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Патент USA US2406596

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Patented Aug. 27, ‘1946; '
UNITED STATES PATENT 5-OFFICE
2,406,596
"j. P ' ,
EYE TESTING'YMEANS »
Charles A. Ellis, ‘Southbridg'e, vMass, assignor ‘
‘to American Optical Company, Southbridge,
Mass., a voluntary association of Massachusetts
Application December 24, 1943, Serial No; 515,554
,
4 Claims.
This invention relates to test means for deter
»mining the visuale?iciency of individuals and has
particular reference to an improved device. for
performing such tests.
, ,
'
I
~
(01. 7878-26) " ' f _
2 .
.with a front wall portion In having an opening’
, I II in which is rotatably supported a disk member
l2. The disk member l2v is carried by a pivot
member I3 mounted in avbearing [4 carried by a
One of the principal objects of the invention 5 supporting plate, [5. The supportingplatelS is
isfto provide an improved portable device for per
forming tests for determining the visual efficiency
of individuals whereby the operable parts of the
device may be manipulated outside of the direct
.?eld of vision of the individual under ‘test.
Another object is to' provide a devicezof the
above character with test means having con—,
secured to the front wall II] by spacer blocks H5.
The pivot member I 3 is provided with a handgrip
l‘! by ‘means, of which’ the ‘said disk l2 may be
rotated. fThe pivot member l3, rearwardly of the
i0 disk 12, is provided ‘with an indexing member l8
_ adapted to be engaged by ablade spring or the
like is. The indexing member it, as shown in
trolled form character in combination with me
Fig. 5, is provided with ?attenededges 2t which,
chanical means for manipulating said test means
when, thevhandgrip member i1 is’ rotated an
and for automatically controlling the position of is amount su?icient to move one of said ?attened
movement of said means.
__edges_ in the direction of the blade spring, the
Another object is to provide a device of the
resilient pressureof the blade spring will tend to
above character embodying illuminated ?xation
; cause theadjacent ?attened surface to assume
means whereby the illumination for said ?xation
an aligned relation with said blade spring thereby
means serves to illuminate the working area 0
. operable parts of the device.
20 causing the disk to assume'a givenrposition of ad
justment. The said indexing member H3, in the
Another object is to provide a simple, compact,
present instance, is provided with four ?attened
and portable device of the above character.
surfaces
whichmdetermine four major positions of
Other objects and advantages ‘of the invention
adjustment of the disk l2. The said disk 42, as
will become apparent from the followingdescrip 25‘ shown in Fig.1, is provided with a test character
tion taken in connection with the accompanying
, ‘21' which, in the present instance, is in the form
1 drawings and it will be apparent that many
, of anletter T. » The‘saidletter T, is preferably an
changes may be madein the details of construc
opaque blank of the known Snelling proportion
tion and arrangement of partswithout depart-_
surrounded
a luminous surface 22 of ?uores- .
ing from the spirit of the invention as expressed 30 cent materialbywhereby
the T will be visible in the
in the accompanying claims. I, therefore,rdo not
‘reform of a silhouette. The ?uorescent material re
wish to be limited to the exact details of con;
struction and arrangement of parts shown and
described as the preferred form only hasbeen
given by way of illustration.
'
,
Referring more particularly to the drawings;
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the device em
bodying the invention showing the side cover
. ferred to must'be radiumactivated of a standard
“value in‘ actual use. Before actual use, the lumi
nous surface 22 ,is preferably held in complete
5 darkness in orderthat the ordinary ?uorescence
. due to light activation disappears and only the
remaining ?uorescence produced by radium ac
' tivation remains.
'
,
means of said device removed;
It is to be understood that any desired form of
Fig. 2 is a rear elevational view 'of the device. 40‘ test character may be used,
illustrated in Fig. 1 with the rear cover removed; .
. Fig. _3 is a sectional view taken as on line 3-3 .
of Fig. 2 and looking in the direction indicated
The handgrip member I1 is provided with an
, indicator 23 adapted to cooperate with a suitable
. dial 24 carriedb'y the‘plate I5 by means of which
by the arrows;
'
the actual position of the‘ test means may be de
Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken as on line 4--4 45 termined by the operator.
of Fig. 1 and looking in the direction indicated
by the arrows; and
r
>
.
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary view illustrating the po
sition control means for the test object.
