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Патент USA US2406613

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Patented Aug. 27, 1946
Edward C. Lee, deceased, late of Chicago, 111., by
James T, Cullinan, administrator, Chicago, Ill.,
and Charles L. Thomas, Riverside, Ill., assign
ors to Universal Oil Products Company, Chi
cago, I_ll., a corporation of Delaware
No Drawing. Application March 30, 1944,
Serial No. 528,773
8 Claims. (01. 196-52)
_ This application is 1a continuation-in-part of . . The preferred catalysts for the process are char
our "co-pending application, Serial Number
243,261 ?led November 30, 1938, now Patent No.
acterized by selectivity in accelerating gasoline- '
forming reactions rather than light-gas-forming
reactions, by their selectivity in producing high
antiknock gasoline, by their refractory character
which enables them to retain their catalytic
properties over extended periods of time under
high temperature conditions of use and regenera
tion, by'their ease and simplicity of manufacture
2,347,648, May 2, 1944.
This invention. relates to the conversion of
hydrocarbons such as petroleum fractions and .,
hydrocarbonaceous oils generally including syn
thetic oils from numerous carbon-containing
sources. More particularly,jthe conversion in~
volves hydrocarbons which may be vaporized 10 and their exact reproducibility.
Without substantial decomposition.
In one embodiment the present invention com
prises subjecting petroleum fractions at elevated
More speci?cally the present invention involves '- "
temperatures and at atmospheric or relatively
low superatmospheric pressures to contact with
conversion of hydrocarbons in the presence of
speci?c types of catalytic materials which func
tion to selectively promote the formation of very 15 catalytic materials comprising composite masses
high antiknock gasoline. The preferred catalysts ; I of silica, alumina, and zirconia prepared byadd
ing solutions of aluminum and zirconium salts
are prepared synthetically by de?nite steps of
to a puri?ed precipitated silica, thereby hydro
procedure which are speci?c in the production
lytically absorbing aluminum and zirconium ions
of catalysts of high activity for prolonged use.
The art of pyrolytically cracking and reform 20 in said silica and forming alumina and zirconia
‘ing hydrocarbons to produce high antiknock
within said silica, thereby producing concurrent
gasoline is very extensive and it is recognized
' ly relatively high yields of high antiknock gaso—
that most of the basic principles involved are ‘
line and gascontaining high percentages of read
known and that particular commercial processes
have been developed which embody theseprin
On the other hand, where cracking and
reforming of hydrocarbons are .carried‘out cata
lytically, knowledge as to the application of cata
ily polymerizable ole?ns.’
25 '
According to the present invention hydrocar
bon fractions, for example, a petroleum gas oil,
cracked distillate or a straight-run gasoline may
be processed at temperatures of the usually high >
pressure pyrolytic cracking range but at sub
other catalytic ?elds, that is, it is largelyempiri 30 stantially lower pressure while in contact with
cal. A large number of catalysts tried out in 1,1 silica-alumina-zirconia catalysts prepared as
lysts is largely upon the same basis as it is in
cracking and reforming, operations accelerate
' hereinbefore set forth. The catalyst may be con
sidered to comprise an intimate molecular ad
than of high antiknockgasoline predominantly,
mixture of silica, alumina and zirconia, all of
this being particularly evidenced by reduced 35 the components of which indicate more or less
metal catalysts such as iron or nickel and also (1;) low activity individually but in the aggregate
display high activity. The activity is not an
certain metal oxide catalysts which accelerate
additive function, it being relatively constant for
principally dehydrogenation reactions. The re
a wide range of proportions of the components
duced metal catalysts, in particular, have the
disadvantage of being sensitive to sulfur poison 40 whether in molecular or fractions of molecular
reactions leading to the formation of gas rather
ing and are quickly coated with carbonaceous 1..., proportions. No one component can be deter
materials which render them practically inert. ‘ ' mined as the one component for which the re
maining components may be considered as the
This deposition of carbonaceous materials is fre
quently related to the typev of decomposition se
lectively accelerated by the catalyst.
promoters according to conventional terminology,
45 nor can any component be determined as the
The present invention is concerned withcon- . ;~
support and the others the catalyst proper.
The silica gel in which the aluminum and zir
verting hydrocarbon fractions in the presence of
conium ions are hydrolytically absorbed may be
catalytic materials which are speci?cally adapted
prepared by various methods. One of the most
to accelerate the conversion of petroleum frac
tionsand other hydrocarbonaceous materials so 50 convenient. methods of preparation is to acidify
as to produce large yields of high antiknock ; I an aqueous solution of sodium silicate by the ad
gasoline boiling range fractions together with
dition of an acid such ashydrochloric acid or
gaseous by-products which contain unusually
sulfuric acid. The excess acid and the concen
tration of the solution in which the precipitation
high percentages of readily polymerizable ole?ns
is brought about determine in some measure the
useful in further, increasing the gasoline yields.
suitability of the silica hydrogel for subsequent
absorption of the aluminum and zirconium ions.
