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Патент USA US2406604

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Aug. 27‘, 1946.
' -H. E. HOLTHOUSE
2,406,604
CONTROL MEANS FOR LIQUID SUPPLY SYSTEMS
Filed June 15, 1942
s Sheets-Sheet 1
Aug. 27, 1946.
H. B. HOLTHOUSE
CONTROL MEANS FOR LIQUID SUPPLY_SYSTEMS
Fiied June 15, 1942 ,
H
av
1%.
I 2,406,604
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
"
A98: 27, 1946‘
H. B. HOLTHOUSE 4 7
2,406,604
CONTROL MEANS FOR LIQUID SUPPLY SYSTEMS
“
Filed June 15, 1942
' 3 Sheets-Sheet 3
47.]
h
w
~ 5'6 gmlHll'
N
may i
2,406,604
Patented Aug. 27, 1946
umrso
GF'FICE
5240mm
eon-11x01. iM-EANS FOWLIQUIDSUPB
:sysTEMs
Harry
=
Manufaéturins Corii'iitatli'iin, 1611mm, v111-,
a corporation ‘of Illinois
"
7
,
Application ‘June =15, 1942, Serial-No. 1751413053‘
gs planes. (curse-28)
:1
. éfFigi:Ziseitransverseiseetional‘view of theeppae
This invention relates ‘generally to ;control
means :15 or: a liquid.» su-pplysystem and in‘particular
menus or i-Eig. ;1 ‘with the combustion :Portion
to :a ‘fuel a system :for apparatus havingia combus
tion portion :in which ': the ‘rate : of :fuel :feed to ithe
.idlarity;
:thereof shown .in . development for the ‘purpose . of
Fig.3is,a.transverseseotional vView of the com
lbust'io‘n pqttmnof‘the heating-apparatus vas seen
combustion portion ‘is controlled ;in:re,Sp0nse ~t_0
the (heat radiated therefrom.
' ;-An :object of :this'invention is e-togprovidegim
~alone :the line 3+3 in Ha 2; ‘
‘ "
proved heat responsive‘means-‘foroont'rolling the
rate ;of ‘liquid’ ?ow‘inra:liquid;,supp1y;'system:
‘4 ‘is }.a longitudinal ‘sectional view ,of ‘the
unipsinelhded ‘as apart of .the fuel supply
7
is I to
,Another :object of athis invention is to PEQYiSIe
a protective system .;_for zQonjtlfolliiflg the rate {of
:fu‘el éfeed to thecombustion portion of apparatus
of internal ‘combustion ‘ityp‘e in lresponse :to ‘the
pf-vthis'ni' jention;
an s stherline 55‘ 5
circuit ‘for the sheater‘apparatus in Figs- ‘,1 and 2,
illustrated in fthe drawings ‘as
"heating apparatus ‘for' control
the rate-of-fuel .feed-;to;the;eombustion portionof
‘heating tapparaitus relative :to ‘:‘the gheat =;1'adiaif,ed.
/
Stilhanother; object ; of this-,i-nVentiQn; is {to 10911
.
<~tr01 the rate of ifue1:fe'ed';t0‘,11116100mb1l$§i6¥1;P91‘ :20 .4
‘ibustlon in.
vtion of :air :heating apparatus in ~;res_»p,onse to ,the
v hustiq'n. e'dmpartmentiip‘rjthe cem
‘nuandie, mechani'ealijcempartment
"afraliged @911 seat 17.0 the combustiQn compart
temperatures .-of .therair toejoe?heated and -,of the
‘heat <radiated éfrom :the icombustien :nort1en._
A :featurel‘of‘thisiinventiongisjoungi in~-_the;prp
‘vision ofla- fuelisupply system ‘inol-uging agpurqp
"mam ifsio as to the in ,‘a heat exchange relatien
ll; él‘éw'ith- IlI-iQGatQd withi'nihe,Ineghani?alcom
' ' ‘rtm'eht Qand- ‘a‘glapted to be ‘heated therein?is a
"
'
'
the .eembustien portion
in. udmg'a'iflielinumn andiaiIieIJJine- "Themat
‘portion, in ‘which :the systeipgsrerrange ‘
‘abl'e‘ ‘ass of the 'systern‘is such that vthe heat
meats-exchange‘ relation-with theteembpstiongper
therefrom, .is .vtransterred to the fuel ‘?owing
v'{I‘fhe jair to ‘,be heated ‘initially ‘flows
30 itherj
ithro
;tive
.tienzandmas;.arheatable
:to {the samounteof 2f1ieliftowiryg
masswhie gtherethrou'gh
~ , ‘A ..
