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Патент USA US2406585

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2,406,585
Patented Aug. 27, 1946
UNITED. STATES 'PATENT OFFICE,
2,406,585
GEIATINIZATION 0F STABCH
Ben F. Buchanan, Leonia, N. J., and Robert L.
Lloyd, Lanrelton, N. Y., assignors to American
Maine-Products Company, a corporation of
Maine
No Drawing. Application July 30, 1942,
Serial No. 452.975
2 Claims. (Cl. 99-92)
-
1
2
of the gelatinized starch is minimized by the use
of the starch conversion syrup solids, as will be
This invention relates to a starch composition
adapted on heating with a large proportion of
water to give gelatinized starch of minimized
‘tendency to retrogradation and oi abnormally
discussed more fully in a later section in which
quantitative date are presented.
As the starch used, corn starch is preferred al
high viscosity, transparency, and speci?c volume.
though there may be used other starches such as
potato, rice, tapioca. wheat, or like cereal or root
starch. The starch is preferably powdered or
There is extensive use of gelatinized starch in
granular so that it may be premixed intimately
the food industries, as in pie ?llings, salad dress
the starch conversion syrup solids in dried
ings, and puddings. In making such gelatinized 10 with
condition or suspended readily in an aqueous solu
starch, it is customary to heat a sweetened starch
tion containing such solids.
slurry to a temperature near‘ its boiling point,_
The starch conversion syrup solids used should
?avoring being sometimes added at this stage.
have a. degree of conversion corresponding to
The resulting starch paste may be used as such
about 20 to 70 parts of reducing sugars calculated
or mixed while hot or after partial cooling with 15 as dextrose. Particularly satisfactory results have
The invention relates also to the method of mak- '
ing the gelatinized product.
other ingredients in the preparation of ?nished
been obtained in the production of gelatinized
starch of increased relative volume, viscosity,
transparency, and vminimized viscosity to retro
food products.
Preparations so made undergo retrogra/dation
of the gelatinized starch as the product stands
gradation when the degree of conversion of the
before use. There is a shrinkage of the gelatinized 20 starch corresponds to 24 to 55% of reducing
starch resulting in decreased volume of the gelat
sugars calculated as dextrose. Non-sugar com
inized starch, decreased viscosity, and the de
ponents of the starch conversion syrup solids are
velopment of cloudiness, due to the reversal of the
gelatinization process and the appearance of un
important in giving the stated improved prop
of the product of the present invention and
gelatinized or incompletely gelatinized particles 25 erties
also in avoiding seeping of syrup from the gelati
of the starch.
‘
nized material (by syneresis) as the gel stands and
The present invention provides a method and
in improving the texture. Spray dried starch con
composition for minimizing these disadvantages
version syrup solids of D. E. stated are the pre
in gelatinized starch and also increasing the ini
ferred
type of material.
30
tial volume of the gelatinized starch and the ini
Various proportions of the ingredients are pre
tial viscosity, and transparency of the starch in
ferred for the diiterent‘ uses to which the gelati
both the paste and gel forms.
.
nized starch is to be put. In no case, however, is
Brie?y stated, the invention comprises gelati
the proportion of water to be less than the amount
nizing starch in the presence of a large proportion
required
to make the mixture 9. free ?owing liquid
of water and starch conversion syrup solids, the 85 after gelatinization and before cooling, and should
water being used in such amount as to make the
be at least approximately four times the weight
starch mixture a free ?owing suspension or slurry
of the starch ii’ all ‘the advantages from the gelati
at the time the gelatinization is initiated and a
nization in the presence of the starch conversion
free ?owing liquid after gelatinization has been
syrup solids are to be realized.
effected but before cooling and preferably in the 40 Examples of suitable compositions for various
proportion of at least six parts by weight of water
food products are given in the table below. it
to one of starch. The invention comprises the use
being understood that conventional ?avoring,
also of sucrose, lactose, invert sugar, dextrose or
coloring, or other admixtures of usual type, for
a mixture of these in addition to the syrup solids, 45 such products may be present.
as a part of the sweetening agent, the total pro
portion of the sweetening agent being for most
purposes in excess of the proportion of starch.
