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_ ' Ang. 27,1946.
M_ W',
LENSNER I
- 2,406,615 `
CARRIER-CURRENT `RELAYING
Filed D ec.
8? 1942 '
Fece/rer
�
-
:I IZ] III F
� Compo'
/aa? /zo' 60� of so? /zo? llo? 縤ne Car:
INVENTOR '
I Herbe/?f NAf/_7506A
ATroRNEY
'1
Patented 纔g. 27, 1946
2,466,615
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,406,615
v
CARRIER-CURRENT RELAYING
Herbert W. Lensner, East Orange, N. J., assignor
to Westinghouse Electric Corporation, East
Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application December 8, 1942, Serial No. 468,237
20 Claims.
1
(Cl. 175-294)
2
My invention relates to protective relaying
systems for alternating-current lines, and par
ticularly to that type of protective system in which
line-current deriving-means which furnished the
half-Waves from the relaying end of the protected
section. This previously known Lenehan sys
a comparison is made to determine the relative
phase-angles between the line-currents at oppo
site ends of the protected line籹ection. More par
ticularly, my invention relates to systems in
which the alternate half-cycles of the line-cur
tern also sull'ered the disadvantage of utilizing a
buzzing or intermittently operating tripping-relay
which is supplied with alternate half-cycles ci
operating and restraining energy, upon the oc
currence of a line-fault of a type and location re~
rent at one end of the line-section are compared
quiring atripping-operation of the relay.
with the alternate half-cycles of the line-current 10
The object of my present invention is to provide
at the other end. My invention relates to im
an improved form of half-cycle current~comparprovements which are particularly adapted to
ing type of relay-protection which is particularly
means for ei頴cting this alternate-half -cycle cur
adapted for carrier-current relaying, and which
rent~comparison through the medium of carrier
avoids the above-mentioned disadvantages oi all
current superimposed upon the protected line 15 previously available protective relaying systems
section.
of this type,
'
Means have been known, heretofore, for caus
ing carrier-current transmission during alter
nate half-cycles of the line-current at both ends
Among the more speci馽 objects of my inven
tion may be mentioned the utilization of a relay
which responds to the overall magnitude of, or
of the protected line-section, as shown, for ex 20 amount of energy in?a succession of half-waves
ample, in a Lenehan Patent 2,275,971, granted
of line-current derived from the two ends of a
May 10, 1942, and assigned to the Westinghouse
protected line-section, or a relay-response to the
Electric & Manufacturing Company. In this pre
succession of half-cycle current-impulses, inte
viously known system, however, the received car
grated over` a period of time which is at least
rier-current energy was utilized to restrain a dif
25 equal to considerably over one-half oi" a line-ire
ferential relay, the operating-coil of which was
quency cycle, so that the tripping-relay is sup
intermittently energized in response to the alter
plied with a substantially continsuous lioW oi
nate half-cycles of the line-current at the relay
operating-energy, thus avoiding ?buzzing or in
ing point, so that the relay was forced to oper
termittent relay-operation. This integration oi
ate, Within a time which was considerably less
the intermittent current, or production of a con
than a half-cycle, whenever the operating force
stant or continuous relay-controlling force, is
derived from the relaying end of the line-section
conveniently obtained by means of a rectifier,
was not momentarily oiiset by an adequate re
which smooths out the alternating-current pul
ceiver~current received by way of carrier from
sations, and produces a continuous current which
the alternate half-cycles of the line-current at
may
be made as free from ripples as may be de~
35
the other end of the protected line-section.
sirablel under all of thev circumstances.
When the protected transmission~line was a
A second specific object of my invention may
three-phase line, which is the usual case, advan
be cited as comprising the expedient of utiliz
tage has been taken of any one of several known
ing the intermittent or pulsating current, which
line-current deriving-means for deriving a
is produced by combining the half~waves from
40
single-phase line-frequency current which is com
the line-currents at the two ends oi the pro�
positely responsive to all of the phases of the
tected section, as the sole discriminatory operat~
polyphase line-current, as shown, for example,
ing-source for producing an operating-force in
in the aforesaid Lenehan patent, which utilizes a
the relay, as distinguished from a relay which
so-oalled ?type HCB? phase-sequence network 45 utilizes these pulsatory currents in a restraint
i
which is described and claimed in a Harder Pat
element for at times blocking the operation of
ent 2,183,646, granted December 19, 1939, and
the relay under the iniiuence of an intermittently
also assigned to the Westinghouse Electric &
energized operating-coil.
Manufacturing Company.
l
A still more speci馽 object of my invention
In the previously known relaying system as 50 relates to a system of the type described, in which
shown in the aforesaid Lenehan patent, difli
thev received unipotential impulses derived from
culties have been encountered because of difier
alternating half-cyclesoi timeline-current of both
ences in saturation between the carrier-current
ends ofthe protected section are modified so as
equipment which furnished the half-waves. _from
to select only the alternating-current component
Vthe other end of the protected section, and the _55 thereof, and this alternating-current component
:�6,615
3
is utilized to energize the tripping-relay. This
feature can be utilized either with, or without,
the intermediary of a rectifier for smoothing out
the operating-force of the relay and for making
it possible to utilize polarized, or direct-current,
relays having a low energy-requirement.
A further obj ect of my invention has to do With
28 of the saturating transformer I'I, to cause the
transformer-output to be in the form of substan
tially fiat-topped Waves of a magnitude which is
substantially or approximately constant, within
the utilization of the half-cycle carrier-current
transmission at the relaying end of the line-sec
tion to derive the intermittent half-cycle line
current pulsations from said relaying end, as well
as from the other end of the protected line-sec
ficulties resulting from the differences in satura
tion between the carrier-current equipment and
the line-current deriving-means, in previous sys
tems in which the tripping relay was supplied
with energy which was derived directly from the
line-current deriving-means at the relaying end.
A still further object of my invention has to do
with the provision of a novel carrier-controlling
are also preferably shunted by a constant or
linear resistance 2 I.