smastotransferzhea .tasueh-ifuel- Qmheat xigrof
ghthelmechaniealieqmpartment.teeoelthe
s; theiiein prior‘v to; passing in a heat exchange
the-system, gabove ;~a-;eerta~in temperature-a; .ipbr
7:1 lockicondition is ; produced- in, the
ieedpto "e?eqmbustion‘portion
nzp'qrrtien- Thejheatingiapparatus
,se ‘to the ‘heat radiated ‘from
‘
.and:;fue1 iline for:apparat.us;havil;g acorn
Pia 4; ‘and
"Fig. I6 illustrate, \diagrarnmatioally 1a control
‘heat radiated "from - such combustion portion.
¢A "further object .Of :this invention -_-is :to Wary '
from the . combustion :portion.
'
v xFig. 15 "is a transverse sectional view ‘as seen
tien with:th'e_.eombustion; portion. wOn heating
_.whi(:h le
sair.t0-_a.-‘La1.1.1e above anormaljeoejlinstem
.Aduces ~the,;rate ,of ‘fuel feed ¢t.o-:.th,e ,conibu'stion
a ipeeture. its: oiling .ftunetienfis redueedteonelw
;,_r,en,t.1.yi withjani increase: mime-heat radietedfrpm
‘ Another .- feature lof this invention is ‘found ‘in
‘the ieombustienetnortienihy virtue of such in
the provision‘ ofla fuel supplyqjsystem for 'ir'heat
in' ;cre‘a'se‘dtemperature;;to§provide in allforaheat
‘portion.
,
" '
ofithef?l?l.iSUPPlYlSYStGm above a normal‘ ‘op
er.’ mg temperature tThessameaetion'is accel
,\e'r e’d relativeutogthe heating-of thQ’fllGl system,
"s 51 ?thef?ow of ‘air moi-be heated be entirely
.' ped
heating :of the 'air .;c_ircul_ate'd t?bQiit ,the .
above-a normal coolingit’emperatlire'the'gteinp '
.tureof the'p‘uni‘p is increased jto'azvalue; \
ZIhe increase gin kthe'jteniperature of the -fuel
.sYSteLm Leb'OYeJitS normal .iqperatins temperature
,
lvaporize‘s the fuelitherIein-so th'ft'ia vapor‘
'
“effects a vaporization of'the?fuelvin thepurn-p
s. 55
.iueltsuppely-r system relative"? toitheassioeijatedi eem~
_t_o produeea vapor look condition therein which
_ ‘reduces _: the _' rate of ’_ fuel 'fe‘ed ‘130' the -_eo_mbustion
'theirate of, fuel .feed‘i-toltheaeoinhustiongpoijtion.
:Further objects, ,-features 'y-alnd ‘advantages gar "portion and " in a turn the heat generated-I therein.
fuel system above
thisinventionwillbeeomep-appaizent [fro the o1 50*!) 'ageontinuédheatiae:efzthe
tmal Qperatingfteinperature the vapor lock
.low-ing: description when taken innconneetionlwith ‘
Isa ,onhis izeidniiiliueii‘sly‘ ‘increased to (a point ‘at
{the-accompanying:drawinssjin-which:,
_A _
which the A v
i011 JQf "the Lcqmbll'stign P0111011
:Fig. ‘1 is vag10erspect-ive wiewf-ef tang-air heating " is"
practically stopped. ' This ‘arrangement of "the
condition-‘is produced inthes-plinl'tl'pf
h..1£ duoes
apparatus embody-ins {the ‘fuel 3 supply 1 system-0f
this invention;
I
,
I
.
3
,
bustion portion thus provides a protective sys
tem which acts to eliminate. an overheated con
dition of the combustion portion and to retain
the heat radiated therefrom substantially uni
form.
the pump 43 is operatively associated with the
motor shaft 36.
Referring to Figs. 1 and 2 the heating system
of this invention is seen to include a housing
Fuel for the pump 43 is sup
plied thereto from a suitable source (not shown)
through pipe 45, and is delivered through a pipe
H] which is divided longitudinally thereof over
substantially its entire length by a partition.
member I l to provide a mechanical compartment
l2 and a heating compartment.
4
of a fuel pump 43 which is illustrated in Figs.