Using the composition of the invention and
heating the starch in contact with the large pro
portion of water and starch conversion syrup 50
solids, there is obtained a gelatinized starch hav
ing a viscosity that maybe as high as 150% of
the viscosity obtained in comparable manner when
the sweetening agent used is the same in propor
tion to the starch and consists entirely oi’ sucrose.
Likewise the transparency may be increased to as
much as 165% and the speci?c volume of the
gelatinized starch to 128% of that obtained with
the sucrose material. Furthermore, the rate of
a
Parts by weight
Syrup Solids
percent
Food product
Starch
Pia ?llings _________ _.
5-10
Water
35-60
Total
01 mm
Sweetener
sweetener
25-50
25-100
Salad dressings . _ . _ . _
3-8
40-60
4-6
25-100
Puddings __________ _ .
5-10
60-70
20-40
5-50
Preferred proportions of the starch conversion
syrup solids to total sweetening agent are 40 to
‘75% for pie ?llings and salad dressings and 10 to
40% for puddings. In general, the syrup solids
should constitute about 10 to ‘75% of‘the total
decrease in transparency, viscosity and volume 60 sweetener, proportions being'expressed herein as
2,400,585
parts by weight unless otherwise speci?cally
stated.
The remainder of the sweetening agent above
the starch conversion syrup solids is ordinarily
sucrose although it may be substituted by one
.
4
One of these properties is the specific volume
of the gelatinized starch, that is the volume for
unit of weight of starch used. This is deter
mined by mixing thoroughly 50 grams of ge
latinized and cooled starch gel, with 50 grams of
of the other sweetening agents given above 1!
water, centrifuging the mixture at 1500 R. P. M.
loss of sweetness due to such substitution is not
for 5 minutes, and measuring the volume in mi.
objectionable in a given use.
of the gelatinized starch thrown down by the cen
The composition for use in making the selected
trifuging, all in comparable manner.
food product is heated either alone or after the 10
Another test is the viscosity as determined by
- addition of a small amount of acid till the starchv
the MacMichael viscosimeter, No. 22 wire being
is gelatinized. Other conventional ingredients
used, the bob being 2 cm. in diameter, the im
may be added, either before or .after the gelati
mersion of the bob being 4 cm., the temperature
nization oi the starch, as for example, fruit juices,
71° F., and the R. P. M. 20 in all cases.
?avoring agents such as chocolate or cocoa, salts, 15
Transparency is determined by means of the
and eggs.
Photovolt Lumetron. Arbitrary settings are first
If acid is used in the practice of the inven
made using such a standard his opening for the
tion. it is used in kind and proportion and at
light that readings of the most transparent sam
temperatures that are conventional in starch ge
ple may be made on the scale of the meter. The
latinization for food product. Thus there may 20 same iris opening is then used for each sample
be used 0.1 to 0.5 per cent on the weight of the
of the product of the invention when tested one
finished gel of malic, citric, tartaric, lactic, acetic
week later.
acid or a combination of these, at the tempera
For making these tests there were formed com
tures stated above.
positions including in each case the following:
Such acid used in a typical procedure was a 25
Grams
mixture containing 2 parts malic, 1 part citric,
and 1 part tartaric acid mixed with 4 parts of
water so as to give a 50% acid solution constitut
ing the 0.44 gram used.