On the opposed sides of the disk l2, there is
provided two shutter members 25 and 26. The
shutter member 25 is pivotally connected, as il
lustrated in Fig. 4, to‘a Vertically disposed pivot
Referring more particularly to the drawings ‘my/rod 21 pivotally connected with the spacer blocks
wherein like characters of reference designate like
_ l6 and having an offset crank-like portion 28 on
parts throughout the several views, the device em
the ‘lower end thereof.’ The crank-like portion
bodying the invention comprises a casing or hous
28, as shown in/Figs. 2, Band 4, is adapted to en
ing 6 having spaced compartments 1 and 8 there
~ gageindexing grooves 29 formed-in a plate 370
in divided by a wall 9. The casing B is provided 55 carried by the base ‘3| of the casing s. The in
2,406,596
3
dexing grooves 29 are so positioned in the plate
30 as to retain shutter 25 in two major positions
of adjustment. The shutter 25 carries a trans
parent ?lter 32 which is of controlled density as
to reduce the illumination of the ?uorescent sur
The individual to be tested is ?rst dark adapted
either by having been placed in a totally dark
room for a sufficient period of time or by wearing
dark adaptation glasses or the like.
The individual is then seated at a predeter
mined distance in front of the test device, pref
face 22 to a given test standard.
erably five feet, with his eyes level with the cen
It is to be understood that when the crank-like
ter of the target or test character 2 i. The indi
member 28 is operated in one direction, the shut
vidual is ?rst shown the test target or character
ter 25 may be swung outwardly to a position such
by opening the shutter 25 to expose the test char
10
as shown in Figs. 1 and 3 and when operated in
acter and the different directions of movement of
the opposite direction said shutter member and
the test character is explained through rotation
more particularly the ?lter 32 carried thereby
of the disk l2.
may be positioned to overlie the disk l2. This
The shutter 25 is opened and closed several
manipulation of the shutter 25 takes place in the
times ‘while changing the direction of the test
rear of the device and outside of the ?eld of 15 character to acquaint the patient with the tech
vision of the individual under test.
nique. This preliminary step is carried out with
The shutter 25, as shown in Figs. 1, 2, and 3,
the shutter 25 in open position.
is pivotally supported at 33 by a pivot rod simu
The actual test is then performed by placing the
lating the pivot rod 21 and is likewise provided
?lter 32 over the test character or disk i2 carry
with an o?set crank portion 34. The shutter 26 20 ing said test character 2i._ This reduces the illu
is preferably in the form of an opaque shield mov
mination of the ?eld surrounding the test char
able to a position to overlie the shutter 25 and
actor to a given test standwd which illumination
disk 12 or movable outwardly, as shown in Figs.
is much below that of the initially exposed test
1 and 3, to expose said disk l2.
character. The shutter 26 isthen moved over the
The said shutter members 25 and 25 extend 25 disk l2 and while in said position, the direction
through suitable openings 35 andv 36 formed in the
of the test character is moved to a given position
front wall Ill, see Fig. 3. The front of the casing
through manipulation‘ of the handgrip member
5, as shown in Figs. 1 and ‘l, is providedwith an
ii. The arrow 23 functioning in cooperation with
inner shoulder 31 adapted to receive a removable
the dial 24 will indicate the actual position of the
30
cover member 38. The base of the casing 6, as
a test character. his to be noted, by reference to
shown at 39 in Fig. 4, is provided with a longitu
Fig. 2, that the letter U indicates thatthe T is in
dinal slot adapted to receive a lip 40 formed on
an upright position. L indicates that it is turned
the lower edge of the cover 38 and the upper
towards the left, R towards the right, and D in
edge of the cover 38 is provided with a latch re
a downward position.
cess 4| adapted to latch with a suitable resilient
After having moved the test character to a
latch member 42 carried by the upper wall 43 of
given position, the shutter 25 through manipu
the casing. The said resilient latch member'lii
lation of the crank 35 is opened to expose the
is provided with a ?nger ‘engagement projection
test character. This procedure is repeated sev
#34 by means of which it may be depressed so as
to release it from the latch recess 4| when it is
desired to remove the cover 38.
The wall ID, as shown in Figs. 1, 2, and 4, is
provided with an opening 45 having a disk 46
supported therein. The disk 45 has a cross-like
opening 41 therein for producing a cross-like
image when light is projected therethrough. Di
eral times and a record is kept of the reports of
the patient and the test is determined by the
accuracy of the patient’s reports as to the posi
tion of the test character.
