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Патент USA US2406637

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Aung. 27, 1946.
F'.l c. sANDRl-:TTO ET AL
2,406,637
RADIO DIRECTION FINDER
-Filed Jän. 12, 1942
_
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SQ SÜ 1
3 Sheets-Sheet 1 I
Aug. 27, 1946.
P. c. sANpRETTo ET A1.
2,406,637
RADIO' DIRECTION FINDER
Filed Jan. 12, 1942
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
Aug. 27, 1946.
P. c. sANDRETTo ET Ax.
2,406,637
RADIO DIRECTION FINDER
Filed Jan; l2, 1942
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
Mxm,
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Patented Aug. 27, 1946
at
UNITED STATES PATENT ÜFFÍCE
2,406,637
RADÍO DIRECTION FINDER
Peter C. Sandretto, Chicago, and Elmer P. Buck
thai, Brookfield, lill., assignors to United Air
Lines, Inc., a corporation of Delaware
Application raneaiy 12, 1942, 'serial No. 426,372
9 Claims.
The present application is a continuation in
part of our copending application Serial No.
403,802, ñled July 24, 1941, and entitled Radio
(Cl. Z50-«11)
2
ous output circuits from the radio frequency re
ceivers and the source of low frequency signaling
energy are arranged to be impressed on a single
transmission line which leads to the control sta
direction finder.
The invention relates to control systems for
tion. At the control station suitable selective
radio direction finders, more particularly to di
iter means are provided for separating the vari
rection finders of the type disclosed in our said
ous frequencies transmitted from the ñeld station
copending application and control means there
and conducting these separated frequencies to
for, and the invention has for an object the pro~
corresponding recording and indicating means.
Vision of reliable and accurately controlled di~ 10 In addition, the control station is provided with
rection finders cf this character.
a plurality of signal transmitting means for se
In various types of direction finders, and par
lectively imposing on the transmission line, signal
ticularly those having relatively large rotating
frequency currents of either continuous or in
antenna means such as are disclosed in cur said
termittent character for selectively controlling
prior application, it is necessary or desirable that
at the antenna site the operating motor, the an
the antenna structure and the receiver unit be
tenna connections, and the respective radio fre
located in a relatively open area of large size
quency receivers so as to effect the desired op
which is free from power lines, metal fences, and
eration of the direction finder system.
similar structures which might iniluence the ac
For a more complete understanding of the in
curacy of the bearings received. It is also desir 20 vention, reference should now be had tothe draw-able that the necessity for an attendant at the
ings in which:
,
site of the antenna structure be eliminated7 and
Figs. 1 and 2 are respectively the left- and
that the operator of the direction ñnder equip
right-hand sides ofl a single circuit diagram illus
ment be stationed in a readily accessible cfñce or
trating a remote control system and direction
control station remote from the antenna site.
25 finder embodying the present invention;
In receiving and recording the bearing records
Figs. 3 and 4 are, respectively, circuit diagrams
obtained through proper manipulation of the an
illustrating the detailed circuit connections of
tenna structure and in controlling these manipu
the selector control and cardioid control means
lations, it is of course necessary to transmit be
illustrated generally in Fig. l; and
tween the antenna structure and the remote con 30
Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic illustration of one of
trol station not only the incoming signals for
the radio frequency receivers.
producing the bearing record, but also a plurality
Referring now to the drawings, Fig. 1 illustrates
of outgoing signals, and it is of course undesir
somewhat diagrammatically the antenna struc
able to utilize separate control wires for each
ture and related equipment which comprise the
control or bearing signal. Accordingly, it is a
ñeld station located at the antenna site. The
further object of this invention to provide an
antenna structure is shown as comprising a pair
automatically controlled radio direction finder
of spaced apart shielded loop antennas il) and
and a remote control system therefor, wherein
Il, which are preferably, as described in our
a single transmission line is employed to carry
above referred to copending application, mounted
the various control signals between the antenna 40 in face-to-face relation on the opposite ends of
site and the remote control station.
a horizontally extending support or beam l2 which
In carrying out the invention in one form, we
provide at the antenna site or ñeld station an
antenna structure adapted to be selectively con
nected in a plurality of circuit arrangements to
provide bearing signals of different character,
means for controlling the circuit connections of
the antenna structure, and a plurality of radio
frequency receivers adapted selectively to be oon
nected to the antenna structure. In addition,
there is provided at the ñeld station a source of
relatively low signal frequency controlled by in
is carried on the upper end of a rotatable post
i3 mounted on a suitable base l5 containing a
driving motor and suitable gearing (not> shown)
' for rotating the post and the antenna structure
at a predetermined constant speed. Intermedi
ate the loop antennas IE! and H is a vertical an
tenna I4 mounted on substantially the laxis of
rotation of the post I3.
