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Aug. 27, 1946.
v- T. W. OGLESBY
2,406,625
AIRPLANE
Filed Dec. 10, 1941
l0 Sheets-Sheet 1 v
I
Aug. 27, 1946.
T. _w.‘ OGLESBY
2,406,625
AIRPLANE
Filed Dec. 10, 1941
TO cums WITHOUT CHANGING Posmon
T0 DROP WITHOUT CHANGING POSITION
10 Sheets-Sheet 5
"-Aug. ~27, 1946.}
T. w. OGLESBY
,
'
2,406,625 I
AIRPLANE
Filed Dec. 10, 1941
1.7-9.
‘ IOSheets-Sheet 6
Aug. 27, 1946. .
T. w. OGLESBY
2,406,625
AIRPLANE
Filed Dec; 10, 1941
' 1o Sheets-Sheet 7
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"Aug. 27, ‘1946'.
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2,406,625.
AIRPLANE
Filed Dec. 10, 1941
l0 Sheets-Sheet 8
' Aug. 27, 1946.
2,406,625
T. w. OGLESBY
AIRPLANE
Filed 'Dec. 10, 1941
‘10 Sheets-Sheet 9
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AIRPLANE
Filed Dec. 10, 1941.
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Patented Aug. 27, 1946
2,406,625
UNITED STATES ‘PATENT ‘OFFICE '
2,406,625
_
,
AIRPLANE’
_
. > Thomas W.,0glesby, Peru, Ind.
Application December 10, 1941,,Serial No. 422,428
I 31 Claims.
1
(01. 2i4_1s>
2
This invention relates to’aeronautics and more
particularly to airplane construction. '
Another and more speci?c object is to provide
an airplane having a motor mounted within and
'
In airplane construction it has been recognized
shielded by a fuselage or other hollow body to
that plural lifting surfaces or wings in alignment
thereby avoid wind resistance, the’ motor being
or substantially so would result in certain de?nite 5 cooled by air circulated through a particular ar
advantages if a'practical design could be evolved.
Early experiments indicated that one wing in rear
of another would not Work satisfactorily because
the air fromvthe ‘?rst wine was de?ected down
wardly by the action of that wing, and therefore
the second wingshould be set at a greater angle
of attack to obtain a satisfactory lift. However,
when this was done, the second wing caused trou
ble since an adjustment was necessary after each
' rangement of hollow wings and reinforcing tubes
therefor under full control.
‘ Other important objects include:
The provision of a multi-wing-in-line plane
with the fuselage mounted centrally of the plane
and the wings reinforced and balanced with re
spectto the fuselage to obtain strength without
sacri?cing maneuverability;
To provide a multi-wing-in-line plane having
change in speed. and the drag was excessive at ~' : reinforcing at the outer end of the wingsrwhich
high speeds. Turbulence of the» air behind the
avoids tip vortices and at the same time forms
?rst wing caused loss of lift by tending to equalize
‘the pressure on both surfaces of the second wing.
" part of a cooling system for the motor or motors;
Other objectionable factors include instability, ex
‘the required horse power may be handled by a
To provide arplane of the type speci?ed wherein
cessive weightresulting from the number of spars, ~
relatively large number of motors without loss of
ribs, struts, and the like to impart the required
strength to the wing structure, coolingof the
" efficiency;
To provide an airplane design which will ren
motors, the difficulty encountered in arranging
der possible effective streamlining of fuselage and
the propellers and motors to coact ‘with the wings
to obtain maximum lift and maneuverability, tip
vortices, and other factors of both'major and
minor importance. The inability in the past to
devise a practical multi-wing-in-line, airplane has
limited the size of airplanes,’ and has also placed
motors irrespective of the type of motors'used;
To reduce ice-formation hazards;
To reduce weight while maintaining ample
strength;
‘
a de?nite limit on streamlining and the number so,
of motors used. The latter factorv affects the
~
To lower manufacturing costs:
'
'
And to generally improve and render more prac
tical heavier-than-air craft construction.
'
Inithle drawings:
safety of the plane since it is obvious that the
' ~v"Figural is a top plan view of an airplane illus
danger of lossof control and for'cedlanding's is
less when the required horse power is‘ distributed
p‘ ' Fig. 2 is a view insection and side elevation of
trative of the present invention;
'
,
c
‘over a plurality of motors in contradistinction'to" 35 ‘Fig. 1; 1'
where the horsepower is concentrated in one or
'_ Figl 3 is a view in front and elevation of th
a relatively few motors.
1
_
,
Not only have the possibilities of multi-wing
in-line planes been recognized but it has also been
recognized that there are advantages in propellers:
operating in pairs'and ‘coacting to exert a driving
force in the same direction, but'here again prog- ,
ress has been hindered due to the lack of a prac
tical design of plane to support this arrangement.
An object of the present invention is to provide
an airplane comprising aplurality of coordinated
plane of Figs. land 2';
I
>
~
‘Fig. 4 is an enlarged sectional plan view of the
central portion of the plane, particularly illus~
trating the mounting of the motors with their
coacting propellers and. the circulation of air
through (the hollow wings and reinforcing tubes;
Fig. 5 is a View of the hub portions of the pro
pellers, particularly illustrating the air circulating
fans or blades forming part of the cooling system;
-. Figs. 6 and 6a are enlarged fragmentary views
lifting surfaces or wings arranged in alignment
‘of a portion of the fuselage of the plane, particu
or substantially so and having a high degree of
larly illustrating the control valves for regulating
stability, efficiency and strength.
Another object is to provide what is herein 50 the amount of atmospheric air admitted to th
cooling system;
termed a “niulti-wingdn-line” plane wherein mo
tors with the propellers may be mounted to coact
Figs, 7,‘ 8 and 9'are, respectively, views in top
with the wings of the plane in such a. manner as
to obtain maximum lift, cooling efficiency, sta
bility and other advantageous factors.
‘
plan, side and end elevation of a large liner or
heavy bomber type of multi-wing-in-line plane.
Fig. 10‘is a diagrammatic representation of the
2,406,625
4
cooling system hereinafter described if desired
3
air pressures encountered by a plane of the type
herein disclosed;
Fig, 11 illustrates how the plane maybe con-'
trolled by manipulating the ailerons, and wing
flaps;
'
Fig. 12 illustrates a preferred type of aileron;
or found necessary.
These inlets may be pro
vided with closures adjustable to regulate the
openings de?ned thereby,
5
Projecting laterally from the central hollow
body l0 are a series of lifting surfaces or wings
20, 20', 2|, 2|’, 22, 22' and 23, 23’, said wings in
Figs. 13 and 14 are diagrammatic views illus
whole or in part being of hollow construction as is
trating, respectively, the action of a pair of
best shown in Fig. 4.
aligned wings in free air and with propellers
10
v‘At 'their outer ends, the wings are connected
mountedin reanthereof.
‘longitudinally of the plane by elongated tubular
Fig. 15 illustrates diagrammatically the "action
reinforced members 24 and 24’, the said members
of the air currents when a pair of motors are
rde?ning air-circulating ducts 25 and 25', which
placed in alignment within a streamlined body? in
:in connection with ducts 26 and 25' provide a path
accordance with the present invention, and .Fig.
15a illustrates the action when the motors are 15 for the circulation of air from the motor compart
‘iment IMtoeffect cooling of the motors as will be
placed at opposite ends of the body.