2 and 4 as being of solenoid type. The breaker
assembly 44 for controlling the energization of
41 to a fuel injection nozzle 48 formed as a part
of the air and fuel mixing means 24. The pump
43, breaker assembly 44, motor 57 and fan 34
Within the
" are thus all located within the mechanical com
partment l2, which is provided with an inlet 48
for supplying either fresh or recirculated air to
heating compartment is a substantially cylindri-.. .
cally shaped combustion chamber , lv3,vshown in
development in Fig. 2, which is closed'at' one: '
end by a cover plate It and at its‘ opposite end
the fan‘ 34 for delivery to the air passage 32.
The pump 43 (Figs. 4 and 5) includes a cyl
inder lil of tubular form which is operatively
by the bottom It of a substantially dish-shaped
member l1. The member I‘! de?nes in‘ part an . i associated‘ with a tubular piston ‘ll of elongated
construction. The cylinder 10 is provided in a
air supply chamber I8 which is in axial align
suitable non-magnetic material, such as brass,
ment with the combustion chamber I3.
‘
' ‘
The combustion chamber l3 is divided longi 20 while the piston is provided in a magnetic mate
rial, such as iron, movement of the piston in
tudinally thereof into four axially extending but
one direction being eifected on energization of
connected passages Illa-49d by a partition mem
a solenoid '12 which is mounted about the cyl
inder 10,‘ the piston ‘ll operating‘as a solenoidal
3“). The combustion chamber inlet 22 and out
let 23 are formed in the bottom portion l6 of 25 c'ore.~ Fluid enters the pump at the cylinder
end 13 and is discharged therefrom at the cyl
the member I‘! in communication With-the pas
inder end 74, the piston being operable substan
sages Ida and I‘Bd, respectively. Located with
tially between the cylinder ends. The ?ow of
in the inlet 22 is an air andfuel mixing means,
fuel through the cylinder ends 13 and 14 is con
indicated generally as 24, which is extended
trolled by valve structures 16 and TI, respectively,
within the air supply chamber?ld. The outlet
"while the fuel flow through the “tubular piston
23 is provided with a tail or exhaust pipe'as
"H is regulated by a valve structure 18 carried in
sembly 26 extended into the air supply chamber
one end thereof. All of the valve structures are
l8 and outwardly therefrom through the end 2'!
ber 2| of substantially X-shape v(Figs. 2 and
of the housing member _| B;
'
of a substantially similar construction so that
‘
The outer wall or body portion of the combustion chamber I3 is integrally formed ‘with
alternately arranged peripheral portions 23 and
doubled ?n portions 29, which are angularly
spaced about the ‘combustion chamber and ex
tended axially thereof. The side portions of the
partition member 2! are located within certain
similar numerals of reference are used to desig
nate like parts. Thus as shown in Figs. 4 and 5
each valve ‘56', Ti and 18 includes a disc mem
ber T19, normally retained on a corresponding
seat portion 8| by a corresponding spring 82.
40 '
direction away from their corresponding seats
~in response to the fuel pressures acting thereon.
In the operation of the pump the piston 10 is
moved in one direction, namely, to the left as
viewed in Fig. 4 by the magnetic action of the
solenoid 12. A return movement of the piston
ones of the ?ns 29 and retained therein in a
?xed position relative to the combustion chamber
body portion by Welding or like means. The
fins 29 have a sleeve 3! positioned about the outerv
ends thereof so as to form an annular passage
10, towards the right, is obtained by a spring 83
32 about the combustion chamber l3 forair to
be heated.‘
'
.
.
f
..'
.
'
'
All'of'the disc members 19 are lifted in the same
' which is=located in an expansible inlet chamber
.
84- formed between the valve structures 76 and
The air to be heated is admitted into the
passage 32 through an inlet 33 connecting the
passage with the mechanical compartment [2
and is circulated throughthe passage 32 by a
fan 34 located within the compartment l2 and
T8. The solenoid ‘I2 is selectively energized by
the action-of the breaker assembly 44. On move
ment of the piston ll to the left, the chamber
84 is contracted to increase the pressure of the
fuel‘in such chamber. This increased pressure
seats the disc 19 of the ,valve assembly 16 to
‘ prevent any flow of fuel outwardly from the pump
mounted on a shaft 36 .of an electric motor 31
(Fig. 2). The compartment l2 and airpas'sage
32 are separated from the air supply chamber
l8 by a sealing or partition member 38 extended
. transversely of the housing l0. From Fig. 2
inlet, and lifts the disc 19 of valve assembly 18
to permit fuel from the chamber 84 to ?ow
through the tubular piston ll into an expansible
, it is seen that the air supply chamber i8 is de
fined by the dish-shaped member l1, thepar 60 outlet chamber 86 formed at the cylinder end
14, as indicated by the dotted line 81. On de
tition member 38, and the end 21 of the housing
energization of the solenoid movement of the
ill. Air circulated by the fan 34 is thus con
piston ll! toward the right, as produced by the
_ fined to travel within the compartment I2 and
spring ‘83, effects a suction pressure in the inlet
passage '32 and is discharged from the passage
through an outlet 3-9 which is connected to a 65 chamber 84, due to its being expanded, whereby
the valve structure 16 is opened to permit fuel
space to be heated.