As is more fully explained in our copending
application, the loops l0 and Il are intended se
lectively to be connected in opposed parallel rela
dexing means associated with the antenna struc
tion with each other, so that either two or four
ture, and a motor for suitably rotating the an
hulls will be produced in the signal output of the
tenna structure at the desired speed. The varie. 5,5 receiver to which the loops are connected, de
2,406,637
3
4
generated equal respectively to the difference `be
pending upon the characteristics of the propagat
tween the carrier frequency and the frequency of
oscillator 35, and to the difference between the
carrier frequency and the frequency of oscillator
ing medium and the received radio wave, or one
or both of the loops may be connected in circuit
with the Vertical antenna I4 so that the output
signal of the receiver will follow the usual cardi
oid pattern for the purpose of indicating which
36. These two beat frequencies pass through the
intermediate frequency amplifier 3l which pref
erably is of the type having a Wide response curve,
and in the »second detector contained in the de
tector and audio amplifier 38 these two interme
diate frequencies beat together to form a beat
of the previously referred to nulls represents the .
true bearing of the transmitting station.
In order to provide for such selective connec
tion of the loops I0 and II and the antenna I4,
I6, is provided having a plurality of stationary
note having a frequency equal to the difference
between the ñxed frequencies of the two oscil
contacts I1, I8, I9, 20, and 2|, and co-operating
lators.
a switching means, which is illustrated as a relay
Y It will of course be understood that similar
movable contacts 22, 23, and 24. . It will'be ob
oscillators having an identical frequency separa
tion are associated with each of the radio fre
quency receivers 23, 29, and 30, as shown in Fig.
1. The arrangement i-s such that a constant beat
note equal to the frequency separation of the two
oscillators, which may be, for example, a fre
I1, 22, I9, and 23. Upon energization of the 20 quency
of 1020 cycles, will be produced at the out
relay I6, these contacts will open and the two
put of the audio amplifier regardless of the re
loops I0 and II will be connected in additive
spective frequencies of the carriers to which the
parallel relation with each other to the conduc
served that when the relay I6 is in the deener
gized position shown in the drawings, the loops
I0 and II will be connected in opposed parallel
circuit relation with each other to a pair of con
ductors or bus bars 25 through the relay contacts
various radio frequency receivers are tuned.
tors 25 through relay contacts I8, 22, 20, and 23,
25
the vertical antenna at the same time being con
nected to a third bus bar 26 through the relay
contacts 24 and 2|. The manner in which the
cardioid relay I6 is selectively energized, so as to
produce a cardioid pattern during one revolu
to control the `signal frequency supplied by a suit
able'oscillator 42. For purposes of illustration,
the oscillator is indicated as being capable of gen
erating a 120 cycle signaling frequency. As
tion of the antenna structure and thereafter to
connect the loops I0 and II in opposed parallel
relation during subsequent revolutions, will be
Y more fully described hereinafter.
Also associated with the antenna structure at
the field station >is aV suitable indexing means
which, as shown in Fig. 1, comprises a cam oper
. ated switch 4I] and an indexing relay 4I arranged
shown, the cam operated switch 40 includes a pair
of contacts 43 arranged to control the energizing
v
Associated with the antenna structure and
winding of the indexing relay 4I and an operating
adapted selectively to be connected to the bus
cam 44 which is carried by the post I3 so as to
bars 25 and 25, are a plurality of radio frequency
close the contacts 43 at a predetermined point
receivers 2'! to 30, inclusive. each of which is
during each revolution of the antenna structure.
tuned to one of the various frequencies on which
The indexing relay 4I is provided with two pairs
the direction finder is to be used.` suitable multi
ple pole switches 3| to 34V being provided for ef 40 of contacts 45 and 45, the contacts 45 being con
nected to control the oscillator 42 and the con
fecting the desired connection of the receivers to
tacts 46 forming a part of suitable cardioid .con
the bus bars. While four radio receivers are
trol means, indicated by the reference numeral
shown, it rwill of course be understood that any
41,' which will be more fully described hereinafter.
desired number may be provided, within the limits
In addition to the above referred to elements,
of the selector switch and the signaling means to
the field Istation equipment shown in Fig. 1 in
be hereinafter described for selectively operating
switches 3| to 34, inclusive.
.
