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Патент USA US2406616

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Aug. 27,_ 1946.
2,406,616
H, w. LENSNER
CARRIER-CURRENT PROTECTIVE RELAYING SYSTEMS
Filed Dec. '8,‘ 1942
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INVENTORV
Herbert WLensner:
BY ,
ATTORNEY
Patented Aug. 27, 1946
2,406,616
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,406,616
CARRIER-CURRENT PROTECTIVE
RELAYING SYSTEM
Herbert W‘. Lensner, East Orange, N. J., assignor
to Westinghouse Electric Corporation, East
Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application December 8, 1942, Serial No. 468,238
12 Claims.
(Cl. 175—294)
1
2
My invention relates to relaying systems for V’ v‘
protecting alternating-current transmission-lines
similar equipment will be provided at each end
the medium of a communicating channel, prefer
ably in the form of carrier-currents superimposed
of the line-section, only one end is illustrated.
The line-section I is connected, through a circuit
breaker 2, to a bus 3, the circuit-breaker being
provided with a trip-coil TC and an auxiliary
switch 2a which opens when the breaker opens.
A bank of line-current transformers 4 is utilized
to energize any suitable current-mixing means,
upon the line-section.
such as a phase-sequence ?lter 5, as shown in the
against faults, and it has particular relation to
systems in which the relative phases of the line
currents at the opposite ends of a protected line- ,1’
section are compared with each other through
In the usual case of a
polyphase line, a suitable phase-sequence network .10 Harder Patent 2,183,646, which combines the posi
tive and zero phase-sequence components of the
or current-summating means is preferably ener- '
gized from the line-current for deriving a single
line-current, and delivers the resultant single
phase relaying-quantity which is satisfactorily re
phase relaying-quantity to a saturating trans
sponsive to all different types of faults, on what
former 6 having secondary terminals ‘I and 8
ever phases they may occur, and these single- ._
which are shunted by a voltage-limiting neon
phase relaying-quantities are compared, as to '
glow-tube 9, thus producing, in the relaying-ter
their relative phase relationships, by means of the
protective relaying equipment.
More particularly, my invention relates to that
type of carrier-current relaying system in which
minals ‘I and 8, a ?at-topped voltage-wave which
is of an approximately constant magnitude
throughout an expected range of fault-currents.
In accordance With my invention, the output of
the single-phase relaying-terminals ‘I and 8 is
supplied, through a recti?er II, to a resistance
impulses are obtained from alternate half-cycles
of the line-current at each end of the protected
20
line-section, and a differentially energized relay
I2, the recti?er I I being connected to the termi
nal ‘I, and the resistance I2 being connected to
locally, on alternate half-cycles, and restrained 25 the terminal 8, this latter terminal being also con
from energy derived from the opposite end of the
nected to a negative source of potential, such as
the negative bus (—). The voltage-drop across
line-section, on alternate half-cycles of the line
current there. This general type of relaying sys
the resistance I2 is utilized in the control of car
tem is exempli?ed in the Lenehan Patent No.
rier-current transmission, by having the terminal
of the resistance I2 connected, through a grid-re
2,275,971, March 10, 1942, assigned to the West
inghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company.
sistance I3, to the grid I4 of an oscillator-tube I5,
means is utilized for operating on energy received
My present improvement resides principally in
the use of peaked impulses of relatively very short
duration, derived from alternating half-cycles of
the line-current at the relaying station, for pro- :
viding the operating force for the receiver-relay
means, and utilizing ?at-topped half-waves of op
posite polarity, derived from alternate half-cycles
of the line-current at the other end of the line
section, for restraining the receiver-relay means.
The objects of my invention are to provide a
novel relaying system of the type just mentioned,
and various apparatus and parts of apparatus uti_
lized in carrying out the invention.
'
which is illustrated as also comprising a cathode
I6 and an anode IT. The oscillator-tube I5 is a
part of a carrier-current transmitter, which is
indicated diagrammatically at I8, and which is
coupled, through a high-frequency transformer
I9, to the phase-C line-conductor, the coupling
being completed through a variometer 2| and a
coupling-capacitor 22. The coupling-capacitor
22 is also connected to ground through a choke
coil 23.