In general, suitable hydrated silica may be pro
duced by-the use of dilute solutions of sodium
genating reactions are increased so that the gases
evolved contain larger percentages of hydrogen.
Further, the zirconia containing catalysts seem to
be more stable to high temperature regeneration
than the silica-alumina catalysts.
In general, aluminum and zirconium salts which
silicate and the addition of a moderate excess of
acid whereby the desired active silica gel is ob-' ,
are soluble in water to any great extent may be
tained and conditions of ?ltering and washing
employed ‘to effect the hydrolytic absorption of
are at an optimum.
the aluminum and zirconium ions. The nitrates,
After precipitating the silica it is treated and
washed to substantially remove alkali metal ions. 10 chloride and sulphates of aluminum and zirco
nium are particularly suitable.
It is not known whether the alkali metal ‘ions
the previous discussion, the aluminum and
such as sodium ions are present in the primary
zirconium ions were added to the silica gel in one
gel in chemical combination or in an adsorbed.
step. The broad invention is not limited to this
state but it has been de?nitely determined that
their removal is necessary if catalysts suitable 15 procedure since satisfactory catalysts have been
for prolonged use in accelerating hydrocarbon
prepared by compositing the aluminum ions ?rst
conversion reactions are to be obtained.
It is
. and subsequently adding the zirconium ions or
possible that the presence of the alkali metal
vice versa with or without intermediate heating
between the hydrolytic absorption operations.
impurities causes a sintering or fusion of the
surfaces of the catalyst at ‘elevated ‘temperatures 20
so that the porosity is much reduced with corre
‘ After the alumina and zirconia have been com
posited with vthe puri?ed hydrated silica gel and
water washed if desired, the catalytic material
sponding reduction in effective surface. Alkali
may be recovered as a ?lter cake and driedv at a
metal ions may be removed by treating with solu
moderately ‘elevated temperature after which it
tionsef acidic materials, ammonium salts gen
erally, ‘or salts of multivalent metals, vmore pref 25 may be tormed into particles .of various sizes
ranging from powders to granules or pelleted ma;
erably those of ‘aluminum and zirconium. when
treating with acids, as for example, with hydro
By calcining at temperatures of the order of
chloric acid or sulfuric acid, the acid extracts
approximately ‘508 to 1200“ F., and preferably 850
the alkali metal impurities in the ‘silica gel. The
salts formed and excess ‘acid are then substan 30 to 1900° F. maximum activity of the catalyst is
tially removed by water washing treatment.
‘\Where ammonium salts or salts of multivalent
metals are used, the ammonium or multivalent
metals apparently ‘displace the alkali metal im- ‘
obtained and a further dehydration occurs.
Catalysts prepared by the various types of ‘pro
cedures outlined evidently possess a large total
contact surface corresponding to a desirable
purities present in the composite, and the alkali 35 porosity, the pores :of the catalyst particles being
of such size and shape that they do not :become
metal salts formed together with a major portion
clogged with carbonaceous deposits after a long
of the multivalent salts are removed in the water
period of service, and are therefore not 'di?icult
washing treatment. ‘Theme of aluminum and
to reactivate by oxidation. This structure is also
irconium salts in the puri?cation treatment is
particularly bene?cial in that the puri?cation 40 retained after ‘many alternate periods of use and
reactivation as evidenced ‘by the fact that the
of ‘the silica gel and the hydrolytic ‘absorption of
catalyst may be repeatedly reactivated by passing
the aluminum and zirconium ions occur simul
air,_or other oxidizing ‘gas, over the spent particles
taneously. The washing treatment removes the
to burn off deposits of carbonaceous material at
excess of these salts but a su?icien-t amount is
retained to produce a catalytically active com 45 temperatures above 800° F., temperatures as high
as 11480-1600" F. having been reached without
posite. In the treatment with ammonium salts,
apparently affecting the vcatalytic activity. .
the small amounts of the said salts remaining
In accordance with the present invention the
after the washing operation may be driven ch
catalyst may be conveniently utilized .in cracking
in subsequent treatment at elevated tempera
tures. ‘The purified silica gel obtained from the 50 and reforming reactions as for example when
employed as ?lling material in tubes .or chambers
acid, ammonium salts and the salts of multi
in the form of small pellets tor granules in ?xed
va‘ient metals (other than aluminum and zir
bed relationship to the incoming reactants. All
conium) are added to a solutionof salts of alumi
ternatively the catalyst may be employed in a ?uid
and zirconium and hydrated alumina and
hydrated zirconia composited with the silica gel 55 bed or compact bed type of operation.
by hydrolysis with or without the use of heat.
