Патент USA US2406596код для вставки
Patented Aug. 27, ‘1946; ' UNITED STATES PATENT 5-OFFICE 2,406,596 "j. P ' , EYE TESTING'YMEANS » Charles A. Ellis, ‘Southbridg'e, vMass, assignor ‘ ‘to American Optical Company, Southbridge, Mass., a voluntary association of Massachusetts Application December 24, 1943, Serial No; 515,554 , 4 Claims. This invention relates to test means for deter »mining the visuale?iciency of individuals and has particular reference to an improved device. for performing such tests. , , ' I ~ (01. 7878-26) " ' f _ 2 . .with a front wall portion In having an opening’ , I II in which is rotatably supported a disk member l2. The disk member l2v is carried by a pivot member I3 mounted in avbearing [4 carried by a One of the principal objects of the invention 5 supporting plate, [5. The supportingplatelS is isfto provide an improved portable device for per forming tests for determining the visual efficiency of individuals whereby the operable parts of the device may be manipulated outside of the direct .?eld of vision of the individual under ‘test. Another object is to' provide a devicezof the above character with test means having con—, secured to the front wall II] by spacer blocks H5. The pivot member I 3 is provided with a handgrip l‘! by ‘means, of which’ the ‘said disk l2 may be rotated. fThe pivot member l3, rearwardly of the i0 disk 12, is provided ‘with an indexing member l8 _ adapted to be engaged by ablade spring or the like is. The indexing member it, as shown in trolled form character in combination with me Fig. 5, is provided with ?attenededges 2t which, chanical means for manipulating said test means when, thevhandgrip member i1 is’ rotated an and for automatically controlling the position of is amount su?icient to move one of said ?attened movement of said means. __edges_ in the direction of the blade spring, the Another object is to provide a device of the resilient pressureof the blade spring will tend to above character embodying illuminated ?xation ; cause theadjacent ?attened surface to assume means whereby the illumination for said ?xation an aligned relation with said blade spring thereby means serves to illuminate the working area 0 . operable parts of the device. 20 causing the disk to assume'a givenrposition of ad justment. The said indexing member H3, in the Another object is to provide a simple, compact, present instance, is provided with four ?attened and portable device of the above character. surfaces whichmdetermine four major positions of Other objects and advantages ‘of the invention adjustment of the disk l2. The said disk 42, as will become apparent from the followingdescrip 25‘ shown in Fig.1, is provided with a test character tion taken in connection with the accompanying , ‘21' which, in the present instance, is in the form 1 drawings and it will be apparent that many , of anletter T. » The‘saidletter T, is preferably an changes may be madein the details of construc opaque blank of the known Snelling proportion tion and arrangement of partswithout depart-_ surrounded a luminous surface 22 of ?uores- . ing from the spirit of the invention as expressed 30 cent materialbywhereby the T will be visible in the in the accompanying claims. I, therefore,rdo not ‘reform of a silhouette. The ?uorescent material re wish to be limited to the exact details of con; struction and arrangement of parts shown and described as the preferred form only hasbeen given by way of illustration. ' , Referring more particularly to the drawings; Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the device em bodying the invention showing the side cover . ferred to must'be radiumactivated of a standard “value in‘ actual use. Before actual use, the lumi nous surface 22 ,is preferably held in complete 5 darkness in orderthat the ordinary ?uorescence . due to light activation disappears and only the remaining ?uorescence produced by radium ac ' tivation remains. ' , means of said device removed; It is to be understood that any desired form of Fig. 2 is a rear elevational view 'of the device. 40‘ test character may be used, illustrated in Fig. 1 with the rear cover removed; . . Fig. _3 is a sectional view taken as on line 3-3 . of Fig. 2 and looking in the direction indicated The handgrip member I1 is provided with an , indicator 23 adapted to cooperate with a suitable . dial 24 carriedb'y the‘plate I5 by means of which by the arrows; ' the actual position of the‘ test means may be de Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken as on line 4--4 45 termined by the operator. of Fig. 1 and looking in the direction indicated by the arrows; and r > . Fig. 5 is a fragmentary view illustrating the po sition control means for the test object. On the opposed sides of the disk l2, there is provided two shutter members 25 and 26. The shutter member 25 is pivotally connected, as il lustrated in Fig. 4, to‘a Vertically disposed pivot Referring more particularly to the drawings ‘my/rod 21 pivotally connected with the spacer blocks wherein like characters of reference designate like _ l6 and having an offset crank-like portion 28 on parts throughout the several views, the device em the ‘lower end thereof.’ The crank-like portion bodying the invention comprises a casing or hous 28, as shown in/Figs. 2, Band 4, is adapted to en ing 6 having spaced compartments 1 and 8 there ~ gageindexing grooves 29 formed-in a plate 370 in divided by a wall 9. The casing B is provided 55 carried by the base ‘3| of the casing s. The in 2,406,596 3 dexing grooves 29 are so positioned in the plate 30 as to retain shutter 25 in two major positions of adjustment. The shutter 25 carries a trans parent ?lter 32 which is of controlled density as to reduce the illumination of the ?uorescent sur The individual to be tested is ?rst dark adapted either by having been placed in a totally dark room for a sufficient period of time or by wearing dark adaptation glasses or the like. The individual is then seated at a predeter mined distance in front of the test device, pref face 22 to a given test standard. erably five feet, with his eyes level with the cen It is to be understood that when the crank-like ter of the target or test character 2 i. The indi member 28 is operated in one direction, the shut vidual is ?rst shown the test target or character ter 25 may be swung outwardly to a position such by opening the shutter 25 to expose the test char 10 as shown in Figs. 1 and 3 and when operated in acter and the different directions of movement of the opposite direction said shutter member and the test character is explained through rotation more particularly the ?lter 32 carried thereby of the disk l2. may be positioned to overlie the disk l2. This The shutter 25 is opened and closed several manipulation of the shutter 25 takes place in the times ‘while changing the direction of the test rear of the device and outside of the ?eld of 15 character to acquaint the patient with the tech vision of the individual under test. nique. This preliminary step is carried out with The shutter 25, as shown in Figs. 1, 2, and 3, the shutter 25 in open position. is pivotally supported at 33 by a pivot rod simu The actual test is then performed by placing the lating the pivot rod 21 and is likewise provided ?lter 32 over the test character or disk i2 carry with an o?set crank portion 34. The shutter 26 20 ing said test character 2i._ This reduces the illu is preferably in the form of an opaque shield mov mination of the ?eld surrounding the test char able to a position to overlie the shutter 25 and actor to a given test standwd which illumination disk 12 or movable outwardly, as shown in Figs. is much below that of the initially exposed test 1 and 3, to expose said disk l2. character. The shutter 26 isthen moved over the The said shutter members 25 and 25 extend 25 disk l2 and while in said position, the direction through suitable openings 35 andv 36 formed in the of the test character is moved to a given position front wall Ill, see Fig. 3. The front of the casing through manipulation‘ of the handgrip member 5, as shown in Figs. 1 and ‘l, is providedwith an ii. The arrow 23 functioning in cooperation with inner shoulder 31 adapted to receive a removable the dial 24 will indicate the actual position of the 30 cover member 38. The base of the casing 6, as a test character. his to be noted, by reference to shown at 39 in Fig. 4, is provided with a longitu Fig. 2, that the letter U indicates thatthe T is in dinal slot adapted to receive a lip 40 formed on an upright position. L indicates that it is turned the lower edge of the cover 38 and the upper towards the left, R towards the right, and D in edge of the cover 38 is provided with a latch re a downward position. cess 4| adapted to latch with a suitable resilient After having moved the test character to a latch member 42 carried by the upper wall 43 of given position, the shutter 25 through manipu the casing. The said resilient latch member'lii lation of the crank 35 is opened to expose the is provided with a ?nger ‘engagement projection test character. This procedure is repeated sev #34 by means of which it may be depressed so as to release it from the latch recess 4| when it is desired to remove the cover 38. The wall ID, as shown in Figs. 1, 2, and 4, is provided with an opening 45 having a disk 46 supported therein. The disk 45 has a cross-like opening 41 therein for producing a cross-like image when light is projected therethrough. Di eral times and a record is kept of the reports of the patient and the test is determined by the accuracy of the patient’s reports as to the posi tion of the test character. It is particularly pointed out that the shutter members 25 and 26 may be opened and closed as well as the disk I2 rotated by the individual per forming the test without said adjustments being visible to the said individual under test, that is, the individual performing the test is in the rear of the device and the said shutters and disk may duced from light directed through the ?lter-'48 50 be manipulated outside of the ?eld of vision of rectly in the rear of the disk 46, there is sup ported a transparent red ?lter 48 for producing a red colored cross-like image. 