A tap-point 24 on the coupling-transformer I9
is also connected, through a tuning-capacitor 25,
to a receiver-transformer 2B, the voltage of which
My invention is illustrated in an exemplary 45 is limited by means of a neon glow-tube 21. The
receiving-transformer 26 is coupled to a tuned
form of embodiment in the accompanying draw
ing, wherein:
secondary circuit, including a variable capacitor
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic view of circuits and
28, and is'utilized to energize the grid 3| of a sat
apparatus showing the invention; and
urating detector-tube 32, which is utilized as a
Figs. 2 to 6 are curve-diagrams which Will be
carrier-current receiver. The receiver-tube 32, in
referred to in the explanation.
'
addition to the grid 3 I, is provided with a cathode
I have illustrated my invention as it is applied
33 and an anode 34, the cathode 33 being con
to one end of a line-section of a three-phase
nected to a tap-point 35 near the negative end of
transmission line I, the several phase-conductors
a potentiometer 3B which is energized from the
being distinguished by the letters A, B and C. As 55 battery-terminals (+) and (—), and the anode
2,406,616
3
4
3!; being connected to the positive battery-termi
fed into the resistor !2 through the recti?er II
nal (+) through a resistance 37.
My invention preferably utilizes a suitable form
approximately constant magnitude. The voltage
are also substantially square-topped and of an
While I am not limited to any
drop across the resistor I2 is utilized to make
particular form or kind or" fault-detector, it may
conveniently be provided by the means of a tap
point 38 on the saturating transformer 6, which
is utilized to energize the operating coil of a fault
detector relay FD, which is illustrated as having
the transmitter-grid M sufficiently negative with
of fault-detector.
two make~contacts 39 and 4 I .
respect to its cathode Hi to block carrier-current
transmission during the half-cycles when cur
rent is ?owing through the resistance l2, and
permitting carrier-current transmission during
10 the intervening half~cycles of the line-current at
I11 accordance with my invention, I utilize a
the relaying station.
suitable form of peaking-device, which is illus—
trated as being provided by having the primary
The equipment at the other end of the pro
tected line-section (not shown) is similar to the
winding 42 of a saturating transformer 43 con
illustrated equipment, and the connections are
nected between the midpoint M of the saturat~ 15 such that the two carrier-current transmitters
are transmitting on successive half-cycles, in the
ing transformer 6, and an intermediate point 35
event of a “through” line-current which flows
in a phase-changing impedance, comprising a re
into the line-section at one end and out at the
sistor M5 and a capacitor ill, the resistor 46 being
connected between the point 45 and the relaying
other end.
The receiver-tube 32 is designed to operate in
terminal I, and the capacitor ‘31 being connected 20
its saturated region, so that it produces a plate
between the point 45 and the relaying-terminal
current of approximately ?xed magnitude when
8. The saturating transformer 43 is designed so
ever carrier--current energy is applied to its grid
as to produce peaked voltage-impulses of the
IN. The receiver plate-current, passing through
order of 3° duration in its secondary winding 48.
In accordance with my invention, the peaked 25 the resistance 31, produces a voltage-drop which
is utilized to make the grid 5! of the gas-tube
voltage of the secondary Winding 48 is added to
52 negative with respect to its cathode 53. In
the voltage-drop which is obtained across the re
the case of an internal fault, that is, a fault lo
sistor 31 in the plate-circuit of the receiver-tube
cated within the con?nes of the protected line
32, to energize the grid 5! of a gas-tube 52 which
is illustrated as having also a cathode 53 and an 30 section I, if the line-currents at the opposite ends
of the line-section are exactly 180° out of phase
anode 511. The cathode 53 is connected, at 55, to
with each other, current entering the line-sec
‘the negative terminal B— of a suitable plate-bat
tion at both ends, the voltage-drop in the resistor
tery source for the gas-tube
while the anode
3‘! will be approximately as depicted in Fig. 2,
541 is connected in series with the fault-detector
contact 39, as a source of suitable tripping-energy, 35 thus representing the potential of the receiver
plate 34 with respect to the potential of the gas
‘for tripping the circuit-breaker 2, either directly,
tube cathode 53. In the event of an external
or through the intremediary of a tripping relay
fault, with the line-currents in phase with each
TR. As illustrated, the anode 54 is connected,
other at opposite ends of the line-section, the
through the FD contact 39, to the operating coil
56 of a tripping relay TR, and thence it is con 40 current entering at one end and leaving at the
nected, at 5'1, to the positive B-battery terminal
13+. The tripping relay TR has a make-contact
58 which is utilized to energize the tripping-coil
TC through the auxiliary breaker-switch 2a the
tripping-energy being obtained from the station in
battery (-:—) and (—).