.more.fully hereinafter explained. The tubes 25
Fig. 16 is a diagrammatic .illustration of :how
are preferably provided with longitudinal ?ns 24a
two propellers placed close together and rotating
stoieliminate or reduce “tip vortices” in a manner
in opposite directions coact to increasee?iciency,
particularly at high speeds, and Fig. 16a illus 20 to be described.
The cooling system [is ,preferably divided-into a
tratesho-w the efficiency decreases when-‘the pro
plurality of separate circulating channels .by
pellers are spaced ~—a vmaterial distance from one
'means'of partition-sl?and-?', any desired num
another;
ber- of ~.which'may .be-provided. and having at their
Figs. l'landl'laarefurther diagrams illustrat~
.ing, respectively, -the trend of the air currents '25 inner ends control -valves~28 .and28’, said valves
being .underthecontrol of the pilot or pilots in
when’ acted‘ on by .two closely-disposed:propellers
any suitable manner; either. manual- or' automatic.
rotating in the same direction, and when'acted
:As shownin'Fig ~1, thereare four lifting sur
on by two propellers rotating in opposite .direc—
faces or ‘wings provided in theexample usedfor
tions;
Fig. .‘18'is a'v-iew in sectional siderelevationr'ofsa 30 the ‘purpose of-illustration, but it will beapparent
that anynumber of wings may be provided inac
type * of apparatus ‘which ‘may {be used ‘to control
cordance with the size-of the plane and whichis
the ailerons together ‘with wiring, diagram;
exempli?ed in the modi?cation shown in‘Figs. ‘7,
Fig. 19 is a section onthe 1ine -|-9—|9,.Fig..l8;
8 andr9v,>to-be more fully described.
:Fig. 20 .is a ‘view .in side elevationof ~the'air
plane .of .Figs. '1 ‘to 4,;inclusive, *showinghow ethe 35 The wing connecting and reinforcing members
7,24 and 24’ arecross connected at the rearends
ailerons may .beoperatedifromla common control.
by'a-tail pieces29 which-is‘. also of hollow construc
FigureZl is fragmentary view insidexeleva
tion and in conjunction with the said tubular
tion 'of aiportion of anaairplane, ‘illustrating a
members provides ducts for-the circulation of vair
combined 'wing flap and air inlet'and-exhaust
40 vandconstitutes,part ofthe cooling system,.note
valve construction;
Fig-1.
Fig. 22 is a view similar to Fig. 1 but shoWin-g'a
Tocontrolthe amount of ‘atmospheric air .ad
slightly‘ diiferent arrangement of saidvval-ve .fl'aps;
initted into thecooling system and .to also defi
:Fig.:23isiaitopplanview.of Fig. 22;
nitely regulate the cooling temperature of the
Fig. .24 illustrates diagrammatically :electrical
139a,, 3%
control mechanism for-‘operating :the'combined l5>airlin thesystem, valve assemblies
wing flaps and air valves;
and i300 .are ‘mounted at-the opposite ends of .the
mechanism ‘may be used. At'the 'rear extremity
of the fuselage an additional compartment l2
with ring .3! by'means of crank Sid andarm ?le
secured on end of shaft 3|)‘, the latter carrying
‘crank arms Big which .pivotally connect with
‘links Slh in turn connected .to .ring 3|. .Any
‘numberof valve .units may be employed around
motor compartment .4, each assembly preferably
Figs. v25,, '26 and Z'Yare views, respectively, in
\beingconstructed-as shownin. Fig. 6 andconsist
side elevation, plan and end elevation of 1355111211
ing of coacting outerandinner vanes or
53M,
airplane of :the privatepassenger type- constructed
v50 7396 connected .to one another by ‘links - 1553f and
in accordancewiththe invention;.- and
see and to .an operating ring :3! by link ‘Ma.
Figs. 28, 29 and30 are also qviewslinrsideieleva
These valves or vanes are adapted to regulate
.tion, plan and-end elevation of.a low-wing .truss
the
amount of ‘airadmitted through ports or
type plane with motors in line.
openings 32 ‘formed ‘in the vwall of the hollow
Referring to the drawings in detail, and first to
Figs. 1 to 6, inclusive, an airplane illustrative of 55~body 1.9.
The ring ‘is-"slotted and mounted on headed
theinvention comprises a .fuselage-orzanalogous
studs
or bolts for limited sliding movementin the
elongated hollow body generally indicatedat l!)
compartment M of the fuselage. Toactuate or
and whichmay be divided .into any number of
recipro-cate‘the ring, a motor 3|b-isprovided and
compartments arranged in any suitable manner.
At the front extremity of the fuselage there ispro 60 is preferably automatically controlled by .the
thermostatic switch unit -3|c, adapted to start
vided a pilot and/or passenger compartment ‘TI
or stop-the motorein accordance with a predeter
wherein the .various controls'may'b'e located and
.mined temperature setting. >Motor3|b connects
which are not “shown since any'suitable ‘control
which'mayibeutilized to accommodate passengers,
‘freight-orifthe plane be of military type, a gun
“mount or for'any other suitable purpose. I'I‘heitail
of the fuselage-may beprovided with aru'dder ‘I53
controlled ‘from the ‘pilot's compartment. Elie
intermediate portion of the fuselage (defines a
compartment .M'having a series ofmotors |5,l|6,
All and [amounted therein. Above'the motorsarje
air scoops or v‘inlets 19 ‘for admitting air ‘to‘ith‘e
motors in addition to ‘that ‘afforded byzthe regular 75
the compartment M under thecontrol of ring 3|.
It will be seenithat when the motor compart
.ment reaches .a certain temperature, thermostat
'3 i 0 --will start motor »3 | b and actuate ‘valve flaps
or vanesziiild and Bile through ring 3|. Fig. 6a
shows "the ‘flaps in closed ‘position.
As is best'shown in Figs. '2 ande, themotors
5
2,406,625
|5—|8 are fully enclosed in the compartment l4
and offer no impediment to a full streamline de
sign.‘ vThese motors are provided with individual
propellers 33, 34, 35 and 36 which are designed
to rotate in different directionsbut exert a uni 75
system may be completely closed or opened to the
atmosphere. When these valves are closed, heat
exchange or transfer takes place solely by con
duction, whereas when they are opened to vary
ing degrees, heat transfer takes place through
directional propulsion on the air stream; This
conduction and convection. Wind resistance is
may be‘done, as will be understood, by properly
of course reduced to a minimum when the valves
canting or shaping the blades of the propellers.
are fully closed but it will be noted that the ar
The advantages of this arrangement will‘be re
rangement is such as to oifer a minimum amount
ferred to more fully in the subsequent description. 10 of resistance to air flow, due to the fact that de-
At the point in the motor compartment section
of the fuselage where the propeller hubs rotate,
the shell is separated as best shown in Fig. 5.
and at the points of separation is preferably pro
vided with ?anges 31 adapted to telescope into 1
flanges as secured to the hub 39 of ‘the respective
propellers and reduce loss of air from the cooling
system at this point to a minimum. Like ?anges
310: and 38a are secured to the. propeller hubs
between adjacent propellers.
The divided fuselage is braced and reinforced ‘
primarily by the outer tubular members 24 and
24'. However, additional reinforcing and stabi
flector wings or blades 30d and 39a cause the air
to flow smoothly through the motor compartment.