-
While the radio frequency receivers may beof
any desired type, they are preferably of the type
described with particularity in our above referred
to copending application, wherein a pair of beat
oscillators are arranged to beat with the carrier
of the signal frequency to provide a c-o-nstant
audio output beatnote regardlessV of variations in
the carrier frequency. In Fig. 5 the receiver 2'!
is shown somewhat diagrammatically as includ
ing a converter tube IBI having a plurality of
control electrodes |02, |03 and |04, the control
electrode |04 being supplied withthe carrier fre
quency through the radio frequency stage (not
shown) of the receiver, and the control electrodes
|03 and |02 being respectively connected as
shown to suitable crystal oscillators 35 and 35.
'I'he oscillators 35 and 35 are arranged to produce
ñxed frequencies having a frequency difference
equal to the frequency which the band pass filter
54 (Fig. 2) is designed to pass.
For example, if the band pass filter is designed
to pass a frequency of 1020 cycles plus or minus
30, the frequencies of the oscillators 35 and 35
will be so selected as to have a frequency dif
ference equal to 1020 cycles. When the frequen
cies of the two crystal oscillators and the carrier
are impressed on the control electrodes of the
converter tube IOI, two beat frequencies will be
cludes a suitable selector switch 48 for selectively
controlling the switches 3| to 34,1inclusive, a lock
out relay 48a, and suitable selector control means
49, which control means 49 is illustrated in detail
in Fig. 3 and will be more fully described herein
after. As Isho-wn, the selector switch 48, the lock
out relay 48a, and the output side of the detector
and audio amplifier 33 are directly connected to
one end of the transmission line 39, While the
selector control means 49 and the E25 cycle oscil
lator are connected to the transmission line
through the contacts of the lockout relay. While
the single transmission line 39 may, of course,
60 comprise two conductors, one conductor is all that
is necessary, the return circuits being effected
through the usual ground connections as indi
cated in the drawings.
At the control station, which is shown in Fig. 2,
es the transmission line 39 i-s connected to a second
audio amplifier 5I, and the output of this audio
ampliñer is connected to a plurality of suitable
filter units 52, 53, 54, and 55. The filter unit 52
is a high pass filter unit, preferably capable of
70 passing frequencies of 300 cycles and above, and
is provided in order to insure the removal from
this branch of the incoming circuits of all of the
relatively low signaling and control frequencies.
As shown, the filter units 53 and 54 are connected
75 to the output of the ñlter unit 52, the iilter unit
2,406,637
5
53 being adapted to reject the constant beat note
frequency supplied to the transmission line by the
audio amplifier 33. Thus the output or this filter
53 contains all of the audio components above 399
cycles except a small spectrum around 1G20 cycles,
and accordingly any voice frequencies present in a
modulated carrier picked up by the antenna
structure are transmitted through this filter unit
53 to a suitable loud speaker 55 which comprises a
monitor channel. By means of this monitor
channel the operator is able to identify the various signals received and may listen for direc
tional bearing requests.
The band pass filter 5d is a highly selective
nlter adapted to pass frequencies having only a
plus orv minus variation of approximately 30 cycles
f fromY the beat note VVfrequency suppiied- by Vthe
6
ing switch 59 to control the energization of the
recorder motor 58. In addition to the above de
scribed equipment, the control station shown in
Fig. 2 includes a plurality of signal transmitting
means 6l, 68, and S9 adapted to be energized from
a suitable source of 60 cycle energy, the trans
mitting means 68 and S9 being connected, as
shown, to a suitable voltage divider` 'l0 whereby
the signal energy imposed on the transmission
line by the devices 68 and` 69 is at a reduced volt
age comprising only a fraction of the signal
energy voltage impressed by the device 61. All
of the devices 6l, E8v and E9 are connected by
means of a conductor ’il to the transmission line
39.
The transmitting means S1 is of the type adapt
to impress on a signaling circuit a's'elected
radio receivers to thetransmission line. The high
number of short impulses for controlling the se
order of selectivity employed in this filter, which
lector switch d~8, the number of impulses deter
is preferably a 1020 cycle unit, enables the re 20 mining tlie operation of the selector switch, and
moval of substantially all static interference side
this transmitting means may constitute an ordi
bands. It has been found that even under severe
nary telephone dial. The transmitting device -68
static conditions, the beat note present at the
constitutes a push~button controlled pulsing re
output terminal of the filter 5i is substantially
lay arrangement adapted, when the push button
pure, and of course` this beat note is present only
is operated, to transmit a single pulse of prede
when a carrier frequency is being received at the
termined duration. Such devices are of course
antenna station.