‘
to flow into the inlet chamber 86; the fuel ad
The supply chamber is receives air from a fan
mitted. to the chamber 84 being at substantially
1 4| “located therein and mounted onthe motor
supply line pressure. The fuel in the outlet
shaft 38 which is journalled in the partition
, plate as. An inlet 42 for the fan 4| is provided 7'0: chamber 86 is compressed due to such chamber
being contracted, withthe increase in pressure
inthe housing end 21. It is seen, therefore,
that the fans 34 and 4| are operated by a com
mon electric motor 31 and are mounted directly
on the shaft 36 thereof.
closing the‘valve structure 18 and opening the
valve structure ‘T! to discharge the fuel from the
,
The motor 3'! is also utilized in the operation
75
pump.
On reenergization of the solenoid the
cycle of piston operation is repeated.
eats-eel ‘
.
.
.
f5
.
;
.
.
. is washer: ??it til .61? when
.19
"o'pe’n'in the ‘d"r"c'ti‘on 'of fuel new and vare lop‘er
able response ‘to the fuel pressuresfproduced
in the expansible chambers 84 and "86 byth‘e re
ciprocatingactionjofthe piston 1| in the cylinder
" faintesteheieetehsheerpessesnehuehsleeper
ttures 59 in the heat insulating plate =58 eh'a iht'o
‘_ he ‘ighithjg hone at "the end ‘61 "or the ‘combina
Zti'on: t 1s] ‘which {functions
heat sun, in
other "words the heat developed by the reel‘;
provides ‘for a ‘successive. moving "of ‘the fuel
through vthe pump, the vfuel l?‘rst being admitted
into ‘the inlet chamber Mfthr‘ough the Ive-wen
on movement "of jthepis't'on ""l’l toward the right,
‘then passed through the valve 18 to ‘the .chamber
‘?k?'onfmovernent of the piston‘towjard the l'eft,“and
‘?nally ejected from ‘the "pump, through'th‘e verve
is
projected him/army from ‘the ‘unit eh‘e =61, the
heat "generated being ‘*d‘epehderit upon {the "watt
'iinput'toithe resistance coil 62. The jrnixture it'hus
10. Thi's'action of the piston and ‘disc members
10
‘ignited is burnedTin the combustion chamber '13,
‘with ‘the {exhaust gases being ‘discharged through
the hips ‘assembly 25.
f
Figure 6‘there"is‘illustrlated"alcohtrol‘circuit
rel‘ 'e'p'ere‘tmg the hee‘t'e’repperetushr'tiigs. ~'1 ehu
2 fror’nfa iu'sual scar Ihatter-y indicated “at ‘8%. The
‘II on meveinentei the pistonjtowajrd ‘the right.
It is 't’o‘b'e ,note‘d'that ‘the movementof the‘pi‘s’ton
"i'notor 51 'and "2361152 of ‘thec'o'mbi’nation’ ‘electrical ‘
ii Itowardjhe ‘right provides for the fd'r‘awing‘of Y ' unit 61 ‘are’seri'es "connected ‘in a common {circuit
‘whieh from thefbatt'ery‘tt 'includesconductor‘t?,
‘fuel into the‘ chamber fat "and the "discharge of
co'ntrol'swit'ch e1, Lco'nductor 92, meter at, ‘eon
,{ductor 9's, coil t2 ‘and 'afgrou'nd ‘eeh'heetiehieii.