In the illustrated form of embodiment of my
invention, an intermediate tap 22 on the sec
ondary Winding of the network-transformer I'l is
utilized to energize a rectiiier-bridge 23 which, in
turn, energizes a fault-detector FD having a
make-contact which is suiliciently identified by
being designated with the relay-designation FD.
This particular fault-detector connection is in
tended to be representative of any suitable type
of fault-detector.
In the illustrated embodiment or" my invention,
as shown, the output-terminals I9 and 23 of the
tolerable limits, over a considerable range of oper
ating
conditions.
The
output-terminals
or
secondary-circuit Iii-28 of the transformer I'I
tion, thereby avoiding previously `encountered dif
means utilizing a saturating amplifier-tube, ex
line-current network-transformer Il are utilized
cited in response to alternate half-cycles of the
to energize a saturating amplifier-tube 26, illus
line-current, to produce substantially square
topped unipotential waves of plate-current energy
trated as comprising a cathode 2l, a grid 28, a
screen 29, and an anode or plate 38. Thus, the
amplifier-grid 28 is connected, through a re
for the oscillator-tube of the carrier-current
transmitter, thus producing square-topped car
sistance 3 I, to the transformer-terminal I9; while
the ampli馿r-cathode 2l is connected, through a
biasing resistor 32, to a cathode-circuit 33, and
operating conditions, the word ?wave? bein-g uti 30 thence through the fault-detector contact FD, to
lized here, and elsewhere in this specification, in
the other transformer-terminal 20, which is also
a sense broad enough to include the idea of a
connected, at 34, to the negative terminal (_) of
rier-waves which have a magnitude which is sub
stantially constant over a considerable range of
block of electrical energy, Whether unipotential or
oscillatory. Where a saturated amplifier-tube is
.utilized to supply the plate-current energy for the
oscillator, the saturating characteristics of this
a suitable source of plate-current energy for the
amplifier-tube 26. The amplifier-plate 3D is con
� nected, through the primary Winding 35 of a
transformer 36, to the positive terminal (-l-) oi?
the plate-voltage source. The primary winding
amplilier-tube may readily be caused to match
the saturating characteristics of the saturating
receiver-tube which is commonly utilized in car
rier-current receivers for protective relaying
35 of the transformer 35 is shunted by a capacitor
3l and a resistor 38 which assist in controlling the
wave-form of the current in the transformer 36,
so as to give this wave-form a substantially flat
apparatus.
topped shape. The ampliiier-screen 29 is also
connected to the positive battery-terminal (-l-l
as shown at 39. The amplifier-tube 26 is prefer
ably operated 韓 its saturating range of current
With the foregoing and other objects in view,
my invention consists in the combinations, sys
tems, methods, apparatus, and parts of apparatus,
hereinafter described and claimed, and illustrated
in the accompanying drawing, wherein
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view of circuits and
apparatus illustrating an embodiment of my
invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram of the direct
current connections, and
Figs. 3 to 9 are curve-diagrams which will be
referred to in the explanation of my invention.
I have illustrated my invention as being ap
plied to the protection of one end of a three
phase transmission-line section II, the three
phase-conductors being distinguished by the let
ters A, B and C. rf?he line-section I I is connected,
values, so that whenever its grid 28 reaches a
critical potential which is not too negative with
respect to said cathode, the plate-current will
rapidly rise to its saturated, or substantially con
50
stant, steady-state value.
The cathode-circuit 33 of the saturating ampli
Iier-tube 26 is normally biased to a positive poten
tial, by being connected to the positive terminal
(-i-) through a resistor 48, so that the ampliiier
tube 28 is normally inoperative. When the fault
detector FD responds, it shifts the potential of
the cathode-circuit 33 to negative, by connecting
said circuit directly to the negative bus <--) , thus
applying the bus-potential to the anode-cathode
through a circuit breaker I2, to a bus I3. As
shown, the circuit breaker I2 is provided with a
circuit of the tube, so that the tube will pass cur
trip-coil TC and an auxiliary switch IZa, which 60 rent, except when its grid 28 is made sufficiently
negative by reason of the voltage impressed on it
opens during the opening-operation of the
from the output-terminals lil-_20 of the line
breaker. A line-current deriving-means is pro
current network-transformer I'I.
vided, in the form of a bank of line-current trans
The flat-topped unipotential waves of plate
formers I 4, and a composite-phase network desig
65
nated HCB, having output-terminals I5 and IS
current of the saturating ampli馿r 26 are deliv
in which there flows a derived single-phase line
ered, through the secondary Winding 4I of the
frequency current. The derived current of the
transformer 36 to the oscillator-tube 42 of a car
HCB network is supplied to the primary winding
rier-current transmitter, to serve as a source of
of a transformer I'I which may be of a saturated
70 plate-current energy, or plate-voltage, therefor,
type for limiting the magnitude of the output
The oscillator-tube 42 is illustrated as having a
under fault-current conditions. The magnitude
cathode 43, a grid 44, a screen 45 and a plate or
of the transformer-output can be further limited
anode 46. One terminal 41 of the transformer
by a voltage-limiting neon glow-tube I8, which is
secondary 4I is connected, through a high-fre
connected across the secondary terminals I9 and 75 quency choke-coil 48, to the anode 46 of the os
�6,615
cillator-tube 42.
6
The oscillator-cathode 43 is
ing is connected to the receiverv-gr韉 le. This
secondary Winding 88 is also shunted by a tun
directly connected to the cathode-.circuit 33 of
the saturating amplilier 26, so that this cathode
circuit 33 is also the cathode-circuit of the oscil
lator-tube i12. The oscillator-grid is connected
to this cathode-.circuit 33 through a grid-resistor
5G. The plate-circuit terminal lll of the trans
former-secondary 4l is directly connected to the
oscillator-screen i5, The oscillator-plate 46 is
also connected, through a blocking-capacitor 5l,
ing-capacitor 89.
tive bus (-1-) through the primary winding 90
of a coupling-transformer 9i, which is designed
to segregate, or selectively respond to, the alter
hating-current component of the plate-current
of the receiver. If desired, the coupling-trans
former Si may be made to respond to a selected
one oi the alternating-current components of the
to a tuned circuit 52 which comprises a variom
eter 53 and three capacitors 54, 55 and 56, all
receiver plate-current, but I have illustrated it
in the simplest, possible form, as simply respond
ing 'to the alternating-current component or
v
components, substantially all of them, to the
exclusion of the direct-current component, the
latter being ineffective to produce any trans
former-voltage in the transformer. A high-fre
quency by-passing capacitor 92 is connected in?