Due to the fact that the propeller blades start
well out from the hubs‘ of the propellers, the
tendency for ice to accumulate on the propeller
blades is also reduced to a minimum, since it
is known that the heat created by air friction
within a certain radius surrounding the hub is
sufficient to prevent ice formation within this
radius. Also, larger propellers can be made
stronger due to the fact that the blades start
"well out from the center of the drive shaft.
The following observations are not to be con
strued as limitations since it is extremely diffi
able or'necessary. As for instance one propeller 25 cult if not impossible to make satisfactory tests
hub axis or center may be provided with a bear
in the conventional wind tunnel. Hence, these
ing 40 to receive a shaft end 48a projecting from
observations are based partly on theory and may
the center of the adjacent propeller hub.
be in error in certain respects:
Means for setting up a forced circulation of air
Fig. 10 represents diagrammatically the differ
through the cooling systemis provided and pref -30 ent pressures encountered by a multi-wing-in
erably comprises a series of fans indicated at 4|
line plane of the type herein disclosed. The axial
and 4!’ in Fig. 5, the blades of which are struck
lines at 46 and 4'! represent the upper and lower
or projected outwardly from the hub centers or
surface area respectively of the plane generally
drive shafts 42 of the motors'and may constitute
indicated at 48, and the shaded areas above and
spider arms for effecting a driving connecting
below these lines- represent the varying pres
between said drive shafts and the propellers. It
sures encountered by these surfaces. It will be ‘
is preferred to construct a'fan in each propeller
noted that the pressures on the lower surface
hub 39 although any number may be provided
are predominately lift, while the same is true
commensurate with the desired capacity of the
with
respect to the pressures on the upper sur
cooling system.
’
40 faces. This also indicates why in an ordinary
Each or any selected number of the Wings
wind tunnel where an effort is made to equalize,
22—23’ may be provided with individual ailerons
the flow and speed of the pressure of the air, it
generally indicated at 43 and one of which is
would be di?icult to make a test of a plane of
shown more or less in detail in Fig. 12. These
the multi-wing-in-line type. These pressures
ailerons may comprise control vanes or flaps 43a 45 are in?uenced by the location and action of the
and 4322 which are pivotally connected to one
propellers. When a propeller operates it creates
another at 4-30, the flap 43b. in turn being mount
a low pressure area in front or in advance there
lizing structure may be provided if found desir
ed on a pivot M within the trailing edge of its
wing. Any suitable control mechanism may be
of and a high pressure area in rear. The low
pressure area extends to the face of the blades,
used for the ailerons, a preferred type being illus- 50 and all air in'front of the propeller is held in
trated in Figs. 18, 19 and 20 to be described.
'
a fairly smooth state regardless of other fac
. .The flow channels of the air are indicated in
Figs. 1 and 4. The fans!“ and 4!’ in the hubs
of the propellers set up a forced ‘circulation of
tors which would normally influence air cur
rents. Air tends to move-toward the low pres
sure area created by the propeller in a straight
outwardly through the Wings and. thence: 55 line.
'
through the reinforcing tubes and back to the
The
high
pressure
area in back of the propeller
fuselage, the valves 28, 28' serving as ba?les to
is made slightly turbulent by the action of the
direct the air into the wing sections. Also, air
propeller blade- section, and this pressure is re
is forced rearwardly through the tail of the cen
duced slowly in the rear of the last propeller and
tral body It and into the tail piece 29, at which, 60 affects the air for a considerable distance in
point it divides and returns to the'motor com
rear of the plane. It is impractical to place a
partment through the tubes 24 and 24'; As the
wing far enough in rear of a plane to be back
air ?ows through the hollow wings and. reinforc
of the affected area. The pressure behind the
tubes, it is subjected to cooling oriheat ex
blades tends to move the air in the direction of
change, and which cooling may vary considerably j
depending upon the temperatures encountered 65 least resistance, which kills part of the lift of
the wing due to added pressure on the upper sur
by the moving planer Also, the’ circulating air
faces of the wing.
mayv serve to heat the surfaces of the wings and
In Fig. 13 an attempt is made to illustrate the
tubes and eliminate or reduce ice formation.
action of aligned wings in free air. From points
The rate of speed of cooling is in direct pro ‘70 4-9 and 49' back, orto the right as viewedv in.
portion to the area of surface exposed to the
Fig. 113', turbulence of vthe air'is set up in the. high
atmosphere. By the design herein disclosed,
pressure areas, indicated at 59 and 50', tending
ample exposed cooling‘ surface is available to
to ‘equalize the vacuum created in the low pres
obtain e?icient cooling over a widerange of tem
sure areas, indicated at 5! and 5!’.
Two forces
peratures. By regulating the valves 30, 30c, the 175 ?ght for ‘control, viz: The force of de?ected air
2,406,625
7
in motion and. the tendency of the high pressure
air to move to the low pressure area.
The lower
surface of wing 2 is in the equalizing zone of
wing I. It is dif?cult to obtain lift in turbulent
areas as the pressures on the lower and upper
surfaces tend to equalize.
Fig. 14: is an attempt to illustrate the action
8
up a certain amount of pressure which is in
creased by the action of the second propeller,
assuming that the latter is close enoughso that
pressure does not leak out around the outside of
the propeller area.
Fig. 16a illustrates how the efficiency is re
duced when the propellers are spaced a material
distance from one another or at opposite ends of
of a pair of aligned wings with propellers in rear
a hollow body. Note that in this instance there
thereof. The high pressure‘ areas are here indi
cated at 52 and 52’, the low pressure areas at 10 is a pressure leak, in the area between the pro
pellers. Tests indicate that propellers operating
53 and 53’, the pressures in the area in line with
close together and in opposite directions as illus
trated in Fig. 16 reach peak efficiency at ap
lines are below atmospheric. The rotating pro
proximately 450 miles per hour, whereas pro
pellers tend to straighten out flow of air by per
mitting expansion in a horizontal direction more,» 15 pellers operating in opposite directions but
the propeller blades and designated by straight
easily than in other directions, thereby reducing
turbulence.
The rotation of propellers in opposite direc
tions has an important influence in stabilizing
the plane, since there is a gyroscopical action
which tends to balance torque. This gyroscopical
action also reduces the tendency to roll and
which tendency would otherwise be particularly
dangerous during the take-off, where the in
creased friction on one wheel, or that carrying
the load, ofttimes causes a plane to turn in that
direction and produces an uncontrollable ground
loop. Furthermore, rotation of the propellers in
opposite directions forces the slipstream straight
back, further assisting in balancing the plane at
all speeds and reducing the drag. In Fig. 2, the
spaced relatively far apart‘ as in Fig. 16a, reach
peak efficiency at approximately 350 miles per
hour.
The speci?c pounds pressure indicated in Figs.
16 and 16a are simply illustrative of the relative
differences between different areas affected by
propellers.
Figs. 17 and 17a represent diagrammatically
the action of two propellers spaced close together
and rotating in the same direction (Fig. 1'?) and
two propellers spaced in a like manner but rotat
ing in reverse directions (Fig. 17a). In Fig. 17,
where the propellers rotate in the same direc
tion, the air tends .to rotate around the hollow
body immediately in rear of the propellers,
whereas when they rotate in opposite directions,
the air is taken by the second propeller and
forced straight back with a minimum of turbu
center of lift and gyroscopic action lies in the
area intermediate the two sets of propellers.
lence.