The other fault-detector contact ii! is connected
between the negative battery-terminal (——> and
the cathode-lead 59 which is connected to the
cathode it of the transmittenoscillator i5, and
the cathode-lead 53 is also connected, through a
resistance (53, to the positive battery-terminal
(+), so that transmission is blocked except when
the cathode i6 is connected to the negative ter
minal through a closure of the fault-detector ;
contact 11 l.
The operation of the apparatus may now be de
scribed. The transmitter-oscillator i5 is designed
to generate radio-frequency or carrier-frequency
energy whenever its cathode I6 is connected to
the negative source (--), and whenever its grid
I4 is not impressed with a negative potential with
respect to the cathode.
The eifect of the recti?er H, which is ener
gized from the single-phase relaying-terminals ‘I
other end, the voltage-drop to the resistor 31
will be substantially as depicted in Fig. 3.
It will be noted that, in the case of the ideal
internal fault, represented by Fig. 2, the receiver
plate-voltage is in the form of square-topped con
stant-magnitude half-waves occurring on alter
nate half-cycles of the line-current at the relay
ing-station. In case the line-currents ?owing
into the protected line-section at opposite ends
thereof are not exactly 180° out of phase with
each other, the periods of carrier-current trans
mission at the two ends of the line-section will
not quite coincide, so that the periods of the
receipt of carrier will be lengthened somewhat, as
the phase-angle decreases, between the two line
currents at opposite ends of the protected line
section. When these line-currents become exactly
in phase, representing the condition of a
“through” current corresponding to an external
fault, it will be noted that the periods of carrier
current transmission at opposite ends of the pro
tected line-section do not overlap at all, result
ing in a substantially continuous ?ow‘ of receiver
plate-current as indicated in Fig. 3.
The peaking-transformer 43 is energized in re
and 8, is to cause current to flow through the
resistor l2 during alternate half-cycles of the
sponse to a dephasing means 46-41 which causes
single-phase relaying-voltage of the terminals 1
winding 48, to be produced at an intermediate
point, preferably near the middle, of the half
cycles of line-current at the relaying-station, thus
producing a peaked secondary voltage as shown
in Fig‘. 4, this voltage consisting of a succession
and 8, in response to a composite phase-sequence
quantity of the polyphase line-current at the re_ ~
laying-station. Since the waveform of the re
laying-voltage across the terminals 1 and 8 is
square-topped, and of an approximately constant
the peaks of secondary voltage, in its secondary
magnitude, throughout all exceptable fault-con
of alternately positive and negative peaked volt
age-impulses, of a relatively very short duration,
ditions, the half-wave pulses of energy which are
which may be of the order of two or three degrees
2,406,616
5
of the line-current, although I am not limited to
any particular duration of these peaked impulses.
from line-'currentderived at the other end of
the line-section, my relaying-equipment is not at
‘substantially constant magnitude, because the
all sensitive to the exact in-phase or out-of
phase relationships of the line-currents at the op
relaying-voltage of the terminals 1 and 8 is held
to a substantially constant magnitude by the com
bined effects of the saturation of the saturating
transformer 6 and the voltage-limiting effect of
posite ends of the protected line-section, but the
phase-relations between these line-currents can
vary considerably from the optimum conditions
depicted in Figs. 5 and 6, respectively, without
Itwill also be noted that the peaks are of a
the neon glow-tube 9.
The positive peaks of the peaking-transformer
43 are utilized to control the gas-tube 52, which
is ?red whenever its grid 5! is made suf?ciently
positive with respect to its cathode 53. From a
comparison of Figs. 2, 3 and 4, it will be noted
that the ' positive peaks of_ the peaking-trans
former occur in substantially the middle of the
altering the condition as to response or non-re
sponse of the gas-tube 52, which operates- as a
receiver-relay means.