20 shunt around the primary winding Si) to provide
a path for the radio-frequency current and keep
connected in series with each other in a closed
circuit.
One terminal of the variometer 5,3 is
connected tothe blocking capacitor 5i, whilethe
other terminal of the variometer53 is connect.
ed to the oscillator-grid 44 as shown at. 5l.
The junetionepoint between the .two capaci
tors 55 and 53 of the tuned oscillator-circuit 52
is directly connected to the cathode-circuit 33.
These two capacitors 55 and 5S, are matched ca
pacitors, utilized as sources of equal radio-fre
quency voltages, their other terminals being con
nected, through blocking-capacitors 58 and 5S',
respectively, to the grids 59, 59? of two push-pull
amplifier tubes 69, 6d?. 'rhe @athenes el, sl' of ?
the two amplifier-tubes ed, 5t? are connected to
gether at 52, and connected to the cathode-cir
cuit 33 through a biasing resistor 63... The two
amplifier-grids 5s and 5S? are similarlyconnect
ed to the cathode-circuit 33 through two grid-re
sistors 611 and e4?. The plates of the amplifier
tubes 66, et? are connected to the respective ter
minals of the primary winding 65 oi a radio-fre
quency transformer
The transformer-pri
mary 65 has a midpoint-tap which .is connected,
at �, to ,the positive .battery-terminal (_i-l,
which is also connected to the screens of the two
.
The receiver-anode 80 is connected to the posi
it out of the transformer.
The coupling transformer 9| has a secondal?y
winding 93, which is utilized to energize an over
voltage relay OV, which is designed to respond
to the amount of energy in the segregated alter
hating-current component, integrated over a
complete cycle, or over a period of time which is
at least equal to considerably over one-half of a
line-frequency cycle, so as to respond to the
magnitude of this alternating-current compo
nent, or to either an average value or a root
mean-square value of this component. I prefer
to utilize a recti馿r-means, which is symbolical
ly illustrated as a rectifier-bridge 94, which is in
terposed between the secondary winding S3 and
the operating-coil of the over-voltage relay OV.
This rectifier serves as a means for more or less
amplifier-tubes Ell, 5G', The midpoint-tap 51 is
smoothing out the pulsations which are typical
also coupled to the two ampli馿r-.cathodes 6l, 40 of the alternating-current energy, and produce
Gi', through a. blocking-.capacitor S8.
a fairly smooth or continuous voltage or energy
The output of the radio-frequency transform
source for energizing the overvoltage relay OV,
er 5S is coupled to one of the conductors C of the
protected line-.section ll, by means of a second
while at the sa e time making it possible to
utilize any one of a number of well-known types
ary winding
of said radio-frequency transf
of sensitive direct-current relays for the over
former. One terminal lll or" this secondary 4:5 voltage relay OV, thus reducing >the energy-re
winding t9 is grounded, and a tap ?ll is provided
to energize a var韔meter 'l2 which is connected,
at i3, to a coupling-capacitor 74 which is con
nected to the phase-C line-conductor. The con
quirement or drain on the anode-circuit or" the
receiver 16.
I
The overlying relay OV is illustrated as being
directly utilized as a tripping relay, having a
50
necting-point 'i3 is also connected to ground
make-contact which is sufliciently distinguished
through a choke-coil 75.
by being designated with the relay-designation
In addition to the carrier-current transmitter,
OV. This OV make-contact is illustratori as be�
which has just been described, I also provide a
ing connected between the negative battery-tel.
carrier-current receiver, which is illustrated as
55 minal (-) and the trip-circuit 95, through the
comprising a saturating receiver-tube 76, having
a cathode ll, a grid '13, aA screen 19, and a plate
or anode 8o. The receiver-cathode 'I'l is con
nected, at 8l, to a suitable source of negative po
tential, indicated as being a tap on a potentiom
eter 縧2 which is energized from the battery-ter
minals (-}-) and (_). The receiver-grid 'I8 is
energized, through a coupling-transformer 83,
from a tap 84 on the secondary winding 59 of the
serially connected operating-coil of a contacter
switch CS which has make-contacts which seal
in, and close a bypassing-circuit around the? deli
cate OV contacts. The trip-circuit 35 energizes
60 the tripping-coil TC of the line circuit-breaker l2,
through the auxiliary breaker-switch lZa, the
circuit being completed at the positive battery
terminal (+).
The operation of the `lustrated embodiment
Thus, one ter
of my invention may now be described. The cur
minal of the primary winding 85 of the coupling 65 rent-transformers I4 and the phase-sequence
transformer
is connected to the tap-point 84,
selecting network HCB derive a line-- ?equency
while the other terminal of said primary winding
current from the illustrated end of the protected
is connected to the ground-point ?it through a
line-section ll. It will be understood that the
tuning-capacitor 93. The primary winding 85 is
same or similar equipment will be utilized at both
also shunted by a voltage-limiting neon� glow
ends of the protected line-section, only one end
tube 8l. The secondary winding 88 of the cou
being illustrated. ri?he single-phase line-current
pling-transformer S3 has one of vits terminals
responsive voltage appearing across the net
connected to `the negative battery-terminal� ~(--) ,
work-terminals |5--l5 is preferably niodi馿d so
While the other 'terminal of said secondary wind -75 as to. have both a limited amplitude or magnitude
radio-frequency transformer
2,406,615
-and a square-topped wave-form, these limiting
functions being performed by reason of the sat
urating characteristic of the network-trans
former I1, and the voltage-limiting character
istic of the neon glow-lamp I8, the result of which
is to produce, in the output-terminals lil-_20, a
substantially square-topped alternating-current
wave-form which is of a magnitude which re
8
which is a duplicate of the end shown. The re'
ceiver-tube 16 is also operated in a saturating
range, so that any plate-current which it passes
will, in general, be the saturating current, or the
maximum current which the tube is capable of
passing, the tube quickly achieving this satur
ated condition soon after its grid-Voltage is built
up, in the positive direction, beyond the value at
which the tube 駌st commences to conduct any
a considerable operating-range of various mag 10 current at all. The tube is protected, and also
assisted in its function of holding its output
nitudes of fault-currents, so as to respond fairly
current to a constant saturation-value, by the
uniformly to line-faults of different types and
excess-voltage neon glow-tube 81 in the radio
severity.
