 20,
screen". '2 I, ,picture'?lm band '22,? dummy gun .~ 25,
its horizontal shafts 26, its support 21, its vertical
shaft '28, its sights 30. (onlyone is shownbecause
parts are broken away), trigger 3|, trigger switch
32, control ?lm band 36, supply reelvlI'L'take-up
mitting the spot projector'support to return'to
the central ‘or zero position except when it is
authorized to
do
so.
'
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.
"
'
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'
\When-the control band of Fig. 9'is used, one
transverse control ,zone?is provided with‘a‘plue '
rality of aperture areas I55.’ These are in‘v vaddi
tionto the aim registering apertures‘ 55 in one
controlzone and the lag apertures I20 in another -
control zone. The apertures I55 might; of course,
‘ ' reel r48,1intermittent 49, Geneva ‘shaft 50, drive 45 be provided'in a separate control band, as shown
motorM, motor shaft 52, sprocket chains SI and
53, exciter lamp 51”’, collimating lens 58", a plue
rality of beam concentrating lenses 58A, a plu-i
4 rality of corresponding photo-electric cells 56",‘
1 V energizingconnections6|?’ of the exciter lamp, 50
and leads ‘62" from the cells 56" to the control
“box 662'. 'Leads I23," extend; from the control
bex'ee'g re the spot'lamp as", the circuitinclud
ing the trigger switch 32Vand the. commutator
switch 61'', 6,8”. As before, a light shutter, may‘ I 55
be “used instead of the commutator switch, the I
. latter being shown for simplicity of illustration in ‘
'Eig.,3.=
"
’
~
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in Fig. 3, but Fig. 9 illustrates .how a plurality
of control ‘zones may be grouped on‘ a single
control band, and the apparatus shown in Fig. 10'
for two zones together with" the showing ‘of
Fig. 3 will readily indicate how apparatus for
more than two zones may be built.
- '7
-
The apertures I55 each have a ?xed position
for a given function and reach, whenv present
on- any frame, registers with a corresponding
aperture I56 in aperture plate I51. , Positions
for six apertures are illustrated in Fig. 9, but for
simplicity only three apertures, are. shown in
'
Fig.
3.
'
.
.
.
. The control band 36 is here provided with a
The legends on Fig. 9 indicate how these cone
plurality of light aperture areas I55 for each
trols are employed where their action is cumula
60
frame, which register with/apertures I56 in a
tive. The legend “1 right” means that a ratchet
fixed plate I51.; The size of the control apertures
I 55 may determine the amount of light reaching ‘
the light cells 55" and the strength of their im
pulses. Instead of relying upon vthe relative
strength of a single cell it may be desirable to use ‘
a variable number of cells with a variable num- ‘
ber ofapertures in an assigned zone ‘in the con
trol band foreach effect. The latter arrange
allotted to move a ratchet disk to the right will
operate once tomove the disk one unit space.
The disk'is held in any given position by any suit
able-means as, for example, by light detent or
by friction fneans, and this holding force is re
lieved by any suitable means such as by a magnet
actuated by the “all clear” aperture to permit
the disk to return to a given zero position, as
ment may employ a progressive relayv action sim- ‘
by the in?uence of a spring or springs. Similarly
ilar to that known in telephone dialing systems .70 the “1 left” aperture would cause thedisk to
‘ and remote control of radio tuning. ' The simple '
form is'selected for illustrative purposes. - ,
V
The ‘spot projector camp 96” and lens 91")
' move one space to, the left from whatever posi
tion it might be occupying when the impulse was
given.__
I
"
;
.
f
.
I’ is missed 91; a suprqrt mitlvyhmn is. movable 75 , Fig; 18, shows how‘ one disk’ ‘may be. actuated
2,405,574
17
18
‘which permits ample turning and tilting move
as; just described. The ratchet; disk is repre
sented by the numeral HQ. The disk in assembly
is: shown in Figs. 11 and 12., A similar disk
I'1'I‘ for vertical movement is also shown in Figs.
11 and 12. Magnet I12, when energized, moves
ments of the gun. The bent neck I8! is, secured
to a ?xed pedestal I86 surrounding and supports
ing the shaft 28.
Instead of‘ mounting the-spot projector (96, 91)
directly in the gun, as in Fig. 2, or mounting the
the disk‘ one: space to the right and magnet I13
projector support ("I2") directly in the gun, as
moves. it one space tov the left. A magnet I14
in Fig. 3, the spot projector support I42 is so
may; be employed to release the detent when an
mounted in Figs. 11 and 12 as to combine the
“all clear"v aperture in the control band comes
into its corresponding light beam at the aper 10 functions of the ‘other illustrations, it being
again noted that while, the forms of Figs. 2 and
ture plate. A spring or springs I15 or other suit
3' may have independent uses they may be re
able means may be employed for bringing the
garded as, parts. of the comprehensive system.
disk to a given zero position when released from
Referring backto Figs. 11 and 12, the spot pro
the .detent. The ratchet mechanisms will, of
course, move clear of the disk after each actua .15 jector' support I42 is provided wih aligned hori
tion.
zontal shafts 26M which are mounted in a yoke
or fork; 271M having a' vertical shaft 28M.