Well known in the art, and accordingly the details
The band pass filter 55, which is connected in
of the pulsing relay means have not been illus
parallel with the filter unit 52, is adapted to pass
trated. The third transmitting device comprises
the 120 cycle signal frequency placed on the 30 merely a manually operable double-pole single
transmission line by the oscillator 4Z, and it Will
throw switch adapted to be opened and closed, as
thus be seen that the frequencies passing over
desired, to impose on the signaling circuit a con
the transmission line from the antenna site are
tinuous 60 cycle signaling current and also to
separated into three distinct channels, one of
effect energization of the starting switch 59 for
which constitutes a 120 cycle indexing channel, 35 the record-er motor 58.
the second of which constitutes a 1020 cycle direc
With the above description of the component
tional signal channel, and the third of Which con
parte of the apparatus constituting the field sta
stitutes an audio monitor channel.
tion of Fig, l and the control station of Fig. 2,
In order that a continuous record of the signal
it is thought that a complete understanding of
intensity received at the antenna station and 40 our invention may now be had from a description
transmitted over the transmission line 3S may be
of the operation required to obtain a bearing on
produced at the control station of Fig. 2, re
any selected transmitting station. as, for example,
cording means of the type disclosed in our above
a transmitter carried by an airplane in flight,
referred to copending application are provided at
the bearing of which, with reference to the iield
the control station. In Fig. 2 the recording means
station, it is desired to determine.
is shown as comprising a rotatable drum or re
The first control operation, in order to put the
cording surface 5i adapted to be driven through
direction finder in condition for recording a bear
suitable reduction gearing (not shown) by a rnc
ing, is to start the loop rotating motor at the
tor 58, the energization of which is controlled. by
field station This may be accomplished simply
a suitable motor starting switch 5d. The motor 50 by pressing the push button of the transmitting
for the` recording means and the motor for the
device B8 so as to impress on the transmission
antenna structure are preferably of the synchro
line 39, through the conductor 1i. a measured
nous type, and are energized from suitable 60
pulse of 60 cycle energy at the previously referred
cycle sources of energy so that the recording drum
to reduced voltage Which is preferably less than
51 will be rotated in synchronism with the rotat- i - one~half the full line voltage of the 60 cycle»
ing antenna structure.
source and may be as low as two volts. The device
Associated with the recording drum is a trac
68 is so arranged that the pulse will be of a dura
ing element or pen 5B adapted to be energized
tion on the order of magnitude of one-tenth of
through a suitable rectifier 6l from the 1020 cycle
a second, regardless of the length of time that
channel containing the band pass iilter 54, the ` the push button is held in its depressed position.
recording pen 5S being preferably of the D’Arson
At the field station end of the transmission line
val type shown in our copending application, so
39, this pulse of low voltage 60 cycle energy is
that the pen, when energized, will trace on the
transmitted through conductors ‘l2 and 13, the
recording surface '5'1 a continuous record of the
contacts of the lockout relay 48a, and a con
signal intensity.
ï ductor 13a to the selector control means 49, the
Also associated with the recording surface or
details of which are illustrated diagrammatically
drum 51 is an indexing pen or tracing element
in Fig. 3. Because of its low voltage this pulse
62 adapted to be actuated by an energizing mag
will not eifect operation of either the selector
net E3 connected for energization through a suit~
switch 43 or the lockout relay 43d.
able rectifier 6d from the 120 cycle signaling 5'
As shown in Fig. 3, this> selector control means
49» comprises a control relay 'ld responsive to low
channel containing the band pass ñlter 55. Also
energized from this 120 cycle channel is a suitable
voltage signal energy, which relay is connected
signal light E5 for indicating when the loops of
for energization from the conductor 13a and in
cludes a pair of normally closed contacts ’l5 and
the antenna structure are rotating, and a suitable
control relay 66 which co-operates with the start- '
a pair of normally open contacts 76. In addi
9
2,406,637
8| of the relay 00 after this latter relay has
operated.
10
as. to eiïect operation of the relay H9. Upon
closure of the contacts |52 of the relay H9, a
The above-described application of power to
condenser |33 will be discharged to effect ener
the cardioid control means 41 conditions this
gization of the relay H5, the condenser having
control means 41 for operation by the contacts
previously been charged through a circuit which
49 of the indexing relay 4| under the control
may be traced from the positive one of the con
of the cam switch 50 carried by the rotating
ductors 90, through the conducto-1' |25, a resistor
antenna structure. The details of the cardioid
|34, a conductor |35, and the condenser |33 to
control means, which are fully described and
the negative one ofthe conductors 50 by Way of
claimed in our above-identified copending appli 10 a conductor |35. The energizing circuit for the
cation, are shown in Fig. 4 and it will be seen
relay H8, established by closure of the contacts
that closure of the contacts 45 completes an
|32, may bev traced from one side of the con
energizing circuit for a control relay |06 having
denser |33, through> the conductor |35, the con
an energizing winding |51, two pairs of normally
tacts |32, a conductor |31, the winding |38 of
open contacts |08 and |09, respectively, and a 15 the relay H9, a conductor |39, the contacts |08
pair of normally closed contacts H0. This cir
on the relay |55 which, as previously described,
cuit may be traced from the positive side of the
has been operated- by closure of the contacts 49
source of energy represented by the conductors
on the indexing relay and by Way of the con
90, through the conductors |H, H2, H3, and H4,
ductor H6 to the negative one of the conductors
the relay contacts 46, the conductor H5, the 20 90 to which the opposite side of the condenser
relay winding |01, and by Way of a conductor
|33 isV also` connected by way of the conductor
H9 to the negative side of the source of energy.
|36.