mains substantially or workably constant through
there is no fault on the transmission-line, the
frequency input-circuit of the tube, which serves
to prevent extreme excesses of radio-frequency
protective equipment is inoperative. The open
fault-detector contact FD keeps the cathode 21
of the saturating-amplifier 26 disconnected from
the negative terminal of its plate-voltage source,
jacent transmitter at the same station as the
receiver.
During normal line-conditions, that is, when
input-energy when the receiver-tube is respond
ing to the radio-frequency output of the ad
The operation is illustrated in Figs. 3 to 9. Fig.
3 shows the oscillator plate-voltage which is im
pressed upon the anode-cathode circuit of the
of the resistance-connection 40. At the same
oscillator tube 42 by the coupling-transformer 36
time, the open fault-detector contact FD per
which is energized from the saturating ampli馿r
forms a similar service for the two ampliner
tubes 60, 60' of the carrier-current transmitter, 25 26. This causes carrier-current to be generated,
and transmitted onto the line-section, during the
so that no current is being passed through these
positive half-cycles of the oscillator plate-volt
tubes. The oscillator-tube 42 is inoperative, un
age, as shown in Fig. 4.
der these conditions, because it receives no plate
If the fault is an internal fault, that is, one
circuit energy from the transformer 36 which is
coupled to the saturating amplifier 26. At the 30 located within the con駈es of the protected line
section Il, carrier-current is sent out, or trans
same time, that is, during standby conditions for
mitted, on the same half-cycle from both ends,
the carrier-current equipment, when there is no
and this is received at both ends, since both of
fault on the transmission line, the receiver-tube
the
transmitters operate on the same carrier
16 is held in an inoperative condition, so that it
passes no plate-current, by reason of the fact 35 current frequency, and, of course, the receivers
are tuned to that frequency. Under these in
that its grid 16 is held at a potential more nega
ternal-fault conditions, the receiver plate-cur
tive than its cathode 11, the grid being con
rent consists of a succession of nat-topped uni
nected directly to the negative terminal (_)
potential half-waves, occurring on alternate
through the low resistance of the secondary wind
half-cycles of the line-frequency current, as
ing 88, while the cathode 11 is connected to a 40 shown in Fig. 5. The alternating-current com
more positive potential on the potentiometer 82.
ponent of this receiver-current is delivered by
When a fault occurs on the transmission line,
the alternating-current-segregating transformer
either within the limits of the protected line
9|, as shown in Fig. 6, which represents the cur
section Il, or outside of said section, it is prefer
rent or Voltage to which the overvoltage tripping
able to utilize a sensitive fault-detector, sym
relay OV responds, it being understood that this
bolized by the element FD, to apply plate-voltage
overvoltage relay responds to a predetermined
to the tubes 26, 60 and 60', by the closure of the
overall
or integrated magnitude of this alternat
fault-detector contact FD, and at the same time
ing-current
component, rather than to the in
to connect the output-terminals l9-20 of the
dividual half-cycles of the alternating-current
line-current deriving-means in a circuit between 50
pulsations.
the grid and the cathode of the saturating am
During an external fault, that is, a fault lo
pliiier-tube 26, so that the alternating-current
cated outside of the protected line-section Il,
voltage of the line-current deriving-means may
the?line current enters the line-section at one
be impressed upon the amplifier grid 28. The
negative half-cycles of this voltage make the 55 end, and leaves it at the other end, so that the
two carrier-current transmitters transmit on
grid more negative with respect to the cathode,
alternate half-cycles of vthe line-current fre
and block the 駉w of plate-current through the
quency, so that the grid 18 of the carrier-current
tube, but the positive half-cycles are selectively
receiver 'I6 receives carrier-current energy sub
responded to by the tube, to cause the ilovv of the
stantially continuously, producing a receiver
saturation-current of the tube, or the maximum 60
plate-current which is substantially a constant
current which the tube is capable of passing
direct current, being illustrated, in Fig. 7, as
through its anode-cathode circuit. This pro
dropping to zero for a very brief instant at the
duces a square-topped current-wave which may
end of each half-cycle of the line-frequency
be applied directly to the oscillator-tube 42, but is
shown as being applied thereto through a volt 65 current. The alternating-current component of
this receiver-current is very small, as shown in
age-changing transformer 36. The oscillator
Fig. 8, and its average value, which is obtained
tube 42 thereupon receives plate-circuit energy
by means of the rectifier 94, is also very small,
during alternate half -cycles of the line-frequency
even though the alternating-current component
current, impressing carrier-current energy on the
may have very brief negative peaks as shown in
line through the line-coupling capacitor 14.