Starch ______________________________ __
9.30
Total sweetening agent ________________ .._ 100
Water ____
_..___
__-_
100
0.44
For the gelatinization there are used conven 30 Acid __
tional temperatures and times, the improved re
The sweetening agent or sweetener was a mix
sults obtained being due to the inclusion of the
ture of sucrose and spray dried corn syrup solids
of 42 D. E.
starch conversion syrup solids and not to any
change in the technique of the heating. Thus
The proportion of corn syrup solids to total
the gelatinization is effected at a temperature 35 sweetening agent in the various mixtures and
between about 175° F. and the boiling point of
the mixture under the prevailing pressure and
the results of the tests on the gelatinized product
suitably between 175° and 240° F.. the latter tem
Properties of starch gelatinized with. various pro
portions of syrup solids to total sweetening
perature being reached in an autoclave at about
10 pounds steam pressure. High temperatures 40
within the range stated serve to effect thorough
sterilization as well as gelatinization. Ordinarily
the temperature of gelatinization is about 180° to
215° F.
.
As to the time, only 1 or 2 minutes at the maxi
mum temperature is necessary. Thus, a batch
of the material is heated with steam until there
is produced what is known as a rolling boil, by
which is meant rising of the steam from the
are shown in the tables below.
agent
Corn syrup solids per cent
of sweetenin agent...“ 0
25
50
75
100
Relat ve viscos ty ______ __
35
35
40
55
SpeciLc volume of gelatin
iced starch:
Initialiy ______________ __ 23.3
After
week __________ __ 20.6
Trans arency:
Initia f ______________ __ 61
24.8
24.8
26.4
30.0
22.2
22.8
23.9
27.0
62
T1
81
102
After
52
60
66
88
week __________ .... 44
There will be noted from this table not only the
bottom of the charge completely to the top be 50 increase in desirable properties as the propor
fore the steam is condensed. When this rolling
tion of the corn syrup solids to the total weight
boil is obtained then the steam is turned off.
of such solids and sucrose increases, but also de
The time required to bring the batch past the
creased retrogradation, this decrease resulting in
temperature of the beginning of gelatinization
satisfactory retention of the desirable properties
up to the maximum plus the time of cooling 55 as the composition stands. Combinations con
through the‘ range of temperatures of gelatinize
taining more and also less total sweetener gave
tion is adequate to produce the gelatinization.
differences comparable to those shown in the
At such temperature and in the presence of the
table above.
‘
large proportion of water recited above, the starch
The improvement in transparency is particu
is completely gelatinized, that is, forms a sub 60 larly desirable in connection with making of fruit
stantially clear, free ?owing liquid with the water
pie ?llings in which the pie maker wishes the
at the temperature of gelatlnization.
fruit to appear clearly and conspicuously in the
The product is then ready for use or further
?lling and not be obscured to any large extent
compounding either before or after cooling. Fur
due to the retrogradation and clouding of the
ther additional ingredients may be incorporated. 65 starch gel used in the filling.
In any case, however, the cooling is suitably made
Using starch gelatinized without acid, there
rather rapid.
have been obtained data such as those tabulated
It will be understood that the temperature se
above showing a pronounced eifect of gelatiniza
lected will vary somewhat with the kind of starch
tion in the presence of starch conversion syrup
chosen in making the composition, the temmra 70 solids in increasing the viscosity and transparency
tures given being particularly suitable for corn
of the starch in either paste or gel form and
starch and being at least reasonably satisfactory
speci?c volume of the starch in gel form, as well
for other varieties of starch.
as decreased retrogradation as compared to starch
In testing the quality or the gelatinized starch
gelatinized in the presence of sucrose as the sole
a number of properties are determined.
sweetening agent.
In general, the gelatlnized starch of the present
invention is useful in connection with pie ?llings,
salad dressings, puddings and like food products
sinn to gelatinize the starch completely, the pro
involving the use of ‘starch gelatinized with a
the heating giving a free-?owing liquid product
portion of sucrose and syrup solids being at least
approximatelyequal to that of the starch and
large volume of water to a substantially clear gel.
containing gelatinised starch oi’ abnormally high
It will be understood that it is intended to
viscosity, transparency, and speci?c volume and
cover all changes and modi?cations oi the exam
oi’ abnormally low tendency to retrogradatlon.
ple of the invention herein chosen for the purpose
2. A pie ?lling comprising ?avoring material,
or illustration which do not constitute departures
starch in completely gelatlnized condition, su
Hi crose, starch conversion syrup solids of reducing
from the spirit and scope of the invention.