20 The circuit'of the ‘pump te'fjr'om the ihetteryts
‘ejection action. '
'
includes~ conductor '89, control "switch rFH, con
I’ The ‘air. and ‘fuel ‘mixing the-ens“, previously
theme from the-chamber at some}; the‘suction
‘actionof‘the‘puinp occurs concurrently with vits
‘oluctor 86, the breaker ‘assembly ‘114,. conductor 91,
the pump 43’a'nd "aground 'co'nn'ectionlii?. Thus
on opening'and'clpsing'of the control ‘switch ‘iii
mentioned, includes a v "substantially tubular
"shapfed‘housing‘me'rriloerv 5| which is cl'o'sed'ation'e
end and open er the end 52 thereof withfthe
passage [9a. ’ A mixing‘chamber 53 isflo'c'ated at
‘the motor 3 7, e011 "5'2 and pump'“1l-3 ' are‘ all operated
the closed‘éndof the'casing 5|, :and‘is separated
from anequalizing chamber 54 by a plate member
During the "operation of the heater apparatus
~5i; having perforations'5'lytherein. The equaliz
‘iI/lig chamber '54 in turn‘i's bothf'de?'ned andsep
arated'from the combustion'cham'ber passage 19a
by a heat insulating plate '58 having‘perforations
and‘ stopped together.
I
'it is desirable, of‘ course,'that the‘c'o'mbustion-poim
'vti‘on ‘be operated to "deliver a substantially uni
30 form ‘heat "so that overheating thereof, resulting
‘for"some reason from "a failure‘in the ?ow‘ of‘kth'e
air to be heatedgoran'inc'rease'in'the tempera
"ture of"such"air,"be eliminated. It‘is readily ap
59w thereinr >‘Extended substantiallyw axially
throughthe easing 15lvand projecting outwardly
"from the closed end thereof is a ‘combination
heating an-d'ignitingkunit 6| includingaresistance
'ch’ainb’e‘rlfi might ‘result in injury or damage‘t'o
“coil 62 ‘supported in a spaced vrelation within a
"cent thereto. In ‘order toeliminate these'dange'rs
parent that any overheating ‘of ‘the'combustion
'the'heat'er apparatus as well'asfto objects adja
heat-conducting tube 63 composed of copper _or
"and ‘to provide’at all times for a safe 'oper
like material. :The'casing 5| and partitioniplate
56 are provided'in_aeheateconducting material,
‘such ale/copper or the like, and arelin'lthermal
tern, including the pump '43 andzfuel'lihe tsgte
connection with thecombination unit 6| so as
"provide a ‘protective system which operates in
response to" the temperature of ‘the heat of "the
toreadily receive heat therefrom. The-combina
tion unit 6| isadapted to heat the airyrandv'fuel
‘combustionportio'n and/or thev heat of the dir
mixing means 24 to'at least afuel vaporizing
the air and fuel admitted therein, an-dto-ignite
culated air t'ocontrol the rate of ‘fuel‘f'e'ed'to the
mixing means ‘24 and'hen'ce to the combustion
such mixture for burning within the combustion
portion 'l‘3.
"temperature to facilitate-the mixing together of
chamber 13. I
_
from the ‘combustion ch‘ainb'er‘li is transferred
néohldlidtléng?hd ‘radiation intotlie ‘mechanical
The fuel delivered > to the fuel injection nozzle
"48 bythe pump 43'is'directed into the’mixing
‘chamber 53, the'fuel nozzle'being located-within
.
‘ 0n"'operatio_'n'o_f‘the heeter‘ep'earetue the heat
50
:com'part'mfe‘nt so as to "heat the ‘parts located
These parts are normally ‘cooled by‘the
‘the air‘ supply chamber‘ and mounted directly-on
passage 'of the 'air to vbe 'heate'd "which ‘flows
through the mechanical compartment [2, as has
ti‘on of the'air'fo‘r‘mixingwith the fuel enters
the nozzle'?'?" through ports?ll therein and travels 55 jbeén'fullyféx‘plaihed above. ‘In one commercial
embodiment "of the invention the ‘mechanical
v‘with'this fuel into the mixing chamber 53. Fur
the‘ casing 51 at the chamber 53 (Fig. "2) . -A-por
compartrnént‘lz‘is of a‘le'n'gthbfvabout twelve
fther ‘air is admitted directly into the mixing
chamber 53 through apertures ‘66 in the casing
"5i and'ab'out'the fuel nozzle '48. The fuel thus
' entering the ‘mixing chamber'53' 'is'heated-to ‘at
least va fuel vaporizing temperature for'intimate
'mixing with the‘ air in ‘such chamber by thefunc
'tion vof the heating unit‘BI, the heat from which
~istransferred tot-he casing‘5l and plate 56 in
thermal connection therewith. Mixing is facili
"tated by thetu'rbulence of'the'air in the mixing
fohamber. This‘vaporous mixture passes into the
"
' ‘equalizing
‘chamber "54 through‘ the ‘apertures 51
'i'n-the ‘plate member/56. The ‘equalizing chamber
in conjunction with the insulating plate 58, which
retardsythe mixture ?ow through the condition
"ing ‘unit ~24, acts " to reduce turbulence in the
"mixture and to'disperse the mixture substantially
' casing
11niform1Ya§YO$$
5| so that "the.