In .the ?uidized operation the hydrocarbons are
passed upwardly through .a body of ?nely divided
catalyst causing the catalyst particles to be mo
tionalized in forming a fluid-like mass of catalyst.
vary more or less with precipitation, puri?cation, ratio components and the calcinationof the com 60 The catalyst .may be continuously withdrawn from
the reaction zone, regenerated, and returned to
posites. The ratio of the components may be
the reaction zone.
varied within wide limits, the limiting factor be
In the moving bed ‘type of operation the com
ing more in evidence with respect to small pro
pact bed may be continuously passed ‘concurrent
portions than with larger proportions with the ‘
1y or countercurrently to the incoming reactant
various components. In general it appears that
in the reaction zone and passed therefrom into a
1/2 to six mol percent of alumina and zirconia to
regeneration zone from which it is returned to
.gether with reference to silica may be considered
the reaction zone.
an ‘approximation of ‘the minimum proportions.
After the passage of the .oil vapors through the
Experience has indicated superior .results as .to
yields and octane number of gasoline product for 70 catalyst, the products from these operations, ei
ther ?xed bed, fluid, or compact moving ‘bed,
catalyst comprising silica, alumina and zirconia
may be separated into material unsuitable .for
as compared with silica-alumina or silica-zirconia
The character and e?iciency of the ultimately
prepared silica-alumina-zirconia catalyst will
catalysts. It has also been observed for some
charging stocks that as the amount of zirconia
is increased in a catalyst composite the dehydro
further cracking, insu?ieiently. converted frac
tions amenable to further catalytic cracking, gas
75 olineboiling range materials and gases. The in
terme'diate ‘fractions; may be returned to the .re
mode? of operation com‘
prises suspending the catalyst‘ in a stream or Toll
and treating said. suspension ‘under 'suitablecon
ditions of temperaturev andvpressure ‘to .produce
the -.desired~conversionreactions.
The charging'stock may compl'isei'hydi‘ocarbony
ligasnoil ias chargingstock,v a yield‘ of ‘28.7%.;by
volume of 400‘? F. end point'gasoline was obtained
~in1'a- once through operation' The octane num
ber‘ of the gasoline-being 79.7. Therewas also
produced 62%v by ivolume of the original charge
o'frreadily polymeriz'able :3 and 4 carbon ‘atom
We claim as our invention:
a. -
tial decomposition,- heavier hydrocarbonaceous
.‘:1-. A conversion‘ process'which' comprises sub
.jectingla"hydrocarbon oil at conversion _,condi_
materials which are not readily vaporized, or
generally, the high boiling as well as lower boil
prising silica, alumina and zirconia prepared by
fractions which are vaporizable without substan
tions to the action of a composite catalyst com
hydrolytically absorbing alumina and zirconia on
a puri?ed silica hydrogel and heating the result
as naphtha cuts, gasoline lacking in light and/or 15 ing mass to remove a major portion of its water
heavy ends, cracked gasoline, synthetic products,
2. A process for converting a hydrocarbon oil
etc., may be processed according to the present
heavier than gasoline to gasoline which comprises
subjecting said oil at cracking conditions to the
The normally gaseous fraction separated from
the gasoline product contains much larger pro 20 action of a composite catalyst comprising silica,
ing fractions. It should be recognized that hy
drocarbon mixtures of low antiknock value such
portions of readily polymerizable ole?ns,‘ more
alumina and zirconia prepared by hydrolytically
particularly propene and butenes, than are usu
ally experienced in ordinary thermal cracking "
silica hydrogel and heating the resulting mass to '
absorbing alumina and zirconia on a puri?ed
remove va major portion of its water content.
and these may be readily polymerized using ther
3. A process for reforming a gasoline fraction
mal and/or catalytic treatment to produce ad 25
which comprises subjecting said fraction at re
ditional yields of gasoline which may be blended
forming conditions to the action of a composite
if desired with the major gasoline product pro
catalyst comprising silica, alumina and zirconia
duced in the process. A number of polymerizing
prepared by hydrolytically absorbing alumina and
catalysts are generally known, particularly phOS
phoric acid deposited on siliceous adsorbent, and
zirconia on a puri?ed silica hydrogel and heating
the resulting mass to remove a major portion of
this and/or other polymerizing catalysts may be
its water content.
used to polymerize the above mentioned ole?ns.