The design of my improved plane whereby the
My improved design permits the engines or
motors may be enclosed in a hollow streamline 35
motors
to be mounted face to face and close
body and cooled by air circulated through the
together, with the propellers also mounted in
interior of the plane permits the location of the
close relation and rotating in opposite directions,
propellers at an intermediate point along the
resulting in a reduction in drag and a marked
body and does not require the motors to be
increase
in efficiency, particularly at high speeds.
located at the ends of the body to obtain the
Another feature to be noted is that the motors
necessary cooling. Fig. 15 shows the action of
can be more readily protected from ?re, since the
the air stream when motors are housed within
compartment which houses the motors can be
a hollow streamlined body with propellers rotat
shut off from the outside air and chemicals and
ing in opposite directions in closely spaced rela
tion. It will be noted that the air stream is‘ , other smothering agencies placed near the mo
tors for release and use when required,
directed substantially straight back by the pro
A common difficulty encountered in planes
pellers, resulting in greater efficiency. Fig. 15a,
wherein the tips of the wings are free are the
shows the action when the motors and propellers
so-called “tip vortices,” and which are appar
are mounted at the ends of a fuselage or other
ently caused by the transfer of pressure from the
hollow body, the air being compressed at the
lower to the upper surfaces over the low pres
nose of the fuselage while at the same time it
sure area adjacent the outer end of the Wing.
is being worked on by the propeller, the latter
The outer reinforcing tubes 24 and 24’ with their
throwing the air at an angle rather than straight
?ns 24a have the effect of streamlining the tip
back._ The e?icient action of the back propeller
of each Wing so that pressure at this point is
"
55
is interfered with by the air trying to follow
substantially constant and loss of effective wing
the receding surfaces at this point. When the
area is materially reduced. These tubes present
motors and propellers are positioned as in Fig.
a clean surface to the air stream which tends to
15, the fuselage or hollow body can be designed
eliminate turbulent air movements. Thus, these
with a full streamline effect, the mounting of
tubes not only support the plane and provide
the motors not hindering the design.
.60
channels for circulation of air but alsodecrease
Fig. 16 illustrates diagrammatically the rela
tip
loss with little or no increase in drag.
tive pressure areas resulting from positioning of
Figs, '7, 8 and 9 illustrate how my improved
oppositely rotating propellers intermediate of a
construction adapts itself to practically unlimited
fuselage or hollow body. When two propellers
are placed close together and operated in oppo 65 sizes of airplanes. In these figures, the central
hollow body or fuselage is generally indicated at
site directions as here shown; a straightening
E0 and has projecting laterally therefrom a series
action ensues with respect to the air, the latter
of lifting surfaces in the form of wings or wing
being forced rearwarclly in a straight line. An- ,
spars
6|, BI’, 62, 62’. The wings 6|, GI’, and '62,
other advantage is thatwhen the air is forced
straight back, the tail assembly is more efficient 70 62' are connected alternately at different levels
to the central hollow body or fuselage 6G with
as the air is not turbulent and pressure is sub
the upper and lower sets substantially in align—
stantially equalized over all surfaces. When the
propellers operate close together and in opposite
ment, both sets projecting laterally outwardly in
converging relation and being connected at their
stage water pumps, the ?rst propeller building 75 outer ends to reinforcing tubes 63 and 63’. It
directions their action may be compared to two
2,406,625 ‘
9
,
will be noted that the wings are thus arranged in
truss formation‘ and to further reinforce the
structure, a plurality of‘ intermediate tubes ,54,
l0
.
..Various types of controls may be adopted for
the ailerons. However. it-lis preferred to use a
control; whereby the ship will be automatically
maintained. in horizontal position during normal
the wings and extend from one end of the plane 5 :flight travelrand may be caused to climb or drop
to the other.
'
at the will of the pilot While maintained in such
Instead of mounting the motors and propellers
position.‘ Such type of ‘control is illustrated in
in the central hollow body or fuselage 60, they
Figs. 18, 19 and '20.
65, 66 and 61 may be connected longitudinally of ~
are mounted at spaced points along the inter- ,
mediate tubes 64-—6l, the propellers being indi
10
First referring to Fig. 18, one of the wings of
the plane ishere indicated at 12 ‘and has pivoted
- cated at 68. The motors may be mounted within
at the trailing edge thereof an aileron or wing
?ap 13 which is secured on a shaft 14, mounted
the motors l5, [6 are mounted Within the central
in hearings in a recessed portion of the Wing. Se
hollow body or fuselage of Figs. 1 and 2, and the
cured on the shaft 14 is a segmental gear 15
air circulating and cooling system may also be 15 which is driven from motors 16 and ‘I’! through
constructed in substantially the same manner.
suitable reduction gearing, including pinions l8
Since the wings or wing spars are supported on
and 19 in mesh with gear Bil, the latter being
these tubes in substantially the same manner as -
both ends, they require less weight for equal lift
. secured on shaft 8| provided with pinion 8i’ in
of square foot of wing area than would be re
mesh with'the segmental gear 15.
quired in .the conventional type of plane. , The
The motors 16 and 17 are preferably of the
tail piece of the central hollow body or fuselage .
direct current reversible type and controlled
may be provided with a rudder B9 and a stabilizer
throughthe medium of a?uid or mercury switch
‘H! which may, if desired, be in the form of a
[comprising tube 82, which is ‘of overall arcuate
main ?ap. However, in this instance it is pre
formation having on opposite sides of the central
ferred .to mount a plurality of flaps ill in the 25 portion; thereof annular depressions de?ning
trailing edges of all or any selected number of
raised portions or ridges 83‘and 83’. Between
the wings or Wing spars 6l—6.2' and effect‘ con
these annular recessed portions the tube is
trol of the plane in the manner indicated in Fig.
formed with a depression or well 84 adapted to
11; note in this latter ?gure how the ailerons may
receive a globule of mercury 85. The globulelof.
be manipulated to cause the plane ,to climb or 30 mercury is of such volume or size as to‘ normally
drop without changing its angular position with
maintain itself within the con?nes of the well
respect to the horizontal and how also the plan
84 under skin tension when the tube 82 is in a
may be caused to climb or dive. '
'
With this type of airplane construction, prac
tically unlimited sizes may be obtained. Addi
tional power does not add drag, and a large
substantially horizontal position, but when the
tube is- rocked to a predetermined angular po
35 sition with respect to the horizontal, the skin
of the globule is stretched or expanded permitting
the mercury to bridge pairs of contacts 86 and
81, depending upon the direction 'in'which it is
rocked. The contacts 86 are connected by wires
number of engines increase the safety factor.
To add wing area it is not necessary to increase
the length of the wing or wing spars beyond
an economical point or to increase the wing 40 or electrical conduits 86a and 86b to one side of
chord beyond economical construction.
.
the motors 16 and 71,‘ while the contacts 81 are
This type of plane is well adapted for the
connected through similar wires or conduits 81a
full utilization of both dynamic and induced lift
and‘ 81b to the opposite or reverse sides of the
forces,.due to the fact that the wings are between
motors 16 and 11.
the fuselage and the outside reinforcing tubes 45 The‘ tube 82 is mounted in a cradle assembly
where large size ailerons or ?aps can be used
including holder 88 which is‘ pivoted at 89, said
without undue strain.
holder having connected thereto an arm 96 which
Motors and control ?aps can be used in land
is under manualcontrol of the pilot by means
ing with the power 'on since the force of the
of cables 9| and 9|’.