While I have illustrated my invention in a sin
gle preferred form of embodiment, and while I
have explained its manner of operation in ac
cordance with this particular form of embodi
ment, I wish it to be understood that my inven
non-conducting periods of the carrier-current
tion is susceptible of embodiment in other forms,
transmitter at the relaying-station, so that, in
and that various re?nements and simpli?cations
may be adopted without departing from the es
the event of an internal fault, no carrier is being
received by the receiver-tube 32 at the moments 20 sential spirit of my invention. I desire, there
when the positive peaks of the peaking-trans
fore, that the appended claims shall be accorded
the broadest interpretation consistent with their
former 43 occur, whereas, during an external
language.
fault, with “through” current flowing into the
I claim as my invention:
line-section at one end and out at the other end,
the positive peaks of the peaking-transformer 43 25
1. In an alternating-current line-section hav
ing circuit-interrupting means to be controlled
occur substantially in the middle of the period
for the protection of the line, the combination,
during which carrier-current is being transmitted
with said circuit-interrupting means, 'of-means
at the‘ opposite end of the line-section.
for at times deriving peaked positive voltage-im
The result is that, for an internal fault, the
positive peaks of the peaking-transformer 43 are 30 pulses of a substantially constant magnitude and
of relatively very short duration from alternate
not opposed by negative voltage-impulses received
half-cycles of the line-current at the relaying
from the receiver-tube 32, so that tripping occurs
station, means for at times deriving ?at-topped
at the ?rst positive peak 6 I, as indicated in Fig. 5.
negative voltage-impulses of a substantially con
This positive peak ?res the gas-tube 52 and causes
it to become conducting, assuming that the fault 35 stant'magnitude and of'the order of a half-cycle
duration from alternate half-cycles of the line
detector contact 39 has already closed, and there
after the gas-tube 52 remains conducting until
current at the other end of the line-section, the
relative timing’ of said Voltage-impulses being
its plate-circuit is interrupted, as by an opening
such that the short peaked positive impulses oc
of the fault-detector contact 39 after the fault
has been cleared from the line. In the event of 40 cur at ‘an intermediate point in the long flat
‘topped impulses when through-current is ?owing
an external fault, however, the broad half-wave
through the line-section, means for combining
periods of carrier-current transmission at the
opposite end of the line-section occur at the same
time when the positive peaks of the peaking
transformer 43 occur, with the result that the
grid-voltage of the gas-tube 52 never becomes
su?iciently positive with respect to its cathode 53
to fire the tube, as depicted in Fig. 6.
In the preceding discussion, I have discussed
the positive peaks of the peaking-transformer 43, .
or'the peaks which made the gas-tube vgrid 5|
positive with respect to its cathode 53. I have
con?ned my attention to the positive peaks, be
cause the negative peaks are immaterial, merely
‘said impulses, and circuit-interrupter control
ling-means responsive to the short peaked posi
tive impulses when they are not substantially op
posed by the long ?at-topped impulses when an
internal fault occurs within the line-section being
protected.
2. In an alternating-current line-section hav
ing circuit-interrupting means at both ends of
the line-section to be controlled for the protec
tion of the line, the combination with said cir
cuit-interrupting means, of carrier-current
transmitting and receiving means associated with
each end of the line-section, means for at times
deriving peaked positive voltage-impulses of a
respect to its cathode 53, and thus producing no
‘substantially constant magnitude and of. rela
?ring-operation of the tube. It would be obvious,
tively very short duration from alternate half
of course, that the negative peaks could be ex
cycles of the line-current at each end of the line
cluded from the gas-tube cathode 53, through
suitable rectifying means, but ordinarily the tube 60 section, means for at times deriving voltage-im
pulses of a substantially constant magnitude and
can readily withstand the negative voltage-peaks
making the gas-tube grid 5| more negative with ,
on its grid 5| without failure, so that there is no
of the order of a half-cycle duration from alter
need to pay any attention to the negative peaks.