,
The ratchet disk "I, shown in Figs. 11 and 12,
may be. similarly controlled by the ‘f1 up,”
The shaft 28" is turnably mounted in an in
termediate support I89 provided with aligned
“1 down” and “all clear” apertures of the con
trol band.
‘
An unused space designated as “reserve” is
shown in the third zone I55 in Fig. 9, but this
may be employed for any desired effect or in
?uence. It will also be understood that a differ
20 horizontal shafts 26N which are mounted in a
yoke or fork Z'EN having a vertical shaft 28N
turnably mounted in the ?xed support 25A.
The mechanisms of-Fig. 18 for moving the spot
projector support I 42 relative to the yoke 21M
ent number of aperture spacesmay be allocated 2,5 and. for moving the yoke 21M relative to the in
termediate supportIBQ and returning both' to.
as desired. That illustrated is merely representa
zero positions are indicated in Figs. 11, and 12.
tive for the present equipment.
Likewise the mechanisms similar to those of Fig.
The method and apparatus just described per
2_ for locking the intermediate support I89 to the
mit the gun to be aimed off‘ the target and the deviation correction provided insures that the 30 yoke 21N and locking the yoke 2,1N relative to
the fixed support 25A are indicated in Figs. 11
spot- will fall on the target if the aim is correct.
and 12. This arrangement permits the gun to
The reverse condition may be arranged wherein
continue aiming movements while the spot pro
the gun is aimed at the target and the spot falls
jector is held in position until the target image
off‘ the target where the aim should be. In this
'moves toward the burst spot.
case the controls act in reverse of their normal
action.
This use is particularly valuable for in- r ‘
struction; whereas the normal operation is more
suitable for practice.
It has been explained how the punching device
of- Fig. 14 may be substituted for the light dia
phragm device 81 on the coordinately moving
plate 35 in the Fig. 10 assembly. For easy oper
ation to avoid moving the punch P out of ,its
I44, as previously described. When the interme- ,
diate support occupies a zero position, the spot
projector is in?uenced relative to the gun just
as it would be in Fig. 3, and it may maintain the
adjusted position relative to the intermediate
correct position when punching the ?lm band,
the movable portion I18 of a bellows device I19
may carry the punch P and the bellows may be
operated by a ?uid compression bulb I80, a ?ex
ible tube I8_I connecting the bulb to the bellows.
The mechanism shown in Figs. 11 and 12 is
capable of performing several functions. It has 50
been partially described but it will be helpful
to summarize the description and explain the
details. It combines the locking functions of Fig.
2 with the spot in?uencing functions of Fig. 3,
-
Normally this intermediate support has a ?xed
or zero position relative to the gun, and when it
is released from the ?xed, support 25A it is .re
turned to its zero position by springs I43 and
support when that is locked in position. And it
may still- maintain its adjusted position after the
intermediate support is returned to its zero posi
tion relative to the gun. The spot may be con
tinuously projected, as when a phosphorescent
screen is employed, or it may be delayed, as dis
closed in connection with Fig. 2', or it may be pro
jected at any time at the will of the operator or
an instructor.
It will now be seen that the invention provides
and, of course, the gun may be aimed and will 55 simple and’ effective apparatus for instructing
move the slide as in Fig. 1.
’
It can be seen how the gun 25 is mounted on
horizontal shafts 26 carried. by a fork support
and training gunners. And While certain em
bodiments have been speci?cally illustrated and
described, it is to be understood that the inven
21' which is attached to a vertical shaft 28. The
tion may'have various embodiments within the
cables 40 for transmitting horizontal movement
to the control mount or slide 35 are secured to a
grooved pulley 40A fast on the shaft 28. The
cables 39 for transmitting vertical movement to
limits of the prior art and the scope of the sub- .
joined claims.
the'control mount or slide 35 are secured to a
combination,‘ a screen, a picture projector for di
We
claim:
7
‘
1,. Gunnery training apparatus comprising in
grooved pulley 39A fast on the gun concentric 65 I'Qclilng; a ‘target image on the screen, a dummy
with the shaft 26.
'
'
vIn this arrangement the shaft 28 is hollow and
the cables '39 pass through it to the pulley 39A
gun mounted for coordinate vertical and hori
'zontal movement, so} as to be aimed toward the
target image on the screen, position means
which is within the gun. This makes a neat and
mounted for controlled movement and controlled
convenient disposition of the cables andavoids 70 by the position of said dummy gun, index means
entanglement with related parts.
having characteristics corresponding to and es
The ?xed support 25A is disposed within the '
tablished in accordance with factors affecting the
flight; of a projectile from the gun to the target
gun 25, being carried on a bent neck I84 which
passes through an enlarged elongated arcuate
and the features of the target image, and means.
opening I85 or a notch in the bottom of the gun
" in?uenced jointly by said‘ position means ‘and
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