70 Fig. 8. The average value of this alternating
The receiver 16 receives or responds to all of
current component, during external faults, is be
the carrier-current which is impressed upon the
low the setting of the overvoltage relay OV, and
protected line-section Il, either at the relaying
hence produces no relay-operation.
end, which is illustrated, or at the other end of
the line-section, which is not illustrated, but 75 While I have discussed the ideal case in which
while the said cathode 21 is held at the potential
of the positive battery-terminal (-{-), by reason
2,406,615
the fault-currents which appear in the pro
tected line-section at the respective ends there
of are either absolutely in phase with each other,
10
籺he combination, with an alternating-current
transmission-line section having circuit-inter
rupting means to be protectively controlled, of
protecting relaying-apparatus including line
or exactly 180� out of phase with each other, my
relaying system is accurately operative _for the 5 current deriving-means at each end of the line
intermediate phase-angle conditions between
section for deriving a line-frequency current
these extremes, which are obtained under cer
from that end of the line-section, means for at
tain conditions in actual practice. Thus, Fig. 9
times selectively producing, at at least one and
shows the root-mean-square voltage which is
the same end of the line-section, a succession of
produced in the receiver-current segregating 10 discrete impulses of electrical energy in response
transformer 9|, as the line-current at the oppo
to alternate half-cycles of the two line-frequency
site end of the protected line-section varies in
currents which are derived from the two ends of
phase-angle with respect to the line-current at
the line-section, each half-cycle response being
the relaying end. When the two line-currents
responsive to a substantially full half-cycle of
are 180� out of phase with each other, that is,
the current which controls that response, and a
with current flowing into the line-section at both
relay means, at at least one end of the line-sec
ends thereof, which is the condition for an in
ternal fault, the transformer secondary-voltage,
or the alternating-current component of the re
ceiver plate-current, is a maximum as shown in
Fig. 6 and at the 180� points in Fig. 9. As the
phase-angle between .the two-line currents at
opposite ends of the protected section becomes
less and less, the plate-current of the receiver
continues to be a succession of discrete, 馻t
topped unipotential waves, each wave having a
time-phase and a duration dependant upon the
tion, responsive to a predetermined condition of
said succession of discrete impulses of electrical
energy, integrated over a period of time which is
at least equal to considerably over one-half of
a line-frequency cycle, for exercising a control
over the circuit-interrupting means at its end of
the line-section.
?
,
2. A protective relaying system, comprising the
combination, with an alternating-current trans
mission-line section having circuit-interrupting
phase-angle between the line-currents, starting
means to be protectively controlled, of protecting
with a duration of substantially one line-fre
riving-means at each end of the line-section for
'deriving a line-frequency current from that end
of the line-section, means for at times selectively
quency half-cycle, as shown in Fig. 5, and chang
ing to a duration only slightly less than two line
frequency half-cycles, as shown in Fig. 7, when
the line-current phase-angle becomes zero, which
is the condition for an external fault. At the
same time, the secondary-voltage of the segre
relaying-apparatus including line-current de
producing, at at least one and the same end oi
the line-section, a succession of discrete im
pulses of electrical energy in response to alter
nate half-cycles of the two line-frequency cur
gating-transformer Si gradually changes, Until
rents which are derived from the two ends of the
it reaches a minimum value when the two line
line-section, each half-cycle response being re
currents are in phase with each other, corre
sponsive to a substantially full half-cycle of the
sponding to an external-fault condition,'as shown
current which controls that response, rectifier
at the 0� point in Fig. 9.
40 means at at least one end of the line-section,
Fig. 9 also shows that the response is not af
energized from said succession of discrete im
fected by the line-attenuation to the carrier
pulses, and means having a control-circuit .ener
current signal which is received from the far
gized from said recti馿r-means for exercising a
end of the protected line-section. Thus, two
control over the circuit-interrupting means at its
curves, 96 and 91, are shown, the full-line curve
end of the line-section.
SS representing the response obtained when the
3. A protective relaying system, comprising the
carrier-current impulses received from the op
combination, with an alternating-current trans
posite end of the line-section are strong, with
mission-line section having circuit-interrupting
`only a lll-decibal attenuation, while the dotted
means to be protectively controlled, oi protecting
curve Sl shows the alternating-current receiver
relaying-apparatus including line-current deriv
component for a greater attenuation of 26
ing-means at each end of the line-section for
decibels. The over-voltage relay OV may read
deriving a line-frequency current from that end
ily be adjusted to trip when the phase-difference
of the line-section, means for at times selectively
between the two line-currents reaches any de
producing, at at least one and the same end of
sired value. For example, if the pick-up point
the line-section, a succession of discrete impulses
of the over-voltage relay is set for about 17 volts,
of electrical energy in response to alternate hali
RMS, corresponding to approximately a 90-de
cycles of the two line-frequency currents which
gree phase-angle between the line-currents at
are derived from the two ends of the line-section,
the opposite ends of the protected line-section,
each half-cycle response being responsive to a
the response of the overvoltage relay will be sub
60 substantially full half-cycle of the current which
stantially independent of the line-attenuation,
controls that response, and a relay-means, at
for all values of attenuation under 25 decibels.
at least one end of the line-section, for exercis
While I have illustrated my invention in a
ing a control over the circuit-interrupting means
single preferred form of embodiment, and while
I have explained it in accordance with my best
present understanding of its operating-principles,`
l'. wish it to be understood that my invention is
by no means limited to this precise form of em
bodiment, nor do I care to limit it absolutely to
the extent of my present understanding of the
same. I desire, therefore, that the appended
claims shall be accorded the broadest construc
tion consistent with their language.
at its end of the line-section, characterized by
said relay-means having a relay-actuating con
trol-means for developing a relay-operating force
suf馽ient to change the relay-means from a
normal inactive condition to an actuated opera
tive condition in response to a predetermined
variation in said succession of discrete impulses
of electrical energy as a result of variations in
the phase-angle relation between the line-ire
quency currents which are derived from opposite
I claim as my invention:
ends of the line section.
l. A protective relaying system, comprising 75 4. A protective relaying system, comprising the
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combination, with an alternating-current trans- ?