a mixture
.eniirq.§¥Q§§§@9El°¥i;°£lhe
of substantially uni- ‘
inches and has a cross section about 'four'inches
square, with the air circulated therethroug‘h’hy
the- fan ~34 being on the order of abOutBO-cubic
feet-per minute. The pump'AS, inthis emhodi»
~ment,~has-a heatable mass -'of about‘ one pound
with‘ all portions thereof being'substantially heat
'As is best shown'in- ‘Fig. '2 thepump
"£53 is a'rranged‘sub'stantially intermediate the sides
efith‘e mechanical l compartment 82 so ast'o be
' conducting.
65
' spaced a distance of about ~2~~irichesv erserrom the‘
combustion chamber it. This pumpoperates-to
"discharge! fuel ee- the‘ rate of'a'bout ‘six‘ cubic cen
timeters per minute, which fuel‘ flow therethiough
“relative to its heatable mass is ‘incapable ‘of 1cool
i'n'g the flame. 'In‘”other"wor'ds‘ the ‘mass ‘of the
2,406,604.
7
8
ferred from the‘pump to the fuel to increase the
turns to a liquid state so that liquid fuel is dis
temperature thereof.
charged from the pump. Since the liquid fuel in
’
In the operation of the pump 43 a temperature
providing for its normal operation is maintained
by virtue of the cooling action thereon by the air
the chamber 86, is of lesser volume than the same
amount of fuel which was in a vaporous and liquid
state in the chamber 84, the available capacity of
the pump is decreased in proportion to the
amount of vaporous fuel initially present in the
chamber 84. The pump operates, therefore, to
vary the rate of fuel supply to the combustion
to be heated. Thus, so long as the air to be heated
is supplied at a temperature below a certain
value, Which maintains a normal operating tem
perature of the pump 43, the pump 43 will oper
ate at full capacity to supply fuel to the condi l0 chamber directly in response to the amount of
tioning means 211.’ However, if for any reason,
heat radiated from the combustion chamber so as
the air to be heated becomes initially heated prior
to provide an automatic fuel control for retaining
to its passage into the mechanical compartment
the quantity of heat radiated from the combustion
H2, or while in the compartment l2, to a tempera
chamber substantially uniform 'at all times,
ture which is insul?cient to cool the pump to a 15
Since any overheating of the combustion cham
normal operating temperature a vapor lock condi
ber tends to create a maximum vapor lock con
tion will be produced in the pump which oper
ates to reduce the rate of fuel feed to the condi
tioning means 24 and hence to the combustion
chamber 13. Since the fuel flow through the fuel
system is incapable of retaining the same cooled
at a normal operating temperature any changes
dition in the pump the supply of fuel thereto is
in the condition of the air to be heated, as above
noted, effects a vapor lock in the pump 43.
This vapor lock condition is the result of the H
fuel being heated to a temperature such that upon
its entering the pump inlet chamber 84 at a re
duced or suction pressure therein, fuel vaporiza
tion takes place to a degree depending upon its
temperature and the suction pressure in the
chamber 84. It is well known, of course, that the
temperatures of the vaporization points for var
ious liquids are usually given at atmospheric pres
stopped so as to prevent a prolonged operation
thereof in an overheated condition. In the com
mercial embodiment of the invention above noted
the vapor lock action of the pump lags the opera
tion of the combustion chamber relative ‘to the
quantity of heat radiated therefrom by a matter
of about ?ve or six minutes. The vapor lock ac
tion in controlling the fuel feed is thus relatively
fast in its control of the heat condition of the
combustion chamber.