What we claim is:
sugars content calculated as dextrose 24% to 55%,
1. The method of making a food product com
and water, the proportion oi’ water being at least
prising forming a fiowable suspension of starch
6 parts by weight to 1 part of total starch present,
in ?nely divided condition in an aqueous solution
the proportion of the syrup solids being 25 to '75
including dissolved sucrose, starch conversion
parts for 100 parts of total weight or the said
syrup solids, in proportion equal to about 25% to - solids and sucrose, and the proportion 01’ sucrose
75% of the total weight 01' sucrose and said solids
and said solids together being in excess oi‘ the
and of reducing sugars content calculated as
proportion of starch present.
dextrose of 24% to 55%, and water in the pro
portion 01’ 40 to 60 parts by weight for 3 to 8 parts 20
BEN F. BUCHANAN.
of total starch present and heating the suspen
ROBERT L. LLOYD.
Certi?cate of Correction
Patent No. 2,406,585.
August 27, 1946.
BEN F. BUCHANAN ET AL.
‘
It is hereby certi?ed that error appears in the(printed speci?cation of the above
numbered patent re uiring correction as follows: olumn 2, line 19, for “viscosity"
read tendency and t at the said Letters Patent should be read with this correction
therein that e same may conform to the record .of the case in the Patent O?ice.
Signed and sealed this 3rd day of December, A. D. 1946.
[ml
LESLIE FRAZER,
First Assistant Oombniuiomr of Patanta.
In general, the gelatlnized starch of the present
invention is useful in connection with pie ?llings,
salad dressings, puddings and like food products
sinn to gelatinize the starch completely, the pro
involving the use of ‘starch gelatinized with a
the heating giving a free-?owing liquid product
portion of sucrose and syrup solids being at least
approximatelyequal to that of the starch and
large volume of water to a substantially clear gel.
containing gelatinised starch oi’ abnormally high
It will be understood that it is intended to
viscosity, transparency, and speci?c volume and
cover all changes and modi?cations oi the exam
oi’ abnormally low tendency to retrogradatlon.
ple of the invention herein chosen for the purpose
2. A pie ?lling comprising ?avoring material,
or illustration which do not constitute departures
starch in completely gelatlnized condition, su
Hi crose, starch conversion syrup solids of reducing
from the spirit and scope of the invention.
What we claim is:
sugars content calculated as dextrose 24% to 55%,
1. The method of making a food product com
and water, the proportion oi’ water being at least
prising forming a fiowable suspension of starch
6 parts by weight to 1 part of total starch present,
in ?nely divided condition in an aqueous solution
the proportion of the syrup solids being 25 to '75
including dissolved sucrose, starch conversion
parts for 100 parts of total weight or the said
syrup solids, in proportion equal to about 25% to - solids and sucrose, and the proportion 01’ sucrose
75% of the total weight 01' sucrose and said solids
and said solids together being in excess oi‘ the
and of reducing sugars content calculated as
proportion of starch present.
dextrose of 24% to 55%, and water in the pro
portion 01’ 40 to 60 parts by weight for 3 to 8 parts 20
BEN F. BUCHANAN.
of total starch present and heating the suspen
ROBERT L. LLOYD.
Certi?cate of Correction
Patent No. 2,406,585.
August 27, 1946.
BEN F. BUCHANAN ET AL.
‘
It is hereby certi?ed that error appears in the(printed speci?cation of the above
numbered patent re uiring correction as follows: olumn 2, line 19, for “viscosity"
read tendency and t at the said Letters Patent should be read with this correction
therein that e same may conform to the record .of the case in the Patent O?ice.
Signed and sealed this 3rd day of December, A. D. 1946.
[ml
LESLIE FRAZER,
First Assistant Oombniuiomr of Patanta.
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