In order to simplify the drawings, the return con
Following initial energization thereof, the relay
nection to the negative side of the source of
H8 is-held in its operated position by a holding
energy represented by the conductors 90 is not
circuit which may be traced from the positive
shown in full, but is indicated merely by a con
one of the conductors 90, through the conductors
ventional minus sign.
IH, H2, and |40, contacts |09, conductor |4|,
.in addition to the control relay |05, the
contacts |42 on the relay H 8, conductor |43, the
cardioid control means 41 includes a plurality
Winiding |38 0f the relay H8, conductor |39,
of control relays H1, H8, and H9, the energizing
contacts |08 and by Way of the conductor H6
winding |20 of the relay H9 being connected in
to the negative one of the conductors 90.
the output circuit of a full Wave rectifier |2|
Closure of the contacts |44 of the relay H8
having a pair of plates or anodes |22, a pair of
establishes an energizing circuit for the Winding
cathodes |23, and a pair of control elements or
|45 of the relay H1, which circuit may be traced
grids |24. As shown, the grids or control ele
~ from the positive one of the conductors 90,
ments |24 are adapted to be energized from a
through the conductors |H and |45, the con
secondary Winding |25 of a suitable coupling
tacts |44, conductors |41 and |43, and by Way
transformer', the primary Winding |25 of which
of the winding |45 and a conductor |49 to the
is connected by the conductors |00 to a suitable
negative one of the conductors 90. The relay
antenna for energization by the carriers of the 40 H1 is thus operated and the energizing cir
transmitting stations to which the radio receivers
cuits thus far traced continue to exist until the
are tuned. The primary winding |26 is prefer
circuit is broken at the contacts 46 of the index
ably connected to the system of Fig. l at any
ing relay, at which time the relay |05 is deener
suitable point so that it will be energized re
gized allowing contacts |08 and |09 to open and
gardless of the one of the receivers 21 to 30, in
contacts H0 to close. Opening of the contacts
clusive, which is selected and in operation, or
|09 interrupts the previously traced holding cir
the primary Winding may, if desired, be con
cuit for the relay H8, and the consequent open
nected to an entirely separate antenna and re
ing of the contacts |44 on this relay in turn in
ceiver. Inorder to provide a constant negative
terrupts the energizing circuit for the relay H1.
bias on the control elements |24 of the reCti- f Simultaneously, however, closure of the contacts
ñer tube |2|, the midpoint of the secondary
H0 o-n the relay |05 provides a self-holding cir
Winding |25 is connected to the negative side of
cuit for the relay | |1 which may be traced from
the source of energy, as shown, and the cathodes
the positive one of the conductors 90 through the
I 29 are connected to a suitable potentiometer
conductors IH, H2, and |49, contacts H0, a con
represented as comprising resistance elements ‘ ductor |50, contacts |5| on the relay H1, con
|21 connected across the direct current source
ductors |52 and |48, and by Way of the Winding
of energy represented by the conductors 90.
|45 and the conductor |49 to the negative one
Whenever carrier energy is being supplied to
of the conductors `90. This transfer of the hold
the rectiñer tube through the transformer, cur
ing circuit for the relay H1 is accomplished
rent will flow through the winding |20 of the GO Without affecting the operated condition of the
control relay H19 by Way of a circuit which eX
relay because this relay is of the sloW-to-release
tends from the positive one of the conductors
type, as indicated diagrammatically in Fig. 4 by
90, through a conductor |28, the Winding |20, the
the usual copper slug |53a.
conductor |29, the anodes |22, the cathodesV |23,
Operation of the relay H1 of course causes
and by Way of a conductor |30 to the movable
closure of the relay contacts |53, thereby com
contact I3! on the potentiometer comprising the
pleting an energizing circuit for the cardioid
resistance elements |21.