It will be noted that my relaying-system is par
ticularly free of the danger of erroneous tripping
nate half-cycles of the line-current at each end
of the line-section, means responsive to the sub
stantially half-cycle impulses at each end of the
line-section for at times causing carrier-current
to be transmitted onto the line-section from the
" as a result of any disturbance on the line during
an external fault, since any receiver plate-current
resulting from such line-disturbance will only
further bias the grid of the gas-tube, due to the
voltage-drop through the resistor 31 in the re
ceiver plate-circuit. It will further be noted that,
'by'reason of my utilization of short peaks of re
lay-operating energy, having a duration of very
much smaller than the half-cycle durations of
transmitting means at that end in a succession
of transmitting periods each having a duration
of the order of a half-cycle of the line-current,
the relative timing of said voltage-impulses being
such that the short peaked positive impulses
occur at an intermediate point in the transmit
ting period of the transmitting means at the
the ?at-topped restraining half-waves received 75 other end of the line-section when through-cur~
2,406,616
7
8
‘rent is flowing through the line-section, means
pulses for deriving peaked positive voltage-im
energized from the receiving means at each end
of the line-section for deriving negative voltage~
impulses of a substantially constant magnitude
during times of receipt of carrier~current, means
for combining the short peaked positive impulses
and the receiver-derived negative impulses, and
pulses of a substantially constant magnitude and
of relatively very short duration from alternate
half-cycles of the line-current at the‘ ‘relaying
station, means for at times deriving ?at-topped
negative voltage-impulses of a substantially con
stant magnitude and of the order of a half-cycle
duration from alternate half-cycles of the line
current at the other end of the line-section, the
circuit-interrupter controlling-means responsive
to the short peaked positive impulses when they
are not substantially opposed by the receiver 10 relative timing of said voltage-impulses being
derived negative impulses when an internal fault
occurs within the line-section being protected.
3. Carrier-current controlling-means for an
such that the short peaked positive impulses occur
at an intermediate point in the long ?at-topped
impulses derived from the line-current at the
‘alternating-current line-section, comprising the
other end when through-current is ?owing
combination, with a carrier-current transmitter,
through the line-section, means for combining
of means for at times causing carrier-current to
said short peaked impulses and said long ?at
be transmitted onto the line-section from the
topped impulses derived from the line-current
transmitter, means for at such times deriving
at the other end, and circuit-interrupter con
unidirectional voltage-impulses of a substantially
trolling-means responsive to the short peaked
constant magnitude and of the order of a hall'
positive impulses when they are not substantially
cycle duration from alternate half-cycles of the
opposed by the long ?at-topped impulses derived
line-current at that end of the line-section, and
from the other end of the line-section when an
means for utilizing said impulses to block the
internal fault occurs within the line-section being
transmission of carrier-current at that end of
protected.
the line-section.
6. In an alternating-current line-section hav
4. In an alternating-current line-section hav
ing circuit-interrupting means at both ends of
ing circuit-interrupting means at both ends of
the line-section to be controlled for the, protection
the line-section to be controlled for the protection
of the line, the combination, with said circuit
of the line, the combination, with said circuit
interrupting means, of carrier-current transmit
interrupting means, of carrier-current transmit 30 ting and receiving means associated with each
ting and receiving means associated with each
end of the line-section, fault-detector means for
end of the line-section, fault-detector means for
causing carrier-current to be transmitted onto
causing carrier-current to be transmitted onto
the line-section from the transmitting means at
the line-section from the transmitting means at
each and during times of fault on the line, means
each end during times of fault on the line, means 35 for
such times deriving voltage-impulses of a
for at such times deriving peaked positive volt
substantially constant magnitude from the line
age-impulses of a substantially constant magni
current at each end of the line-section, phase
tude and of relatively very short duration from
changing impedance-means for deriving from
alternate half-cycles of the line-current at each
said impulses at each end of the line-section other
end of the line-section, means for at such times
impulses out of phase therewith, peaking con
deriving voltage-impulses of a substantially con
verting-means energized from said other im
stant magnitude and of the order of a half-cycle
pulses at each end of the line-section for deriv
duration from alternate half-cycles of the line
peaked positive voltage-impulses of a sub
current at each end of the line-section, means
stantially constant magnitude and of relatively
responsive to the substantially half-cycle im
very short duration from alternate half-cycles
pulses at each end of the line-section for block
of the line-current at that end of the line-section,
ing the transmission of carrier at the same end
means responsive to the ?rst-mentioned voltage
of the line-section, the relative timing of said
irnpulses derived from the line-current at each
voltage-impulses being such that the short peaked
end of the line-section for at times causing car
positive impulses occur at an intermediate point r rier~current to be transmitted onto the, line
in the transmitting period of the transmitting
section from the transmitting means at that end
means at the other end of the line-section when
in a succession of transmitting periods each hav
through-current is ?owing through the line-sec
ing a duration of the order of a half-cycle of the
tion, means energized from the receiving means
line~cur1‘ent, the relative timing of said voltage
at each end of the line-section for deriving nega- ; impulses being such that the short peaked posi
tive voltage-impulses of a substantially constant
tive impulses occur at an intermediate point in
magnitude during times of receipt of carrier-cur
the transmitting period of the transmitting
rent, means for combining the short peaked posi
means at the other end of the line-section when
tive impulses and the receiver-derived negative
through-current is ?owing through the line-sec
impulses, and circuit-interrupter controlling- .