As Was previously mentioned the reduction in
the rate of fuel supply to the combustion portion
I3 is in direct proportion to the ratio of fuel vapor
to liquid fuel initially present in the inlet chamber
84. The temperature of the fuel at the pump in
let, therefore, determines the extent to which
vaporization will occur in the inlet chamber 84,
sure. If the liquid is raised above this tempera—
ture and the pressure is also increased to retain 35 and hence the amount of fuel pumped to the com
bustion portion 13. Thus as is noted in Figs. 1
the liquid in a liquid form, the liquid is said to be
and 2 that portion of the fuel line 46 within the
superheated, that is superheated relative to its
mechanical compartment I2 is extended adjacent
initial temperature and pressure. When liquid
the partition wall I l to facilitate its being heated
in a heated state at a certain pressure is released
into a pressure lower than such certain pressure, 40 from the combustion portion l3. Although both
the temperature of the fuel at the pump inlet and
vaporization takes place to some extent imme
the suction pressure within the chamber 84 de
diately. The extent of the vaporization depends
termine the degree of fuel vaporization, the va
upon the heat available. This occurrence of va
porization of the fuel is facilitated by increasing
porization is seen, therefore, to depend upon the
the temperature of the fuel rather than by in
initial pressure and temperature of the liquid and g ‘
creasing the degree of suction pressure. In other
the pressure into which the liquid is released. In
words fuel at 180° F. will vaporize at ?ve inches
the present invention vaporization of the fuel re
of mercury more readily than fuel at a tempera
sults from the heating of the fuel at a pressure in
ture of 80° F. at a vacuum pressure ofseven inches
the line, and the releasing thereof into the suc
of mercury. By heating a portion of the fuel line
tion or vacuum pressure of the inlet chamber 84.
'46, therefore, the vapor lock condition in the pump
By virtue of the degree of vaporization being
43 is made more immediately responsive to the
dependent upon the heat available the fuel sup
heat condition in the combustion chamber I3, so
ply system can be initially heated so as to provide
for a small vapor lock action in the pump and a
correspondingly small reduction in the rate of fuel
supplied to the combustion chamber. However,
should the temperature of the fuel supply system
, as to appreciably reduce the period of lag between
the occurrence of the vapor lock condition and
' the degree of heat applied to the system.
From a consideration of the description and
drawings, therefore, it is seen that the invention
continue to increase above a value providing for '
provides a protective system forcontrolling the
such initial vapor lock action, the vapor lock action
Will correspondingly be increased to a maximum 60 rate of heat radiated from apparatus including a
combustion portion, in which the system for sup
condition at which all of the fuel is vaporized.
plying fuel to the combustion portion is utilized
This maximum limit results in practically stopping
and arranged relative to the combustion portion
the rate of fuel feed to the combustion portion so
to control the rate of fuel feed thereto. The va
as to stop the operation thereof. The reduction in
fuel feed to the combustion chamber l3 occurs , por lock condition in the pump can result from a
heating of the pump to in turn heat the fuel
because of the'fact that the pump, when vapor
therein, heating of the fuel alone prior to its en
lock is present therein, functions to pump a com
tering the pump, or by the heating of both the
bination of liquid fuel and vaporous fuel, with its
pump and the fuel line. The cooling ?uid for
discharge capacity being reduced in direct pro
'maintaining a normal operation of the fuel sys
portion to the ratio‘ of fuel vapor to liquid fuel.
tem can effect a vapor lock condition in the pump
Thus referring to Fig. 4, on the suction stroke of
the piston the chamber 84 is ?lled with a vaporous
by its becoming heated above a temperature
and liquid fuel mixture for passage into the outlet
adapted to retain such normal operation, or by a
chamber 86. However, on compressing this mix
complete stoppage thereof. It is obvious of course
ture in the chamber 86, the vaporous fuel re
75 that the invention is not restricted to the solenoid
2,406,604
10
9
pump illustrated, but it is applicable for use with
any pump which operates with a suction and
liquid fuel supply system for ‘delivering fuel to
said combustion chamber, means including parts
working cycle.
of said structure and parts of said system ar
Although the invention has been speci?cally de
scribed with reference to a preferred embodiment
thereof it is to be understood that it is not so
ranged in heat transfer relationship for utilizing
the heat of fuel combustion within said chamber
to vaporize the fuel traversing said system at a
limited since modi?cations and alterations can
be made therein which are within the full in
tended scope of the invention as de?ned by the
rate which increases as the temperature of said
structure increases from a given value, and means
included in said system for delivering combustible
10 fuel to said combustion chamber at a mass rate
appended claims.