relay i5 which may beY traced from the positive
As previously described, the operating motors
one of the conductors 90, through the conductors
of the antenna arrangement having been ener
HI, H2; H3, and |54, the contacts |53 and by
giaed, the cam switch 40 operates to energize the
Way of a conductor |55 to the operating Winding
indexing relay 4| and eil’ect intermittent opening
of the relay IB, the opposite side of which is
and closing of the contacts 46, and in describing
connected to the negative side of the sotu'ce of
the operation of the cardioid control means 41
it will be assumed that a carrier is being sup
plied to the Winding |26 of the transformer so
energy as indicated by the ground connection
shown in Fig. 1. As previously described, ener
gization of the relay I6 is eiîective to connect
'2,406,637
the loops l0 and II in additive parallel relation
with each >other to the conductors 2'5, and to
connect the vertical antenna I4 to the conductor
orbus bar 2%. Thus during the ñrst revolution
of the lantenna structure, the loop antennas and
thevertical antenna will be connected in circuit
so as to produce a directional or cardioid pattern
which, as will beV hereinafter described, is re
corded on the recording surface 5T by the trac
ing element Gü. _
The previously described connections exist until
the contacts 4B of the indexing relay 4| are
again closed upon completion of one revolution
of the antenna structure, whereupon the relay
|03 -will again be energized through the previously
traced energizing circ-uit, causing the contacts
lIU to open and interrupt the previously traced
self-holding Vcircuit for theY relay II'I. The
capacity of the condenser |33 and the ohmic
to operate as soon as a 120 cycle pulse is received
over the transmissionline. As shown in Fig. 2,
this energizing circuit extends from the source of
60 cycle energy and the voltage divider 10,
through the lower pole of the switch 69 andthe
conductor 3| 'to Ythe energizing Winding of. the
» motor starting switch 59, and from thisenergizing
winding the circuit is completed by the conductor
92 and the contacts of the relay 65B to the Vground
connection 93. Thus, as` soonas the relay 66
closes, the motor starting switch 53 will be ener
>- gized to close its contacts gland 95 and connect
the motor §38 to its source of energy. Closure of
the motor starting ' switch ,59 also is effective
through the contacts Bü thereof to establish a
self-sealingcircuit,v so that the motor starting
switch 59 remains energized after the relay 66 has
opened and the motor 58 will therefore continue
to operate until the switch 69 is manually opened
after the bearing reading has been taken.
resistance of the resistor |34 are so chosen that
between successive closures of the contacts 46 of
the indexing relay 4| there will elapse an in
sufñcient time to permit the accumulation yon
the Acondenser |33 of a charge of su?licient mag
nitude to eñect operation of the relay H8.
Therefore, even though the initial energizing
circuit Vfor the relay H8 is completed through
the contacts of the relay ISS when this relay is
again operated, the relay I|8 will not operate
and accordingly the relay |Il opens, thereby
interrupting at contacts |53 the energizing cir
cuit for the cardioid relay I6. Thus the relay
It Ywill now be clearr that, through the above
« described cycle of control operations, the particu
lar station on which a bearing is to be taken has
been selected, the antenna structure >has been
started to rotate, and the recorder motor has been
energized to drive the recording surfacein syn-V
chronism with the rotating antenna structure.
Therefore, there will’be imposed on the ñeld
Vstation end of the transmission line 39 a 1020 Y
I5 will return to the deenergized position shown
in Fig. 1 and the loops I@ and II are connected
in opposed parallel relation to the conductors
or bus bars 25,V as heretofore described. Due to
the-fact that the capacity and resistance values
‘of ,the condenser |33 and the resistor |34 are
chosenl as indicated above, the operating cycle
cannot be repeated until a sufficient time has
elapsed to permit the condenser |33 torattain
a new charge of sufficient magnitude to operate
therelay |32.
‘l2V
-39 is also effective through the lower pole thereof
to prepare an energizing circuit for thejrecorder
motor 53, so that the recorder motor willsbegin
_
After the desired record has been made in
a manner toV be further described hereinafter
and the system has been allowed to rest for a
cycle note which varies in intensity in accordance
with the directional characteristics of the radio
wave picked up by the antenna structure. This
1020 cycle note passes through the ampliñer 5|,
the filter units 52 and V54, and the rectiñer 6I to
the tracing element 60 which records on the
recording surface 51 a traceof the signal intensi
ty. At the same time, there is transmitted over
the transmission line 39 a 120 cycle pulse of signal
energy whichl causes the indexing pen or tracing
element 62 ~to record on the chart a reference
mark each time that the antenna structure passes
through a predetermined compass position.
During the ñrst revolution of the recorder, the
conventional cardioidl pattern will be traced
thereon by the tracing element 60 in order to
relatively short time, operating voltage will build
up across the condenser |33 and the above de
indicate the general sense or direction of the
scribed cycle of operations may be repeated.