mission-line section having circuit-interrupting
means to be protectively controlled, of protecting
relaying-apparatus including line-current deriving-means at each end of the line-section for de
riving a line-frequency current from that end
of the line-section, means for at times selectively
producing, at at least one and the same end of
combination, with an alternating-玞urrent trans
mission-line section having circuit-interrupting
means to be protectively controlled, of protect
ing relaying-apparatus including line-current
derivingfmeans at each end of the line-section
for 籨eriving a line-frequency current from that
end of the line-section, means including cur
rent~llmiting means at each end of the line-sec�
tion for at times selectively producing, at at least
the line-section, a succession of discrete impulses
of electrical energy in response to alternate half~ 10 one and the same end of the line-section, a suc
cession of substantially flat-topped Waves, of a
cycles of the two line-frequency currents which
magnitude which is substantially constant over
are derived from the two ends of the line-section,
a considerable range of operating conditions, in
each half~cycle response being responsive to a
response to alternate half~cycles of the line-fre
substantially full half-cycle of the current which
quency current which is derived from its own end
controls that response, and a relay-means, at
of the line-section, each half-cycle response being
at lease one end of the line-section, for exercis
responsive to a substantially full half-cycle of the
ing a control over the circuit-interrupting means
current which controls that response, means, at
at its end of the line-section, characterized by
at least one end of the line-section, for combin
said relay-means having a source of relay-con
ing the waves which are derived from opposite
trolling electrical energy which is obtained from
ends of the line-section so that the waves are
said succession of discrete impulses of electrical
energy and from no other derived line~currents.
all in the same polarity, and a relay-means re
5. A protective relaying system, comprising the
sponsive to a predetermined condition of the
combined Waves, integrated over a period of time
combination, With an alternating-current trans�
mission-line section having circuit-interrupting 25 vwhich is at least equal to considerably over one
half of a line-frequency cycle, for exercising a
means to be protectively controlled, of protect
ing relaying-apparatus including lineecurrent de�
control over the circuit-interrupting means at its
riving-means at each end of the line-section for
end of the line-section.
8. A protective relaying system, comprising the
deriving a line-frequency current from that end
of the line-section, means including current-lim 30 combination, with an alternating-current trans
mission-line section having circuit-interrupting
iting means at each end of the line-section for at
times selectively producing, at at least one and
means to be protectively controlled, of protecting
relaying~apparatus including line-current deriv
the same end of the line~section, a succession of
substantially 馻t~topped waves, of a magnitude
ing-means at each end of the line~section for
which is substantially constant over a consider 35 deriving a line-frequency current from that end
able range of operating conditions, in response to
of the line-section, current-limiting means at
alternate half-cycles of the line-frequency cur
each end of the line-section for at times selec
tively producing a succession of substantially
rent which is derived from its own end of the line
section, each half-cycle response being respon
flat-topped waves, of a magnitude which is sub
sive to a substantially full half-cycle of the cur
stantially constant over a considerable range of
rent which controls that response, means, at at
operating conditions, in response to alternate
least one end of the line-section, for combining
half-cycles of the line-frequency current which
the Waves which are derived from the two ends of
is derived from its own end of the line-section,
the line-section, and a relay-means responsive to
means for combining the waves which are derived
a predetermined condition of the combined waves,
from opposite ends of the line-section so that
integrated over a period of time which is at least
the waves are all in the same polarity, means for
equal to considerably over one-half of a line-fre
substantially segregating an alternating~current
quency cycle, for exercising a control over the
component from the direct-current component
circuit-interrupting means at its end of the line
of the combined waves, and means selectively re� _
section.
50 sponsive to the segregated alternating-current
6. A protective relaying system, comprising the
component for exercising a control over the cir
combination, with an alternating-current trans
cuit-interrupting means at its ends of the line~
mission-line section having circuit~interrupting
section.
means 'to be protectively controlled, of protect
9. The invention as defined in claim 8, char~
ing relaying-apparatus including line-current de
acterized by the substantially flat-topped waves
riving-means at each end of the line-section for
which are derived from the respective ends of
deriving a line-frequency current from that end
the line-section being each of a duration of ap
of the line-section, current-limiting means at
proximately one-half of a line-frequency cycle.
each end of the line-section for at times selec�
10. A protective relaying system, comprising
tively producing a succession of substantially ilat
the combination, with an alternating-current
60
topped waves, of a magnitude which is substan
transmission-line section having circuit-inter
tially constant over a considerable range of op
rupting means to be protectively controlled, oi
erating conditions, in response to alternate half
protecting relaying-apparatus including line-cur~
cycles of the line~frequency current which is de
rent deriving-means at each end of the line-sec
rived from its own end of the line-section, means, 65 tion for derivingr a line-frequency current from
at at least one end of the line-section, for com
that end of the line-section, means including
bining the waves which are derived from the two
means at each end of the line-section for at
times selectively producing, at at least one and
ends of the line-section, means for substantially
the same end of the line-section, a succession of
segregating an alternating-current component
from another component or components of the 70 discrete impulses of electrical energy in response
to alternate half-cycles of the line-frequency cur
combined waves, and means selectively respon
rent which is derived from its own end of the
sive to the segregated alternating-current com
line section, each half-cycle response being re
ponent for exercising a control over the circuit
sponsive to a substantially full half-cycle oi the
interrupting means at its end of the line-section.
7. A protective relaying system, comprising the 75 current which controls that response, current*
2,406,615
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14 `
limiting means, at at least the aforesaid end of
topped unipotential waves of a magnitude which
the line-section, for combining the impulses which
is substantially constant during periods when
are derived from the opposite ends of the line
ever carrier-current energy is being received, over
a considerable range of operating conditions-the
relative phases and durations oi the substantially
section and for deriving substantially nat-topped
unipotential waves of a magnitude which is sub
stantially constant whenever said impulses exist,
over a considerable range of operating conditions,
fiat-topped unipotential waves being dependent
upon the phase-angle relation between the line
the relative phases and durations of the sub
frequency currents which are derived from oppo
stantially nat-topped unipotential waves being
site ends of the line-section, and a relay-means
dependent upon the phase-angle relation between 10 responsive to a predetermined condition of said
the line-frequency currents which are derived
substantially flat-topped unipotentia'i waves,
from opposite ends of the line-section, and a
relay-means responsive to a predetermined con
integrated over a period of time which is at least
equal to considerably over one-half of a line-fre
dition of said substantially nat-topped unipoten
quency cycle, for exercising a control over t?ne
tial waves, integrated over a, period of time which 15 circuit-interrupting means at its end of the line
is at least equal to considerably over one-half of
section.