'This image is pro and opening 41 from a suitable source of illumi nation 49 supported internally of the chamber the individual under test. The illumination com ing through the Window 54 is sufficient to illumi nate the parts being manipulated so that the ex aminer or individual performing the test accu on the opposed sides of the chamber T and 55 rately knows the position of adjustments of said through the current ?owing from said batteries shutters and'disk member 12. The-arrangement through the circuit lines 5|. The said circuit is is such that the said shutter members and disk connected with a suitable switch 52 by means of may be quickly and easily manipulated at will. which the source of illumination 49 may be ener It is particularly pointed out, by reference to 60 Fig. 5, that the accurate position of adjustment gized or de-energized. The wall 9, as shown in Figs. 2 and 4, is pro of the test character 21 is automatically estab vided with an opening 53 having a suitable trans lished by the seating of the blade spring I9 with parent plate 54 thereover formed of glass or other the adjacent ?attened surface .20 of the indexing transparent material. The opening 53 is adapted member l8. It is only necessary for the exam to allow light from the source of illumination 49 65 iner to move the desired surface 29 in the direc to traverse said wall 9 to illuminate the operable tion of the spring whereby release of the hand means internally of the compartment 8. grip I1 will permit the spring 19 to automatically The housing 5 is provided with a detachable complete the adjustment. The various positional rear cover member 55 simulating the cover 38. adjustments may be quickly and easily obtained The upper wall 43, as shown in Figs. 1, 2, and 70 and in the present instance comprise four major 4, is provided with a handle 56 for ease of con positions. It is to be understood that if more veyance of the device. major positions are required, more ?attened sur The device set forth above is adapted particu faces would be provided on the indexing mem larly for use in determining whether or not night ber l8. vision of an individual is normal. '57. The source of illumination 49 obtains'its‘ elec trical energy from suitable batteries 50 supported 3 2,406,596 The plate -48'~-having‘the cross-shapedfopen ing therein providesa?xation point for the eyes table in overlyinglrelation with the test object to of the =mdividua1' during'the test and is adapted reducethe' intensity of the ?uorescent material independently of said other. shutter member and 'to' prevent complete relaxation of I accommoda tion' of the eyes of said individual. This arrange- , 1said' other. shutter. member being formed of opaqueimaterial and being positionable in over mentioverco-mes the necessity of'the eyes of the individual’ under test to reaccommodate between lying relationwiththe test object and in over -_lapping relation with the ?rst shutter member when said ?rst shutter member overlies the test object and manually operable means carried by successive exposures of the test object 2!. The ?xation means resulting from the perforated disk 41 is preferably positioned in the focal plane of the test object and therefore affords accommo dative means wherebythe eyes of the individual under test are accommodated for that particular said shutter pivots‘ and lying in the rear of the, , front wall and within the con?nes of theside walls‘ of said cabinet which may be selectively operated from the rear of the cabinet to position focal plane and the visibility of the test means i a the shutter members in desired relation with the may be more quickly and accurately attained. test object. From the foregoing description, it will be seen 3. An eye testing device comprising a cabinet that simple, efficient, and economical means have having opposed side walls and a front wall with been provided for accomplishing all of the objects’ an opening therein, said cabinet being opened in and advantages of the invention. the rear thereof, a support in the rear of the front Having described my invention, I claim: 20 wall having a pivot bearing in substantially axial 1. An eye testing device comprising a cabinet alignment with the opening in the front wall, a having opposed side walls and a front wall with disc in said opening having av pivot pin rotatably an opening therein, said cabinet being open in mounted in said pivot bearing, said disc hav the rear thereof, a support in the rear of the ing a test object on the front face thereof to be front wall having a pivot bearing in substantially 25 viewedby an individual under test positioned in axial alignment with the opening in the front front of said cabinet, manually operable means wall, a disc in said opening having a pivot pin secured to said pivot pin in the rear of the front rotatably mounted in said pivot bearing, said wall and within the con?nes of the side walls of disc having a test object on the front face there