Such an operating voltage, however, will not build 60 transmitting station, and on each succeeding
revolution of the recording surface the tracing
up across the condenser until the system is thus
element 6€) will impart to the recording surface a
allowed to rest because of the fact that the con
continuous trace of the 1020 cycle signal received
denser is discharged each time that the contacts
the ñrst closure of the cam switch 40 and re
with the loops Iû and II connected in opposed
parallel circuit relation. The pen will of course
retrace this path during successive revolutions if
there hasV been no change in the signal intensity
for identical positions of the antenna system.
mains> closed until the next revolution of the
Variations in the propagating medium or in the
|08 of the relay |06 close.
"
It -will now be apparent that as soon as energy
is applied to the cardioid control, as'heretof’ore
described, the cardioid relay IB is operated by
antenna structure causes the energizing circuit 60 signal energy received due to other disturbances
will ofcourse appear in the trace made by the
for the relay i6 to be broken. The relay I6,
therefore, returns to its deenergized position so
as to connect the loops l0 and I| in opposed
parallel circuit relation and disconnect the ver
tical antenna Ill, and the relay I6 will remain 65
pen 66, except in so far as they are eliminated by
the antenna structure and its associated appara
tus, and accordingly an average trace may readily
be determined from the record produced.
in this position during subsequent revolutions of
Y The recording paper, or similar recording sur
the antenna structure. Furthermore, the car
rier controlled interlock relay |93 which is ener
face which is wrapped around the drum 58, may
be graduated in degrees and, accordingly,vthe
compass position of any maximum or minimum
gized through the conductors |09 insures that
the above-described cycle of operations will take 70 point in the continuous trace of the signal energy
may readily be located by reference to the index
place -only when a carrier is being received by
ing mark formed on the recording paper or sur
the antenna structure.
Y
'
face by the indexing pen or tracing element 62.
\ Closure of the transmitting means or ‘switch 69
The direction finder is preferably allowed to op
to .impose the above referred to continuous low
voltage signaling current on the transmission line 75 erate for a period of thirty secondsto one minute,
2,406,637
13
14
so that from seven to fifteen. bearings will be
to produce a record trace reflecting the intensity
obtained, the antenna structure preferably being
rotated at a speed-of approximately fifteen revolu
tions per minute, and the direction ñnder malf
of the energizing signal, and filter means between
said recording means and said transmission line
for rendering said recording means responsive
then be shut down. To stop the recorder motor 5i!
only to signals of said constant beat frequency,
in order to enable removal of the record paper
from the recording surface 5l, it is necessary only
whereby a bearing trace of the received signal
energy may be produced from any of said dif
to open the switch 69 so as to interrupt the pre
ferently tuned receiver channels.
viously traced holding circuit for the motor start
ing switch 5S. rIîhe operator may then remove
thevrecord paper and measure the distance from
2. In a radio direction finder system having an
antenna station and a remotely located control
station connected by a transmission line, the com
bination of rotatable directional antenna means
at said antenna station, radio receiver means at
said antenna station including a plurality of chan
15 nels respectively tuned to‘receive signals of dif
the index mark to the bearing null which is
nearest tothe cardioid bearing. rllhis distance
indicates in degrees the bearing of the transmit
»ting-station- on which the bearing'. has been taken.
Upon opening of the switch S8, the relay 1li
ferent preselected frequencies picked up by said
of theselector control means immediately returns
antenna means, means at said control station for
toits deenergised position and opens. the energiz
selectively imposing on said transmission line con
ing circuit to the slow-to-release relay 17. The
trol signals of a predetermined frequency having
relay 'Il then opens and deenergizes the relay 8d 20 preselected characteristics, means at said antenna
which is also slow-to-release and therefore will
station responsive to said control signals for se
not effect closurev of the contacts äl for a short
lectively connecting between said transmission
interval after opening of the contacts 1B on the
relay- 'il has occurred. The slow-to-release char
acteristics ofthe relay EQ insure that all of the
relaysfhl, l1, and dil willreturn to their respec
tive deenergized positions without completing an
energizing circuit for the ratchet relay 83 through
the contacts 75„ 73, and 3l. ,
line and said antenna means a selected one of said
channels of said receiver means corresponding to
the selected signal characteristic, heterodyning
means associated with said receiver means for im
posing on said transmission line an output beat
note of substantially constant frequency regard
In,` order to stop the rotation of the antenna
structure, it is necessary only to actuate the push
less of the selected receiver channel tuning, i11
dexing means at said antenna station for impos
ing on said transmission line indexing signals dif
button of the pulsing relay means 53 so as to
transmit a short 60 cycle pulse of low voltage to
fering in frequency from said control signal fre
the selector control means t9 so as to cause the
ing signals reñecting the compass position of said
quency and said beat note frequency, said index
relays 14, Tl, and Sii to operate as hereinbefore 35 antenna means, recording means at Said control
described to energize ratchet relay S3. This
station having a plurality of energizable tracing
energization causes the ratchet relay to move for
elements, and filter means between said recording
ward one step, whereupon the contacts of the
means and said transmission line for rendering
ratchet relay open and interrupt the circuit to
one element of said recording means responsive
the antenna motor in the base I5. All of the 40 only to said constant beat note frequency and an
parts having now returned to their initial posi
other element thereof responsive only t0 said
tions, another bearing reading may be taken on
indexing signal frequency, whereby bearing traces
any desired transmittingstation merely by follow
of the signal energy received from said antenna
ing again the above described procedure.