'
a line-frequency cycle, for exercising a control
13. A carrier-current protective relaying sys
over the circuit-interrupting means at its end of
tem, comprising the combination, with an alter
the line-section.
nating-current transmission-line section having
l1. A protective relaying system, comprising
circuit-interrupting means to be protectively con
the combination, with an alternating-current
trolled, of protecting relaying-apparatus includ
transmission-line section havingf circuit-inter
ing two carrier-current transmitter-means of ap
rupting means to be protectively controlled, of
proximately the same carrier-current frequency
protecting relaying-apparatus including line
disposed one at each end of the line-section, line
current deriving-means at each end of the line 25 current deriving-means at each end of the line
section for deriving a line-frequency current from
section for deriving a line-frequency current from
that end of the line-section, means at each end
that end of the line-section, carrier-controlling
of the line-section for at times selectively pro
means for at times causing each transmitter to
ducing a succession of discrete impulses of elec
impress carrier-current energy on the line-section
trical energy in response to alternate half-cycles 30 in a succession of substantially nat-topped waves,
of the line-frequency current which is derived
of a magnitude which is substantially constant
from its own end of the line-section, current
limiting means for combining the .impulses which
are derived from the opposite ends of the line
over a considerable range of operating conditions,
in response to alternate half-cycles of the line
frequency current which is derived from its own
section and for deriving substantially flat-topped 35 end ofthe line-section, each half-cycle response
unipotential waves of a magnitude which is sub
being responsive to a substantially full half-cycle
stantially constant over a considerable range of
of the current which controls that response, car
operating conditions, the relative phases and
rier-current receiver-means at at least one end of
durations of the substantially flat-topped unipo
the line-section, responsive to the carrier-cur
tential waves being dependent upon the phase 40 rent energy impressed on the line-section from
angle relation between the line-frequency cur
both transmitters for deriving substantially flat
rents which are derived from opposite ends of the
line-section, means for substantially segregating
an alternating-current component from the di
topped unipotential waves of a magnitude which
is substantially constant during periods whenever
carrier-current energy is being received, over a
rect-current component of the substantially flat 45 considerable range of operating conditions, the
topped unipotential waves, and means selectively
relative phases and durations of the substantially
responsive to the segregated alternating-current
flat-topped unipotential waves being dependent
component for exercising a control over the cir
upon the phase angle relation between the line
cuit-interrupting means at its end of the line
frequency currents which are derived from oppo
section.
50 site ends of the line-section, rectiiier-means ener
12. A carrier-current protective relaying sys
gized from said substantially flat-topped unipo
tem, comprising the combination, with an alter
tential waves, and means having a control-circuit
netting-current transmission-line section having
energized responsively to said rectiiier-means for
circuit-interrupting means to be protectively con
trolled, of ?rotecting relaying-apparatus includ
exercising a control over the circuit-interrupting
means at its end of the line-section.
ing two carrier-current transmitter-means of ap
14. A carrier-current protective relaying sys
proximately the same carrier-current frequency
tem, comprising the combination, with an alter
disposed one at eac?n end of the line-section7 line
nating-current transmission-line section .having
current deriving-means at each end of the line
circuit-interrupting means to be prete/縯ively con
section for deriving a line-frequency current from 60 trolled, of protecting relaying-apparatus includ
that end oi' the line-section` carrier-controlling
ing two carrier-current transmitter-means of ap
means for at times causing each transmitter to
proximately the same carrier-current frequency
impress carrier-current energy on the line-section
disposed one at each end of the line-section, line
in a succession of substantially dat-topped waves,
current deriving-means at each end of the line
of a magnitude which is substantially constant 65 section for deriving a line-frequency current from
over a considerable range of operating conditions,
that end of the line-section, carrier-controlled
in 頴sponse to alternate half-cycles of the line
means for at times causing each transmitter to
蛂equency current which is derived from. its own
impress carrier-current energy on the line-section
end of the line-section, each half-cycle response
in a succession of substantially flat-topped waves,
being responsive to a substantially full half -cycle 70 籵f a magnitude which is substantially constant
of the current which controls that response, car
over a considerable range or? operating conditions,
rier-current receiver-means, at at least one end
in response to alternate half-cycles of the line
of the line-section, responsive to the carrier-cur
frequency current which is derived from its own
rent energy impressed on the line-section from
end of the line-section, each half-cycle response
both transmitters for deriving substantially 馻t
75 being responsive to a substantially full half-cycle
2,406,615
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of the current which controls that response, car
rier-current receiver-means, at at least one end
quency disposed one at each end of the line
section, line-current deriving-means at each end
of the line-section for deriving a line-frequency
current from that end of the line-section, car
of the line-section, responsive to the carrier-n
current energy impressed on the line-section from
both transmitters for deriving substantially fiat
topped unipotential waves of a magnitude which
is substantially constant during periods whenever
carrier-current energy is being received, over a
considerable range of operating conditions, the
relative phases and durations of the substantially
nat-topped unipotential waves being dependent
upon the phase-angle relation between the line
frequency currents which are derived from oppo
site ends of the line-section, and a relay-means
for exercising a control over the circuit-interrup? -
ing means at its end of the line-section, charac
terized by said relay-means having a relay-actu
ating control-means for developing a relay-oper
ating force suflicient to change the relay-means
from a normal inactive condition to an actuated
operative condition in response to a predeter~
mined variation in said substantially flat-topped
unipotential waves as a result of variations in the
phase-angle relation between the line-frequency
currents which are derived from opposite ends
of the line-section.