said cabinet which may be operated to rotate the of to be viewed by anindividual under test po disc from the rear of the cabinet, a longitudi sitioned in front of said cabinet, manually opera nal opening on each of the opposed sides of the ble means secured to said pivot'pin in the rear disc, a pair of shutter members pivotally at of the front wall and within the con?nes of the tached to the support in the, rear of the front wall, side walls of said cabinet which may be operated one on each side of the disc, and each extend to rotate the, disc from the rear of the cabinet, ing through a respective longitudinal opening for apair of shutter members pivotally supported, movement toward and away from said disc, one one adjacent each of the opposed sides of the of said shutter members embodying a transparent disc for movement toward and away from said ?lter of controlled density being positionable in disc, one of said shutter members embodying a overlying relation with the test object independ transparent ?lter of ‘controlled density being po 40 ently‘ of said other shutter member and said sitionable in overlying relation with the test ob other shutter member being formed of opaque ma ject independently of said other shutter member terial and being positionable in overlying rela and said other shutter member being formed of tion with the test object and in overlapping re opaque material and being positionable in over lation with the first shutter member when said lying relation with the test object and in over 45 shutter member overlies the test object and man lapping relation with the ?rst shutter member ually operable means carried by, said shutter piv when said ?rst shutter member overlies the test ots and lying in the rear of, the front wall and object and manually operable means carried by within the con?nes of the side walls of said said shutter pivots and lying in the rear of the cabinet which may be selectively operated from front wall and within the confines of the side walls 50 the rear of the cabinet to position the shutter of said cabinet which may be selectively operated members in desired relation with the test object. from the rear of the cabinet to position the shut 4. An eye testing device comprising a cabinet ter members in desired relation with the test having opposed side walls and a front wall with an opening therein, said cabinet being opened‘ 2. An eye testing device comprising a cabi 55 in the rear thereof, a support in the rear of the net having opposed side walls and a front Wall front wall having a pivot bearing in substan with an opening therein,’ said cabinet [being tially axial alignment with the opening in the opened in the rear thereof, a support in the rear front wall, a disc in said opening having a pivot of the front wall having a pivot bearing in sub object. - ‘ ' pin rotatably mounted in said pivot bearing, said stantially axial alignment with the opening in 60 disc having a test object on the front face there the front wall, a disc in said opening having a of to be viewed by an individual under test posi pivot pin rotatably mounted in said pivot bear tioned in front of said cabinet, manually oper ing, said disc having a test object of ?uores able means secured to said pivot pin in the rear cent material on the front face thereof to be of the front wall and within the con?nes of the viewed ‘by an individual under test positioned in 06 side walls of said cabinet which may be operated front of said cabinet, manually operable means to rotate the disc from the rear of the cabinet, secured to said pivot pin in the rear of the front means associated with said manually operable wall and within the con?nes of the side walls of means for retaining said disc in given adjusted said cabinet which may be operated to rotate positions, a pair of shutter members pivotally the disc from the rear of the cabinet, a pair of 70 supported, one adjacent each of the opposed sides shutter members pivotally supported, one adia- 7 of the disc for movement toward and away from cent each of the opposed sides of the disc for said disc, one of said shutter members embody movement toward and away from said disc, one ing a transparent ?lter of controlled density be of said shutter members embodying a trans ing positionable in overlying relation with the parent ?lter of controlled density being position 15 test object independently of said other shutter l’ 2,406,596 member and said otherrshutter member being formed of opaque material and being positionable in overlying relation with the test object and in overlap-ping relation with the ?rst shutter mem ber when said ?rst shutter member overlies the test object, manually operable means carried by said shutter pivots and lying in the rear of the I front wall andwithin the con?nes of the side walls of said cabinet which may be selectively operated from the rear of the ‘cabinet and means associ ated with said latter manually operable means I for retaining the shutter members in desired ad justed position relative with the test object. CHARLES A. ELLIS.