,
'
propellers will keep the plane up at slow speeds 50 To maintain the tube; 82 in the desired posi
when high ?ap lift and high ?ap drag are used
tion and-togovernlthe sensitivity‘of control, the
in landing. It is unnecessary to balance the ,,
plane on one center of pressure, and thus the,
fuselage can be made longer and narrower and
this will decrease drag, particularly on large 55
planes as ‘it is necessary to streamline in one
direction only.
'
To facilitate fabrication of the plane in vary
ing sizes and as an advantageous manufacturing
holder 88 is provided with a contact member in
the form of a projection rib 92, and the arm 90
is provided with set screws 93 and 93' adjustable
with respect to thelprojection 92 to determine
the position‘ of said tube with respect to said
arm or to‘, permit a certain amount of play be
tween these parts.-
I
-
To automatically maintain the tube 82 in its
feature in general, the outer reinforcing tubes 60 predetermined horizontal position when not un
24, 24’ of Fig. 1, or the tubes 63-431 of Fig. ‘7,
der direct control of the pilot, centering means
may be jointed as indicated at ‘H and ‘H’, re
spectively, so that the parts may be made in
sections, each section including one or more
‘ is provided and includes a relatively stationary
bracket 94, note also Fig. 19, having mounted
wings. These joints may be made by .riveting, 65 therein springs‘95'and 95' which a're'anchored
Welding or in any other suitable manner.
at their outer ends to the bracket and at their
My improved design has an important advan
tage from a manufacturing standpoint. For ex
ample, the ?nned tubes 24 and 24' may be made
from a matched pair of stampings, and what is
more important, the wing stampings may be uni
form throughout with each wing made up of a
pair of stampings. This not only simpli?es‘
manufacture but also reduces engineering and
inner ends are ‘connected to the lever 90." A cen
tering or detent member 96 is projected through
the lower extremity of the lever 90 and is adapted
design costs.
-
'
0 to center itselfin a recess or depression 91 formed
in the face of the bracket 94.
In operation, ‘the pilot may rock the lever 90
to vary the position of the tube 82 and selectively
bridge the contacts 86 or 81 and close the circuits
75 to the motors l6 and 11 to drive the latter in
12
ll‘
reverse directions and‘ thereby controll the-‘posi
tion-of the ailerons-0r wing flap-13;
- ‘
The control of an entire group of wingf?aps»
or ailerons may be‘ had from a common point,
as‘ for example, a selected flap, and this ?ap
connected by cables 98 and 98’ and arms $92120v
the entire group of flaps, note Fig. 20,- whicndia
grammatically illustrates the hookup.
atone end to a‘ cable I28‘ which is'iextended in
the form of alink I21 to the crank arm of‘motor
I I1’, which may be controlled in amanner‘similar
to the motor H1 of Fig. 26. The valves I22 and
I23 maybe closed against the resistance of springs
I28, I28’.
Combined'wing flaps‘ and air valves of the type
shown in Figs. 21 to 24 inclusive are primarily
adapted for use on the take off and landing peri
If reference is had to Figs. 11 and 20lin con
junction with Fig. 18, the operation willlbev'readily 1O ods to increase the lift of the wings at that time
understood.
Thus the ship; may climb without
changing its angular position with respect to- the
horizontal and also drop without changing such
position. If the pilot wishes to maneuver by
and at the‘same' time step up the circulation of
air under low speeds. However, the control may
obviously. be used at any time.
Fig. 23 illustrates the circulatory path of the
air
currents from the ports in the leading wings
going into a nose dive or climb, the?aps maybe 15' through the passages de?ned by the hollowwvings,
controlled in individual groups; so that the angu
and central body or motor compartment; and
lar position with respect to one another may be
thence‘ out through the trailing wings and the
variedr However, elevators- are-noté necessary in;
ports in the lower walls of the latter.
an airplane of this type.» Also,the¢ship1canbe»
Figs. 25, 26 and 2'? illustrate how my improved
turned without a rudder by ?rst rolling the plane
aircraft
construction can be readily adapted to
with“ the ailerons and. then turning the plane‘by
‘ small planes, such as private passenger types. In
using thefront and rear lift-surfacesias a. rudder.
this instance the central hollow body or fuselage
Figs-.21 to 24 inclusive-illustrate a combined
is indicated at I30. and is provided with a pas
wing flapand air inlet andexhaust valve arrange
ment. In these ?gures the central‘ hollow? body 25 senger or pilot compartment I3I and a motor
compartment I32 mounting a pair of motors I33;
is indicated at I60 and haszmounte'd-thereinmo
The wings or wing spars are indicated at" I34, I35
tors IUI and I02~whichface one another and are
and I36, there being three used in. this.‘ small
provided with propellers I83 and‘ I04. A pair“ of
model connected in line at their outer ends by
frontor leading wingsareifndicatedgati I85 and a
reinforcing tubes I31, I31’ and at an‘ intermediate
set of trailing wings at I06,,the reinforcing. tubes
point‘ by tubes I38 and I38’. The wings may be
which join these wings beingindicated at I81,
made of one or more‘. pieces of metal stamped or
Each of the. front or leading. set. of. wings.v is.
welded to one or more relatively light spars‘ or
provided with an air inlet valve and. wing. ?ap‘
reinforcing tubes‘.
I88 which is adapted. to control the amount of
These figures also illustrate a. type of propeller
351
air entering a valve opening. or port; I09. formed
mount
andtdrivel which may be found desirable
in the upper wall. of the wing, the said’. combined
in1 an airplane: of the type contemplated herein.
valve and ?ap member being curvedv forwardly
The? two motors; shown’v at I33 drive propellers
so as to. guide the air into. saidvport- This?ap
I39‘, I39" and‘ I48‘, I33.’ through V'belts' MI, MI’
has a contour such. as willlower the pressureon
and‘ outer and inner‘ sets of: variable speed pulleys
the upper surface of. the wing and thereby in ~10 '
I42, I42’ and; I213’, I43’, the inner sets of'pulleys
crease the lift. A. coactin'g. combined wing. flap.
being mounted‘. on the. drive- shafts of the. motors
and valve member I I0 is'mounted in the trailing
and’. the outer sets of. pulleys being mounted on
wing I06 and is adapted to. control an. exhaust
the propeller" drive: shafts. The front motor
port III formed in the bottom wall of the wing, . drives:
the rear propellers I39‘, I39’ of eachpair
and to also increase lift. by increasing the pres gs (A
and the rear motor' drives‘ the rear' propellers
sure on the lower surface. of the.- trailingv wing.
I40, I40’ of each pair. The variable speed pulleys
The valve flaps I68’ and II ll’ are provided with.
are preferably arranged for adjustment from the
control levers H2, H3, which are preferably con
cockpit. By- varying the speed‘ of the propellers
nected up for combined manual and automatic
with:
the motor speed,‘ the same results can be
50
control. Where the front flaps open against the
achieved as. are obtained with variable pitch
wind, the type of control’ illustrated. in Figs. 21'
propellers‘ which are much more expensive and
and 24 may be adopted, the ends. of levers H2
complicated. The’ intermediate“ reinforcing. tubes
and H3 being connected. by cables H4 and,ll.5
I38, I38’ serve as housings for the propeller drive
for movement in unison.
The lever I I2 hascon
nected thereto a rod or link I I6 which is actuated .
shafts.