tion, means energized from the receiving means
means responsive to the short peaked positive
at each end of the line-section for deriving nega
impulses when they are not substantially opposed
tive voltage-impulses of a substantially constant
by the receiver-derived negative impulses when
magnitude during times of receipt of’ carrier-cur
an internal fault occurs within the line-section
rent, means for combining the short peaked posi
being protected.
5. vIn an alternatingecurrent line~section hav
ing circuit~interrupting means to be controlled
for the protection of the line, the combination,
with said circuit-interrupting means, of means
for at times deriving voltage-impulses of a sub
stantially constant magnitude from the line-cur
rent at the relaying station, phase-changing im
pedance-means for deriving from said impulses
other impulses out of phase therewith, peaking
converting-means energized from said other im
tive impulses and the receiver-derived negative
impulses, and circuit-interrupter controlling
means responsive to the short peaked positive im
pulses when they are not substantially opposed
by the receiver-derived negative impulses when
an internal fault occurs within the line-section
being protected.
7. Protective~relay means for an alternating
current line~secti0n, comprising means for at
times producing, at at least one relaying end of
the line-section, long flat-topped negative volt
2,406,616
10
means for at such times deriving flat-topped
voltage-impulses of a substantially constant mag
age-impulses of a substantially constant magni
tude and of the order of a half-cycle duration in
response to alternate half-cycles of the line-cur
nitude and of the order of a half-cycle duration
from the line-current at that end of the line
section, means for utilizing said ?at-topped im
pulses to so energize said tube-controlling cir
cuit as to block the transmission of carrier-cur
rent at that end of the line-section during alter
that peaked positive voltage-impulses of a sub
nate half-cycles of the line-current, means in
stantially constant magnitude and of relatively
very short duration occur, at an intermediate 10 cluding said receiving means for deriving nega
tive voltage-impulses of a substantially constant
point in the long ?at-topped impulses when
magnitude during times of receipt of carrier
through-current is ?owing through the line-sec
current, means at said end of the line-section for
tion, means for combining said impulses, and
rentat the other end of the line-section, means
for at times producing, at the relaying station,
peaked voltage-impulses in response to the line
current at the relaying station in such manner
at times deriving peaked voltage-impulses from
controlling-means responsive to the short peaked
positive impulses when they are not substantially
opposed by the long ?at-topped impulses when an
the line-current in such manner that peaked
positive voltage-impulses of a substantially con
stant magnitude and of relatively very short
internal fault occurs within the line-section being
duration occur at an intermediate point between
protected.
8. Carrier-current
protective-means
for at
least one terminal of an alternating-current line
the periods of carrier-current transmission at
20 that end of the line-section, means for combin
section, comprising carrier-current transmitting
and receiving means associated with at least one
end of the line-section, means at said end of the
line-section for at times causing carrier-current
to be transmitted onto the line-section from the
transmitting means at that end in a succession of
transmitting periods each having a duration of
the order of a half -cycle of the line-current, means
including a receiving-means at said end of the
ing the short peaked positive impulses and the
receiver-derived negative impulses, and control
ling-means responsive to the short peaked posi
tive impulses when they are not substantially
opposed by the receiver-derived negative impulses
when an internal fault occurs within the line
section being protected.