4. A conversion process which comprises sub
The application of the present invention to
jecting a hydrocarbon oil at a temperature in
cracking and reforming of hydrocarbon fractions
besides being characterized by the presence of r the range of about 800° F. to about 1200” F.,
to the action of the composite catalyst compris
novel catalysts is further characterized by the
ing silica, alumina and zirconia prepared by hy
moderate operating conditions of temperature
and pressure. Temperatures employed in con
tact with the catalyst may be within the range
drolytically absorbing alumina and zirconia on
a puri?ed silica hydrogel and heating the result
of 700 to 1200° F. Substantially atmospheric 40 ing mass to remove a major portion of its water
5. A conversion process which comprises sub
up to 90 pounds per square inch or more may
jecting a hydrocarbon oil at conversion condi
be used, such pressures being somewhat governed
tions to the action of a composite catalyst pre
by ?ow conditions through the vaporizing and
pressure or moderate superatmospheric pressure
conversion zones and the subsequent fractionat
ing and collecting equipment.
The following example was given to indicate
pared by mixing a solution of an alkali metal
silicate with an acid to form a silica hydrogel,
treating said hydrogel with a'reactant capable of
the novelty and utility of the present invention
removing alkali metal ions from said gel, con- '
but is not intended that the invention be lim
ited to exact agreement with the data herein
after introduced.
aluminum and zirconium salts, precipitating alu
tacting the puri?ed hydrogel with a. solution of
mina and zirconia on said gel by hydrolysis of
said salts and heating the precipitated mass to
remove a major portion of its water content.
6. A conversion process which comprises sub
About 390 cc. of concentrated hydrochloric acid
and 815 cc; of solution was added to 568.4 grams 55 jecting a hydrocarbon oil at conversion condi
tions to the action of a composite catalyst pre
of sodium silicate (NazSiOsQHzO) in 3000 cc. of,
pared by mixing a solution of an alkali metal
water which gave a liquid which was de?nitely
silicate with an acid to form a silica hydrogel,
acidic to blue litmus. The ?lter cake was then
treating said hydrogel with a liquid capable of
slurried in 21/2 liters of water and ?ltered, this
washing treatment being repeated several times. 60 removing alkali metal ions from said gel, con- '
tacting the puri?ed hydrogel with a solution of
The ?lter cake was again slurried in 21/2 liters of
aluminum salt, precipitating alumina on said gel
water, after which 1/; equivalent of hydrochloric
by hydrolysis of said salt, contacting a composite
acid in 50 cc. of water was added. The precip
itate was ?ltered and this treatment again re
of silica and alumina with a solution of a zir
A ?lter cake was slurried in water and (55 conium salt, precipitating zirconia on said com
the washing treatment repeated until the wash
posite by hydrolysis of said salt and heating the
water was practically free from alkali metal salts.
The puri?ed silica was then slurried in a solution
of aluminum chloride hexahydrate and zirconium
precipitated mass to remove a major portion of
its water content.
7. A conversion process which comprises sub
nitrate dissolved in 4000 cc. of water. The ex 70 jecting a hydrocarbon oil at conversion condi
tions to the action of a composite catalyst pre
cess liquid was then drained by ?ltration and
pared by mixing a solution of an alkali metal
the cake dried at approximately 300° F. The
silicate with an acid to form a silica hydrogel
dried material was then pressed and sized into
treating said hydrogel with a reactant capable
6-10 mesh particles and subsequently calcined at
approximately 932° F. Using a Pennsylvania 75 of removing alkali metal ions from said gel, con
‘mating the purified hydrogel with a solution of
a “zirconium :sait, ‘precipitating zirconia on said v
gel ‘by ‘hydrolysis of ‘said “salt, contacting the com-l
iposite of silica. and ziroonia."
.a solution ‘of
an aluminum salt ‘and depositing aium‘inazonssaid '
rconrposite by hydrolysis of the ‘aluminium salt,
and heating the precipitated mass to remove a
the presence of a, catalyst 'oomprising silica, {allu
mina and zirconia prepared :by hydrolysis ‘of an
aluminum salt and a zirconium salt incontact
with a :silica .gel' and heating the silica. contain
the thus .hydrolytioaliy deposited aluminarand
:zirconia to remove ‘water.
major portion of its ‘water content.
' ‘Administrator of the Estate '03‘ Edward
IL A conversion :process 'whichicomprises sub
j'ecting hydrocarbons to conversion conditions :in 10
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