,
‘
It- will be noted that the wings are arranged
in truss formation which together with the rein
forcing tubes give" a' marked degree of strength
with minimum‘ weight.
tomatically controlled by thermostat I20 and/or
by means of an electrical circuit I2I leading. to 60 Figs. 28; 29 and 30 illustrate: a low wing trussv
type of plane using a pair of motors in line and
the pilot’s compartment.
arranged to permit a short-span“ landing gear
In Figs. 22 and 23 air control valves I22 and
with. large diameter propellers. In this instance
I23 are shown having substantially the same func
they central hollow body or fuselage is indicated
tion as valve flaps I08 and III] of Figs. 21 and 24,
at I44 and has projecting therefrom a‘ series of
except that in this instance the valve of‘ the lead-_
wings or wing spars I45 and I48 arranged in
ing wing does not open against the resistance of‘
truss formation with the lower set of wings I46
the wind, forced draft from the propeller being
connected at their inner ends to the bottom’ of
depended upon primarily to step up air circula
the fuselage and the inner ends of the upper
tion, note that valve flap I22 opens inwardly to
set of wings I45 connected at a point just below
control port I24 while valve ?ap’ I-23' opens out‘
from motor H1 through crank arm H8. A relay
H9 is connected to the motor H1 by means of
an electrical circuit, said relay in turn being au
wardly and downwardly to control port I25.
When the trailing wing valve ?aps open they
the longitudinal center‘ of the fuselage. The
fuselage is preferably enlarged in- diameter at
an intermediate point, to provide a motor com
cause a pronounced draft effect or pull through
partment. IMQ. the motors (not shown) being
the ports which they control. In this instance,
arranged in line and mounting a pair. of pro
the levers H2 and H3 may each be connected 75
2,406,625
13
‘
14
pellers I41 and 148.- Thewlngs are reinforced
by’ outer streamlinedrreinforcing tubes I49 and
I49’.
-
~
"
'
a
'
,
a forced circulation‘ of air through the system
including fan blades mounted within the hubs
of the propellers.
.
It will be noted that the landing gear, indicated
5. In an airplane, a central elongated hollow
at I50 and l5l,voccupies a relative short overall
bodyv providing a fuselage and motor compart
ment, hollow wings joined at their inner ends
space. The gear should be of such height as to.
permit large diameter propellers'of ample capac
ity. rl‘he fuselage is shaped for maximum>
streamline efficiency in its front section‘ con
sistent with comfort and gradually (merges. into
the motor compartment, which maybe enlarged
to accommodate the motors.‘
v
- -
to said fuselage and projecting laterally out
wardly therefrom, elongated hollow tubular rein
_ forcing members joined to the outer ends‘ of said
wings and rigidly reinforcing the latter, one or
more motors mounted in said motor compart
ment and provided with drive shafts, propellers
'
-It willrbe understood that the foregoing de
mounted on said shafts and having propeller
scription and illustrations in the drawings are
not to be construed as limiting features, nor has
any attempt been made herein to enumerate all
blades projecting radially outwardly beyond the
hollow body, said propellers having hubs located
advantages of my improved plane.
Also, the
features of novelty are not to be'determined by
the disclosurein its more speci?c form but by
the scope of the claims appended hereto.
What is claimed is:
-
>
1. In an airplane, a central elongated hollow
body providing a fuselage, wings of hollow con
struction joined at their inner ends to said body
and projecting laterally outwardly therefrom,
hollow reinforcing members connecting the outer
ends of said wings, said hollow body, wings and
reinforcing members de?ning communicating
ducts for circulating air to provide a cooling or
heat transfer system for transferring heat in the
body section through the wings and reinforcing
members.
'
~
'
within the motor compartment, and fan blades
' mounted in said hubs to establi'sha forced circu
lation of air through said motor compartment
and thence outwardly through said wings into
said tubular reinforcing members and back to
said motor compartment.
6. In an airplane, a central elongated hollow
body providing a fuselage and a motor compart
ment, hollow wings joined at their inner ends
to said fuselage and projecting laterally out
wardly therefrom, said wings at their outer ends
being arranged in substantial alignment, hollow
tubular reinforcing members joined to the outer
ends of said wings holding the latter in rigid
301 aligned relation, the motor compartment together
‘ with said wings and reinforcing members form
ing a series of ducts for circulating air to effect
2. In an airplane, a central elongated hollow
cooling of the latter, a pair of motors mounted
body providing a fuselage and a motor compart
ment, motors mounted in said compartment‘ and
in said motor compartment and having rotating
propeller shafts, individual propellers mounted
provided with propellers extending radially out
wardly therebeyond, a plurality of wings of hol
on said shafts and arranged to rotate in reverse
directions, said propellers having hubs carrying
low construction joined at their inner ends to
blades shaped to coact with one another to effect
said hollow body and projecting laterally out-g
unidirectional propulsion,- and fan blades mount
wardly therefrom, and hollow tubular reinforc-_ 40 ed in said hubs and providingmeans for estab
ing members connected to the outer ends of said
lishing a forced circulation of air through said
wings and rigidly bracing the latter, the motor
ducts.
compartment, wings and reinforcing members
de?ning communicating air circulating ducts
forming part of a. cooling system for the-motors.
3. In an airplane,.a central elongated‘ hollow
body providing a fuselage and a motor compart
ment, motors mounted in said compartment and
provided with propellers extending radially out
7. In an airplane, a central elongated hollow
body providing a fuselage and'a motor compart
'“ ment, hollow wings. joined at their inner ends
to' said hollow body and projecting laterally out
wardly therefrom, said ‘wings at their outer ends
being arranged in substantial alignment, hollow
tubular reinforcing members joined to the outer
wardly beyond the compartment, a plurality of " ends of said wings and holding the latter in rigid
wings of hollow construction joined at their inner
ends to said hollow body and projecting laterally
outwardly therefrom, hollow tubular reinforcing
aligned relation, the motor compartment to
gether with said wings and reinforcing members
forming a series of ducts forv circulating air to
members connected ‘to the outer ends of said
effect cooling of the latter, a pair of motors
wings and rigidly bracing the latter, the hollow ‘55 mounted in said motor compartment and having
body, wings and reinforcing members de?ning
rotating propeller shafts projecting toward one
communicating ducts for circulating air forming
another, individual propellers mounted on said
part of a cooling system for the motors, and
drive shafts and arranged to rotate in reverse
means for establishing a forced circulation of
directions, said propellers having blades shaped
air through said system.
60 to coact with one another to effect unidirectional
4. In an airplane, a central elongated hollow
propulsion, the central portions of said propellers
body, providing a fuselage and a motor compart
carrying fan blades which rotate within‘ the
ment, motors mounted in said compartment and
motor compartment and provide means for es
provided with propellers having hubs rotating
in said compartment and blades extending radl- ‘
ally outwardly beyond the compartment, a plu
rality of wings of hollow construction joined at
their inner edges to said hollow body and pro
tablishing a forced circulation of air through said
ducts, and adjustable vanes for directing the air
from the motor compartment into said hollow
wings.