I claim:
1. In a heater which includes a heat exchange
structure de?ning a fuel combustion chamber; a
which varies inversely with the rate at which the
fuel is vaporized by said last-named means.
liquid fuel supply system for delivering fuel to
structure de?ning a fuel combustion chamber, a
liquid fuel supply system for delivering fuel to
6. In a heater which includes a heat exchange
said combustion chamber, means for vaporizing
said combustion chamber, means including parts
a portion of the fuel traversing said system as the
of said structure and parts of said system ar
temperature of said structure rises above a given
ranged in heat transfer relationship for utilizing
value, and means included in said system for de
the heat of fuel combustion within said chamber
livering combustible fuel to said combustion
chamber at a mass rate which gradually decreases 20 to vaporize the fuel traversing said system at a
rate which increases as the temperature of said
with increase in the rate of vaporizing of said
structure increases from a given value, means in
fuel by said last-named means.
cluded in said system for delivering combustible
2. In a heater which includes a heat exchange
structure de?ning a fuel combustion chamber; a
fuel ‘to said combustion chamber at a mass rate
the fuel traversing said system at a rate which
increases as the temperature of said structure
means for circulating air through at least one
heat transfer zone between said structure and
liquid fuel supply system for delivering fuel to IC al which varies inversely with the rate at which the
fuel is vaporized by said last-named means, and
said combustion chamber, means for vaporizing
said system, thereby to prevent substantial va
increases from a given value, and means included
in said system for delivering combustible fuel to 30 porization of the fuel traversing said system until
the temperature ofv said structure exceeds said
said combustion chamber at a mass rate which
given value.
'
varies inversely with the rate at which the fuel
7. In a heater which includes a heat exchange
is vaporized‘ by said last-named means.
structure de?ning a fuel combustion chamber; a
3. In a heater which includes a heat exchange
structure de?ning a fuel combustion chamber; a DO U! liquid fuel pump and a conduit ?uid connected
with the inlet side of said pump, means includ
liquid fuel supply system for delivering fuel to
ing a part of said structure and a portion of
said combustion chamber, means including parts
said conduit arranged in heat transfer relation
of said structure and parts of saidsystem ar
ship for utilizing the heat of fuel combustion
ranged in heat transferrrelationship for utilizing
the heat of fuel combustion within said chamber 40 within said chamber to heat the fuel traversing
said conduit and thus produce at least partial
to vaporize a portion of the fuel traversing said
vaporization of said fuel within said pump, and
means comprising said pump for delivering com
bustible fuel to said combustion chamber at a
mass rate which gradually decreases with in
chamber at a mass rate which gradually decreases
crease in the rate of vaporizing of said fuel
with increase in the rate of vaporizing of said
within said pump.
fuel by said last-named means.
8.‘ In a heater which includes a heat exchange
4. In a heater which includes a heat exchange
structure de?ning a fuel combustion chamber; a
structure de?ning a fuel combustion chamber; a
liquid fuel supply system for delivering fuel to 50 liquid fuel pump and a conduit ?uid connected
with the inlet side of said pump, means including
said combustion chamber, means including parts
a part of said structure and a portion of said con
of said structure and parts of said system ar
system as the temperature of said structure rises
above a given value, and means included in said
system for delivering combustible fuel to said
ranged in heat transfer relationship for utilizing
the heat of fuel combustion within said chamber
to vaporize a portion of the fuel traversing said
system as the temperature of said structure rises
above a given value, means included in said sys
tem for delivering combustible fuel to said cham
ber at a mass rate which gradually decreases with
increase in the rate of vaporizing of said fuel
by said last-named means, and means for circu
lating air through at least one heat transfer zone
between said structure and said system, thereby
to prevent‘ the vaporization of the fuel traversing
said system until the temperature of said struc
ture exceeds said given value. p
‘
5. In a heater which includes a heat exchange
structure de?ning a fuel combustion chamber; a
duit arranged in heat transfer relationship for
utilizing the heat of fuel combustion within said
chamber to heat the fuel traversing said conduit
and thus produce at least partial vaporization of
said fuel within said pump, means comprising
said pump for delivering combustible fuel to said
combustion chamber at a mass rate which gradu
ally decreases with increase in the rate of vapor
izing of said fuel within said pump, and means
for circulating air through the zone of heat trans
fer between said part of said structure and said
portion of said conduit, thereby to prevent sub
stantial vaporizing of the fuelwithin said pump
' until the temperature of said structure exceeds a
predetermined value.
HARRY B. I-IOLTI-IOUSE.
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