15. A carrier-current protective relaying sys
CY i rier-controlling means for at times causing each
transmitter to impress carrier-current energy on
the line-section in a succession of substantially
flat-topped waves of a magnitude which is sub
stantially constant over a considerable range of
operating conditions, in response to alternate
half-cycles of the line-frequency current which
is derived from its own end of the line-section,
carrier-current receiver--means responsive to the
carrier-current energy impressed on the line
section from both transmitters for deriving sub
stantially flat-topped unipotential waves of a
magnitude which is substantially constant over a
considerable range of operating conditions, the
relative phases and durations of the substan
tially fiat-topped unipotential waves being de
pendent upon the phase-angle relation between
the line-frequency currents which are derived
from opposite ends of the line-section, means for
substantially segregating an alternating-current
componentI from the direct-current component
of the substantially flat-topped unipotential
Waves, and means selectively responsive to the
segregated alternating-current component for
tem, comprising the combination, with an alter
nating-current transmission-line section having
exercising a control over the circuit-interrupting
circuit-interrupting means to be protectively
means at its ends of the line-section.
controlled, of protecting relaying-apparatus in 30
17. A carrier-current protective relaying sys
cluding two carrier-current transmitter-means
tem, comprising the combination, with an alter
of approximately the same carrier-current fre
nating-current transmission-line section having
quency disposed one at each en_d of the line-sec
circuit-interrupting means to be protectively
tion, line-current deriving-means at each end of
controlled, of protecting relaying-apparatus in.
the line section for deriving a line-frequency cur
cluding carrier-current transmitter-means and
rent from that end of the line-section, carrier
controlling means for at times causing each
receiver-means, line-current deriving-means for
transmitter to impress carrier-current energy on
the line-section in a succession of substantially
flat-topped waves, of a magnitude which is sub
stantially constant over a considerable range of
operating conditions, in response to alternate
half-cycles of the line-frequency current which
is derived from its own end of the line-section,
each half-cycle response being responsive to a
deriving a line-frequency current from the line
section, carrier-controlling means, including a
saturating ampli馿r-tube having a control-cir
cuit energized responsively to alternate half
cycles of said derived line-frequency current, for
at times causing the transmitter-means to im
press carrier-current energy on the line-section
in a succession of substantially flat-topped waves,
of a magnitude which is substantially constant
substantially full half-cycle of the current which
over a considerable range of operating conditions,
said receiver-means including a saturating re
controls that response, carrier-current receiver
ceiver-tube for producing a succession of discrete
means, at at least one end of the line-section,
responsive to the carrier-current energy im 50 `receiver-current impulses in response to received
pressed on the line-section from both transmit
carrier-current energy-waves, and means re
ters for deriving substantially flat-topped uni
sponsive to said receiver-current impulses for
potential waves of a magnitude which is sub
utilizing said receiver-current impulses in exer
cising a control over the circuit-interrupting
stantially constant during periods whenever car
rier-current energy is being received, over a con
� means at its ends of the line-section, said saturat
ing amplifier-tube and said saturating receiver
siderable range of operating conditions, the rela
tive phases and durations of the substantially
tube both having the property of producing sub
flat-topped unipotential waves being dependent
stantially square-topped waves of unipotential
current at a magnitude which
substantially
upon the phase-angle relation between the line
frequency currents which are derived from op 60 constant over a considerable range of operating
posite ends of the line-section, and a relay
conditions.
18. A carrier-current protective relaying sys
means for exercising a control over the circuit
tem, comprising the combination, with at least
interrupting means at its end of the line-section,
one end of an alternating-current transmission
characterized by said relay-means having a
source of relay-controlling electrical energy which 65 line section having circuit-interrupting means
is obtained from said substantially flat-topped
unipotential waves and from no other derived
line-currents.
16. A carrier-current protective relaying sys
tem, comprising the combination, with an alter
nating-current transmission-line section having
circuit-interrupting means to be protectively
controlled, of protecting relaying apparatus in
cluding two carrier-current transmitter-means
of approximately the same carrier-current fre
to be protectively controlled, of protecting relay
ing-apparatus including carrier-current trans
mitter-means and receiver-means coupled to said
line-section, said transmitter-means being of an
70 oscillator-tube type, line-current deriving-means
for deriving a line-frequency current from the`
line-section, carrier-controlling means, includ
ing a saturating ampli馿r-tube having a control
circuit energized responsively to alternate half
75 cycles of said derived line-frequency current, for
2,406,615
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at times producing substantially square-topped
utilizing the plate-current of the ampli馿r-tube
Waves of unipotential plate-current energy for
the transmitter-means, said receiver-means in
cluding a saturating receiver-tube for producing
substantially flat-topped unipotential Waves of a
magnitude which is substantially constant over`
in causing an intermittent transmission of car
rier-current from said transmitter to said line
section in ?a succession of transmitting periods
each having a duration of the order of a half
a considerable range of operating conditions, and
cycle of the line-current.
20. Carrier-current controlling-means for an
means responsive to said receiver-current im~
pulses for utilizing said receiver-current im
alternating-current line~section, comprising the
pulses in exercising a control over the circuit
interrupting means at its end of the line-section.
19. Carrier-current controlling-means for an
alternating-current line-section having a vari
combination, with an oscillator-tube type of
carrier-current transmitter coupled to the 1ine~
section, of means for ai; times deriving voltage
impulses of a substantially constant magnitude
from the line-current, an ampli馿r-tube having
able line-current of a substantially constant line
frequency, comprising the combination, with a
carrier-current transmitter, of means for at
a controhcircuit and a plate-circuit, means for
times deriving line-frequency voltage-impulses of
such manner as to cause said amplifier-tube to
operate in a saturated manner, and means for at
a substantially constant magnitude from the
variable line-current, an ampli馿r-tube having
at times utilizing said voltage-impulses to con
trol the energization of said control-circuit in
such times utilizing the plate-current of the
a control-circuit and a plate-circuit, means for 20 amplifier-tube as a source of plate-circuit energy
at times utilizing said voltage-impulses to con
trol the energization of said control-circuit in
such manner as to cause said ampli馿r-tube to
operate in a saturated manner, and means for
for the oscillator-tube of the carrier-current
transformer.
HERBERT W. LENSNER.
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