It is particularly pointed out that the shutter
members 25 and 26 may be opened and closed as
well as the disk I2 rotated by the individual per
forming the test without said adjustments being
visible to the said individual under test, that is,
the individual performing the test is in the rear
of the device and the said shutters and disk may
duced from light directed through the ?lter-'48 50 be manipulated outside of the ?eld of vision of
rectly in the rear of the disk 46, there is sup
ported a transparent red ?lter 48 for producing a
red colored cross-like image. 'This image is pro
and opening 41 from a suitable source of illumi
nation 49 supported internally of the chamber
the individual under test. The illumination com
ing through the Window 54 is sufficient to illumi
nate the parts being manipulated so that the ex
aminer or individual performing the test accu
on the opposed sides of the chamber T and 55 rately knows the position of adjustments of said
through the current ?owing from said batteries
shutters and'disk member 12. The-arrangement
through the circuit lines 5|. The said circuit is
is such that the said shutter members and disk
connected with a suitable switch 52 by means of
may be quickly and easily manipulated at will.
which the source of illumination 49 may be ener
It is particularly pointed out, by reference to
60 Fig. 5, that the accurate position of adjustment
gized or de-energized.
The wall 9, as shown in Figs. 2 and 4, is pro
of the test character 21 is automatically estab
vided with an opening 53 having a suitable trans
lished by the seating of the blade spring I9 with
parent plate 54 thereover formed of glass or other
the adjacent ?attened surface .20 of the indexing
transparent material. The opening 53 is adapted
member l8. It is only necessary for the exam
to allow light from the source of illumination 49 65 iner to move the desired surface 29 in the direc
to traverse said wall 9 to illuminate the operable
tion of the spring whereby release of the hand
means internally of the compartment 8.
grip I1 will permit the spring 19 to automatically
The housing 5 is provided with a detachable
complete the adjustment. The various positional
rear cover member 55 simulating the cover 38.
adjustments may be quickly and easily obtained
The upper wall 43, as shown in Figs. 1, 2, and 70 and in the present instance comprise four major
4, is provided with a handle 56 for ease of con
positions. It is to be understood that if more
veyance of the device.
major positions are required, more ?attened sur
The device set forth above is adapted particu
faces would be provided on the indexing mem
larly for use in determining whether or not night
ber l8.
vision of an individual is normal.
'57. The source of illumination 49 obtains'its‘ elec
trical energy from suitable batteries 50 supported
3 2,406,596
The plate -48'~-having‘the cross-shapedfopen
ing therein providesa?xation point for the eyes
table in overlyinglrelation with the test object to
of the =mdividua1' during'the test and is adapted
reducethe' intensity of the ?uorescent material
independently of said other. shutter member and
'to' prevent complete relaxation of I accommoda
tion' of the eyes of said individual. This arrange- ,
1said' other. shutter. member being formed of
opaqueimaterial and being positionable in over
mentioverco-mes the necessity of'the eyes of the
individual’ under test to reaccommodate between
lying relationwiththe test object and in over
-_lapping relation with the ?rst shutter member
when said ?rst shutter member overlies the test
object and manually operable means carried by
successive exposures of the test object 2!. The
?xation means resulting from the perforated disk
41 is preferably positioned in the focal plane of
the test object and therefore affords accommo
dative means wherebythe eyes of the individual
under test are accommodated for that particular
said shutter pivots‘ and lying in the rear of the, ,
front wall and within the con?nes of theside
walls‘ of said cabinet which may be selectively
operated from the rear of the cabinet to position
focal plane and the visibility of the test means i a the shutter members in desired relation with the
may be more quickly and accurately attained.
test object.
From the foregoing description, it will be seen
3. An eye testing device comprising a cabinet
that simple, efficient, and economical means have
having opposed side walls and a front wall with
been provided for accomplishing all of the objects’
an opening therein, said cabinet being opened in
and advantages of the invention.