"
8." In an airplane, a central elongated hollow
jecting , laterally outwardly therefrom, hollow
body providing a fuselage and motor compart
tubular reinforcing members connected to the
outer ends of said wings and rigidly bracing the
latter, the motorcompartment, wings and rein
forcing members de?ning communicating ducts’
ment, hollow wings joinedlat their inner wings
to’said hollow body and projecting’ laterally out
wardlyv therefrom, hollow tubular reinforcing}
members joining the outer ends of said wings
for circulating air forming part of a cooling sys
and rigidly reinforcing, the latter, saidmotor
tern for the motors, and means for establishing‘ 75 compartment, hollow wings and reinforcing
2740.6;625:
members-providing a’ series of ducts formingpart
of a cooling system to effect cooling of the air,,
motors mounted in said motor compartment and
1'16
ends to saidbody and projecting laterally‘ out
wardly therefrom, hollow reinforcing tubes‘ con,
necting the outer ends of said wings and holding
the latter in rigid substantially aligned relation,
' the inner ends of said wingsat the point where
wardly beyond said compartment, and means
they connect to said body being arranged in
for admitting predetermined amounts of atmos
staggered'relation to provide a trussed construc
pheric air into said system.
tion, and additional reinforcing tubes connecting
9. Inan airplane, a central elongated hollow
said
wings between said central body and said
body providing a fuselage and motor compart
ment, hollow wings joined at their inner wings 10 outer end tubes.
14. In an airplane, a central elongated hollow
to-said hollow body and projecting laterally out
body
providing a fuselage, a series of- wings con->
wardly therefrom, hollow tubular reinforcing
nected at their inner ends to said body and pro
members joining the outer ends of said wings
jecting laterally outwardly therefrom, hollow
and rigidly reinforcing the latter, said motor
compartment, hollow wings and reinforcing 15 reinforcing tubes connecting the outer ends of
said wings and holding the latter in rigid submembers providing a series, of ducts forming
stantially; aligned relatiQnLthe inner ends of said
part of a cooling system to effect coolingof air,
wings at the- point where they connect to said
motors mounted in said motor compartment
body‘being arranged in alternate staggered rela
and provided with propellers projecting radially
outwardly beyond said compartment, and means 20. tion to provide a trussed construction, a plurality
of flaps mounted in the trailing edge, portions
for admitting atmospheric air into said system
of certain of said wings, and means for selec
including adjustable vanes. disposed at opposite
tively
controlling said ailerons, to assist in ma
extremities of the motor compartment and ar
neuvering the plane.
ranged to control ports formed in the wall of
15. In an airplane, a central elongated hollow
said hollow body.
25. body providing a fuselage and a motor compart
10. In an airplane, a central elongated hollow
ment,.hollow wings projecting laterally from said
body providing a fuselage and motor compart
fuselage, hollow reinforcing tubes connecting the
ment, hollow Wings joined at their inner ends
outer ends of said wings and holding the latter
to said fuselage and projecting laterally out
in
rigid substantially aligned relation, said hollow
wardly therefrom, hollow tubular reinforcing 30
body, wings and reinforcing‘ tubes’ providing a
members joining the outer ends of said wings
circulatory cooling system, means for propelling
and rigidly reinforcing the latter, said motor
the plane including a motor mounted in said
compartment, hollow wings and reinforcing
motor compartment and having propeller blades
members providing a series of ducts forming part
of a cooling system to effect cooling of air, motors 3.5: projecting radially outwardly beyond said com
partment, means operated by said motor for cir
mounted in said motor compartment and pro
culating a cooling medium through the cooling
vided with propellers projecting radially out
system, and ailerons-mounted within the trailing
wardly beyond said compartment, and means
edges of at least a pair of'said wings and con
for admitting atmospheric air into said system
including adjustable vanes disposed at opposite 40 trolled fromthe'fuselage to; assist in maneuvering
provided with propellers projecting radially out
extremities of the motor compartment and ar
ranged to control ports formed in the wall of
the plane.
16. An airplanecomprising a central elongated
hollow body providing. a fuselage and motor com
said'hollow body, said vanes being arranged to
partment, a plurality of hollow wings joined at
de?ect atmospheric air into the motor compart
their inner ends to said fuselage and projecting
45
ment at the forward end of’ the latter and to
later-ally outwardly therefrom, said wings being
de?ect air from said compartment to the atmos
arranged in trailing substantially aligned rela
phere at the rear extremity of said compartment.
tion, hollow reinforcing tubes connected to- the
11. In an airplane, hollow wingsor wing‘ spars
outer ends of said wings, motors mounted in said
arranged in trailing relation, a- series of elon
gated hollow tubes extending longitudinally of 50 motor compartment, said motors being arranged
in. pairs-facing one another and having reversely
the plane and connected to said wing spars to
rotating
propeller shafts with propellers thereon,
rigidly reinforce the latter, and to provide with
each, pair of propellers having blades projecting
the wings communicating ducts for‘ a cooling
radially outwardly beyond said motor compart
system, means for propelling the plane including
a pair of motors mounted in one of’ said tubes, 5.5 mentand. shaped to effect unidirectional propul
said motors facing one another and having pro
pellers projecting radially beyond the tube in
which the motors are mounted, said propellers
rotating in opposite directions to provide a gyro
sion, said propellers having hubs rotating within
the-motor compartment, fan blades mounted in
said, hubs to establish a forced circulation of air
through the motor compartment and thence out
scopic action and assist in balancing the plane 60 wardly through said wings and tubes and back
to said compartment, means for admitting con
when in ?ight and having blades arranged to
trolled amounts of atmospheric air into the sys
tem. and coacting means for releasing controlled
propulsion.
amounts of heated air from the system, there
12. In an airplane, a central elongated hollow
body, a series of wings connected at their inner‘ 65 being. a pair of propellers between the second
coact with‘ one another to effect unidirectional
and third wings. of the plane to thereby bring
ends to said body and projecting laterally out
the first and second wings within the area of pres
wardly therefrom, hollow reinforcing tubes con
sure affected by the rotating propellers to avoid
necting the outer ends of said wings and holding
turbulent air currents.
the latter in rigid substantially aligned relation,
17. In an airplane, a. central‘ elongated hollow
the inner ends of said wings at the point where 70
body providing a motor compartment, hollow
they connect to said fuselage being arranged in
wings projecting: laterally from said body, hollow
staggered relation to provide a trussed construc
reinforcing tubes connected to outer ends of said
tion.
wings; and holding; the latter in rigid substan
13. In an airplane,’ a central‘elongated-hollow
body, a series‘ of wings. connected at their inner. 75 tiallyaligned relation, a pair of-motors, mounted
2,406,620
4
18
17
in and enclosed by said hollow body, said motors
being positioned at a point intermediate the ends
of said body and in axial ‘alignment, propellers
operated by said motors and arranged closely
adjacent to and facing one another and rotating
in reverse directions but shaped to exert a uni
inlet ports formed insaid walls, like wing flaps
and‘ air valves mounted in the bottom walls of
at least one pair of trailing wings and controlling
air exhaust ports formed in said latter walls, and
means for automatically controlling said com
bined ?aps and valves to assist in maneuvering
the plane and to also establish a forced circula
tion of air through said system.
directional propelling force on the air, said hollow
body, wings and tubes providing a circulating
conduit, and means driven by said motors for
, 22. In an airplane, a central elongated hollow
circulating a cooling medium therethrough. '
body providing a fuselage and a motor compart~
ment, a plurality of wings projecting laterally
outwardlyfrom said body, reinforcing tubes con
necting the outer ends of said wings and main
taining the latter in aligned relation, interme
18. In an airplane, a central elongated hollow
body providing a motor compartment, hollow
Wings projecting laterally from said body, hollow
reinforcing tubes connected to outer ends of "said
wings and holding the latter in rigid substantially 15 diate hollow reinforcing tubes connecting said,
alignedrelation, said tubes being of streamlined
contour and having ?ns projecting outwardly
therefrom and extending longitudinally thereof
wings, propellers rotatably mounted in and having
hollow wings projecting laterally from said body,
the hollow wings and body de?ning 'communi?