11. Protective-relay means for an alternating
current line-section, comprising means for at
times producing, at at least one relaying end of
line-section for deriving negative voltage-im
the line-section, long other-end-responsive flat
pulses of a substantially constant magnitude dur
topped
negative voltage-impulses of a substan
ing times of receipt of carrier-current, means at
tially constant magnitude and of the order of a
said end of the line-section for at times deriving
half-cycle duration in response to alternate half
peaked voltage-impulses from the line-current
in such manner that peaked positive voltage 35 cycles of the line-current at the other end of
the line-section, means for at such times deriv
impulses of a substantially constant magnitude
and of relatively very short duration occur at
an intermediate point between the periods of
carrier-current transmission at that end of the
line-section, means for combining the short 40
peaked positive impulses and the receiver-de
rived negative impulses, and controlling-means
responsive to the short peaked positive impulses
when they are not substantially opposed by the
ing relaying-end-responsive flat-topped voltage
impulses of 'a substantially constant magnitude
from the line-current at the relaying station,
phase-changing impedance-means for deriving
from said relaying-end-responsive ?at-topped
impulses other impulses out of phase therewith,
peaking converting-means energized from said
other impulses for deriving peaked voltage-im
pulses in response to the line-current at the re
laying station in such manner that peaked posi
tive voltage-impulses of a substantially constant
protected.
magnitude and of relatively very short duration
9. Carrier-current protective-means for at
occur at an intermediate point in the long ?at
least one terminal of an alternating-current line
section, comprising carrier-current transmitting 50 topped impulses derived from the line-current at
the other end when through-current is flowing
means including an oscillator-tube having a
through
the line-section, means for combining
plate-cathode circuit and a tube-controlling cir
said short peaked impulses and said long flat
cuit, a direct-current plate-voltage supply-cir
topped impulses derived from the line-current at
cuit for said tube, means for at times causing
the other end, and controlling-means responsive
in
CI!
said transmitting means to transmit carrier-cur
receiver-derived negative impulses when an in
ternal fault occurs within the line-section being
rent energy, means for at such times deriving
voltage-impulses of a substantially constant mag
nitude and of the order of a half-cycle duration
from the line-current at that end of the line
section, and means for utilizing said impulses to
so energize said tube-controlling circuit as to
block the transmission of carrier-current at that
end of the line-section during alternate half
cycles of the line-current.
10. Carrier-current protective-means for at
least one terminal of an alternating-current line
section, comprising carrier-current transmitting
and receiving means associated with at least
one end of the line-section, said transmitting
means including an oscillator-tube having a
plate-cathode circuit and a tube-controlling cir
cuit, a direct-current plate-voltage supply-circuit
for said tube, fault-detector means for causing
said transmitting means to transmit carrier-cur
rent energy during times of fault on the line,
to the short peaked positive impulses when they
are not substantially opposed by the long flat
topped impulses derived from the other end of
the line-section when an internal fault occurs
within the line-section being protected.
12. Carrier-current protective-means for at
least one terminal of an alternating-current line
section, comprising carrier-current transmitting
and receiving means associated with at least one
end of the line-section, fault-detector means for
causing said transmitting means to transmit car
rier-current energy during times of fault on the
line, means for at such times deriving flat-topped
voltage~impulses of a substantially constant mag
nitude and of the order of a half-cycle duration
from the line-current at that end of the line-sec
tion, means for utilizing said flat-topped impulses
to cause the transmitting means to transmit car
rier-current energy in a succession of transmit
ting periods each having a duration of the order
11
2,406,616
of a half ~cycle of the line-current, means includ
ing said receiving means for deriving negative
voltage-impulses of a substantially constant mag
nitude during times of receipt of carrier-current,
phase-changing impedance-means for deriving
from said ?at-topped impulses other impulses out
of phase therewith, peaking converting-means
energized from said other impulses for deriving
peaked voltage-impulses in response to the line
12
very short duration occur at an intermediate point
between the periods of carrier-current trans
mission at that end of the line-section, means
for combining the short peaked positive impulses
and the receiver-derived negative impulses, and
contro11ing~means responsive to the short peaked
positive impulses when they are not substantially
opposed by the receiver-derived negative impulses
when an internal fault occurs within the line
current at the relaying station in such manner 10 section being protected.
that peaked positive voltage-impulses of a sub
stantially constant magnitude and of relatively
HERBERT W. LENSNER.
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