the rear thereof, a support in the rear of the front
Having described my invention, I claim:
20 wall having a pivot bearing in substantially axial
1. An eye testing device comprising a cabinet
alignment with the opening in the front wall, a
having opposed side walls and a front wall with
disc in said opening having av pivot pin rotatably
an opening therein, said cabinet being open in
mounted in said pivot bearing, said disc hav
the rear thereof, a support in the rear of the
ing a test object on the front face thereof to be
front wall having a pivot bearing in substantially 25 viewedby an individual under test positioned in
axial alignment with the opening in the front
front of said cabinet, manually operable means
wall, a disc in said opening having a pivot pin
secured to said pivot pin in the rear of the front
rotatably mounted in said pivot bearing, said
wall and within the con?nes of the side walls of
disc having a test object on the front face there
said cabinet which may be operated to rotate the
of to be viewed by anindividual under test po
disc from the rear of the cabinet, a longitudi
sitioned in front of said cabinet, manually opera
nal opening on each of the opposed sides of the
ble means secured to said pivot'pin in the rear
disc, a pair of shutter members pivotally at
of the front wall and within the con?nes of the
tached to the support in the, rear of the front wall,
side walls of said cabinet which may be operated
one on each side of the disc, and each extend
to rotate the, disc from the rear of the cabinet,
ing through a respective longitudinal opening for
apair of shutter members pivotally supported,
movement toward and away from said disc, one
one adjacent each of the opposed sides of the
of said shutter members embodying a transparent
disc for movement toward and away from said
?lter of controlled density being positionable in
disc, one of said shutter members embodying a
overlying relation with the test object independ
transparent ?lter of ‘controlled density being po 40 ently‘ of said other shutter member and said
sitionable in overlying relation with the test ob
other shutter member being formed of opaque ma
ject independently of said other shutter member
terial and being positionable in overlying rela
and said other shutter member being formed of
tion with the test object and in overlapping re
opaque material and being positionable in over
lation with the first shutter member when said
lying relation with the test object and in over 45 shutter member overlies the test object and man
lapping relation with the ?rst shutter member
ually operable means carried by, said shutter piv
when said ?rst shutter member overlies the test
ots and lying in the rear of, the front wall and
object and manually operable means carried by
within the con?nes of the side walls of said
said shutter pivots and lying in the rear of the
cabinet which may be selectively operated from
front wall and within the confines of the side walls 50 the rear of the cabinet to position the shutter
of said cabinet which may be selectively operated
members in desired relation with the test object.
from the rear of the cabinet to position the shut
4. An eye testing device comprising a cabinet
ter members in desired relation with the test
having opposed side walls and a front wall with
an opening therein, said cabinet being opened‘
2. An eye testing device comprising a cabi 55 in the rear thereof, a support in the rear of the
net having opposed side walls and a front Wall
front wall having a pivot bearing in substan
with an opening therein,’ said cabinet [being
tially axial alignment with the opening in the
opened in the rear thereof, a support in the rear
front wall, a disc in said opening having a pivot
of the front wall having a pivot bearing in sub
object.
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pin rotatably mounted in said pivot bearing, said
stantially axial alignment with the opening in 60 disc having a test object on the front face there
the front wall, a disc in said opening having a
of to be viewed by an individual under test posi
pivot pin rotatably mounted in said pivot bear
tioned in front of said cabinet, manually oper
ing, said disc having a test object of ?uores
able means secured to said pivot pin in the rear
cent material on the front face thereof to be
of the front wall and within the con?nes of the
viewed ‘by an individual under test positioned in 06 side walls of said cabinet which may be operated
front of said cabinet, manually operable means
to rotate the disc from the rear of the cabinet,
secured to said pivot pin in the rear of the front
means associated with said manually operable
wall and within the con?nes of the side walls of
means for retaining said disc in given adjusted
said cabinet which may be operated to rotate
positions, a pair of shutter members pivotally
the disc from the rear of the cabinet, a pair of 70 supported, one adjacent each of the opposed sides
shutter members pivotally supported, one adia- 7 of the disc for movement toward and away from
cent each of the opposed sides of the disc for
said disc, one of said shutter members embody
movement toward and away from said disc, one
ing a transparent ?lter of controlled density be
of said shutter members embodying a trans
ing positionable in overlying relation with the
parent ?lter of controlled density being position 15 test object independently of said other shutter
l’ 2,406,596
member and said otherrshutter member being
formed of opaque material and being positionable
in overlying relation with the test object and in
overlap-ping relation with the ?rst shutter mem
ber when said ?rst shutter member overlies the
test object, manually operable means carried by
said shutter pivots and lying in the rear of the
I front wall andwithin the con?nes of the side walls
of said cabinet which may be selectively operated
from the rear of the ‘cabinet and means associ
ated with said latter manually operable means
I for retaining the shutter members in desired ad
justed position relative with the test object.
CHARLES A. ELLIS.
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