23. In an airplane, a central elongated hollow
body providing a fuselage and a motor compart
blades projecting radiallybeyond said latter re
inforcing tubes, and one or more motors mounted
to prevent'air turbulence or “tip vortices” at the
in‘said motor compartment and having an opera
outer ends of the wings;' ' '
'
I
'
‘
20 tive‘drive connection through said hollow wings
19. In an airplane, an elongated hollow body,
with said propellers.
'
,
cating passageways forming part of an air circu
ment; a plurality of Wings projecting laterally
lating and cooling system for the airplane,“motors 25 outwardly, from said body, reinforcing tubes con
in said body and mounting propellers having
necting the outer'ends of said wings and main
blades projecting radially beyond said body, com
taining the latter in substantial aligned relation,
bined wing ?aps and air valves hingedly mounted
intermediate hollow reinforcing tubes also con-v
in the top walls of a pair of leading wings and
necting said wings, pairs of propellers rotatably
controlling air-inlet ports formed in said walls 30 mounted in and having blades projecting radially
and like wing ?aps and, air valves’mounted in
beyond ‘said latter reinforcing tubes, the propel
the lower wall of a setof trailing wings an'd'con
fears of each pair being mounted in aligned closely
trolling exhaust ports formed in said latter walls,
spaced relation, a pair of motors mounted in line
and means for- controlling said combined ?aps
in said'motor compartment and having an opera
and valves to assist in maneuvering the plane 35 tive variable-speed driveconnection through said
hollow wings with said propellers. '
through said wings and body.
24. In an airplane, wings arranged in substan
20. In an airplane, ‘an elongated hollow body,
tially horizontally aligned trailing relation, elon
and to also establish a forced circulation of air
hollow wings projecting laterally from said body,
the hollow wings and body, de?ning communi
gated tubular reinforcing members connecting the
cating passageways forming part of an air cir
gated hollow bodies of materially greater diame
outer ends of said wings and one or more elon
culating and cooling system for the airplane,
motors in said body and mounting propellers
having blades projecting radially beyond said '
body, combined wing flaps and air valves hingedly 45
mounted in the top walls of a‘ pair of leading
wings and controlling air-inlet ports formed in
said walls and like wing ?aps and air valves
mounted in the lower wall of a set of trailing
wings and controlling exhaust ports formed in 50
said latter walls, and means for controlling said
combined ?aps and valves to assist in maneuver
ing the plane and to also establish a forced circu
lation of air through said wings and body, the
combined wing flaps and valves of the leading
wings opening outwardly and upwardly in the 55
direction of travel of the airplane to “scoop” the
air into said inlet ports and increase the lift of
the wings and the combined wing flaps and valves
of the trailing wings opening outwardly and
downwardly away from the direction of travel
to induce a draft through the system and in
ter than said reinforcing members connecting the ,
wings longitudinally of the airplane at points
along the lateral extent of the Wings, said rein
forcing members having their leading extremities
of streamline contour and provided with ?ns
which project outwardly therefrom and extend
longitudinally thereof to prevent air turbulence
and tip vortices at the outer ends of the wings.
'25. In an airplane, an elongated hollow body
providing a fuselage, wings extending laterally
from said fuselage and having their outer ends
arranged in substantially aligned trailing relation
longitudinally of the airplane, reinforcing spars
connecting the outer ends of said wings and co
acting with said fuselage to hold the wings in
rigid aligned relation, and additional reinforcing
spars connecting said wings longitudinally of the
airplane intermediate said fuselage and said outer
60 reinforcing members.
'
276. In an airplane, an elongated hollow body
providing a fuselage, hollow wings connected at
crease the pressure on the lower surfaces of the
their inner ends to the fuselage and projecting
wings.
laterally outwardly therefrom, the outer ends of
21. In an airplane, a central elongated hollow 65 said wings being arranged in substantial align
body, hollow wings projecting laterally from said
body, elongated hollow members connected to and
reinforcing the'outer ends of said wings, motors
mounted in said body and provided with propel
ment longitudinally of the airplane, elongated
hollow bodies connected tothe outer ends of said
wing and coacting with the fuselage to hold the
wings in rigid aligned relation, the wings being
lers having blades projecting radially beyond said ‘ 70 hollow and open at their inner and outer ends re
body, said wings and body de?ning communicat
spectively to the fuselage and said reinforcing
ing passageways forming part of a cooling sys
tubes and the leading edges of the wings being
tem for the motors, combined wing flaps and air
closed.
valves disposed in the top walls of at least one
27. In an airplane, ‘an elongated hollow body
pair of leading wings and arranged to control air 75 providing a fuselage, a series of wings connected
2,406,625
19
at their inner ends to ‘said body and projecting
laterally outwardly therefrom and’ having their
outer ends arranged in substantial alignment
longitudinally of the airplane, elongated rein
forcing members connecting the outer ends of
said wings and holding the latter in rigid" aligned
20
partments and blades extending radially outward
ly beyond said hollow body, fan blades mounted
in said hubs to establish a forced circulation of
air through said hollow body, said propellers be
ing arranged in pairs with the hubs facing one
another, and means connecting each pair of hubs
and functioning to maintain said hubs in align
relation, the inner endsv of the wings at thepoint
ment and to stabilize the power system.
where they connect to the said hollow body being
30. ‘In an airplane, a central elongated hollow
arranged in alternate staggered relation longitu
body providing a fuselage and a motor compart
10”
dinally of the body to provide a trussed‘construc
ment, hollow wings projecting laterally from said
tion.
'
'
28'. In an airplane, an elongated hollow body
fuselage, hollow reinforcing tubes connecting the
outer ends of said wings and holding the latter
providing a fuselage, wings extending laterally
, in rigid substantially aligned relation, said hol
from said fuselage andhaving' their outer ends
body, wings and reinforcing tubes providing
arranged in substantially aligned trailing rela is» low
a circulatory cooling system, means for propelling
tion longitudinally of‘ the airplane, reinforcing
the plane including a motor mounted in said mo
spars connecting the outer ends of said'wings and
tor
compartment and having propeller blades pro
coacting with said fuselage ‘to hold the wings in
jecting radially outwardly beyond said compart
rigid aligned relation, additional reinforcing spars’
ment, and means operated by said motor for cir-'
connecting said wings longitudinally of‘ the air
culating a cooling medium through the cooling
plane intermediate said fuselage and‘ said outer
reinforcing members, and additional elongated
reinforcing members connecting the wings longi
tudinally of the airplane intermediate‘ said outer
reinforcing members and said hollow body.‘
29. In an airplane, a plurality of Wings or wing
spars arranged‘ in substantially aligned relation
system.
31. An airplane including a fuselage formed of
end sections and a plurality of duplicate interme
" diate sections by the selection of the proper num
ber of which a fuselage of the desired length is
obtained, said duplicate sections each having at
tached thereto at least one wing on each side, with
the outer end portions of the wings of the dupli
gated reinforcing members including a central
cate sections in substantial longitudinal align
elongated; hollow body providing a fuselage con 30? ment,
and reinforcing members connecting the
meeting said wings longitudinally of said plane,
aligned end portions of such wings at each side of
said fuselage body'being provided with a plurality
the fuselage.
,
of motor compartments, ‘motors disposed in said
THOMAS‘ WM. OGLESBY.
longitudinally of the airplane, one or more elon
compartments, propellers mounted on said motors
and having hubs rotating‘within the motor com
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