means may be produced at said control station re
While we have shown particular embodiments 45 gardless of the frequency of the received signal
of our invention, it will be understood, of course,
and oriented with the compass position of said
that we do not wish to be limited thereto since
antenna means.
many modifications may be made, and we, there
3. In a radio direction finder system having an
fore, contemplate by the appended claims to cover
antenna station and a remotely located control
any such modiiications as fall within the true 50 station connected by a transmission line, the com
spirit and scope of our invention.
bination of rotatable directional antenna means
Having thus described our invention, what we
at said antenna station, radio receiver means at
claim and desire to secure b-y Letters Patent is:
said antenna station including a plurality of
1. In a radio direction finder system having an
channels respectively tuned to receive voice modu
antenna station and a> remotely located control 55 lated signals of different preselected carrier fre
station connected by a transmission line, the com
quencies picked up by said antenna means, means
bination of rotatable directional antenna means
at said control station for selectively imposing
at said antenna station, radio receiver means at
on said transmission line control signals of a pre
Said antenna station including a plurality of
determined frequency having preselected char
channels respectively tuned to receive signals of 60 acteristics, means at said antenna station re
diiîerent preselected frequencies picked up by said
sponsive to said control signals for selectively
antenna means, means at said control station for
connecting between said transmission line and
selectively imposing on said transmission line con
said antenna means a selected one of said chan
trol signals of a predetermined frequency having
nels of said receiver means corresponding to the
preselected characteristics, means at said antenna 65 selected signal characteristic, heterodyning means
station responsive to said control signals for se
associated with said receiving means for impos
ing on said transmission line the voice frequencies
lectively connecting between said transmission
of said signals and a beat note of substantially
line and said antenna means a selected one of said
constant frequency regardless of the selected re
channels of said receiver means corresponding to
the selected signal characteristic, heterodyning 70 ceiver channel tuning, loud-speaker means at said
means associated with said receiver means for im
control station, recording means at said control
posing` on said transmission line an output beat
station energizable to produce a record trace re
note of substantially constant frequency regard
fleeting the .intensity of the energizing signal, and
less of the selected receiver channel tuning, re
ñlter means connected to the control station end
of said transmission line for rejecting from said
Cording means Vat said control station energizable
2,406,637
15
16
loud-speaker said control signal and said beat
note frequencies and for rendering said recording
means at said control station for imposing on
said transmission line a second signal of the same
control frequency but of different character than
means responsive only to signals of said beat note
frequency, whereby a monitor channel is provided
and a bearing trace of the received signal energy
may be produced from any of said differently
said signals of preselected characteristics,.means
at said antenna station responsive to said second
control signal for energizing said motor means,
indexing means for imposing on the antenna sta
'
tion end of said transmission line indexing sig
4. In a radio direction finder system having an
als differing in frequency from said control signal
antenna station and a remotely located control
station connected by a transmission line, the com 10 frequency and said beat note frequency and re
fleeting the compass position of said antenna
bination o-f rotatable directional antenna means
means, recording means at said control station
at said antenna station, radio receiver meansrat
having a movable recording surface and a plu
said antenna station including a plurality of
rality of tracing elements, filter means at said
channels respectively tuned to receive voice modu
control station for rendering one tracing element
lated signals of Ydifferent preselected carrierY fre
responsive only to said constant beat note fre
quencies picked up lby ksaid antenna means, means
quency and another tracing element responsive
at said control station for selectively imposing on
only to said indexing signals, and means initially
said transmission line control signals of a prede
rendered effective by an indexing signal for driv
termined frequency having Apreselected charac
teristics, means at said antenna station responsive 20 ing said recording surface in synchronism with
to said control signals for selectively connecting
the rotation of said antenna means to produce
at said control station a bearing trace of the
between s_aid transmission line and said antenna
signal energy received from said antenna means
means a selected one of said channels of said re
ceiver means corresponding to the selected signal
oriented with the compass position thereof` re
characteristic, heterodyning means associated 25 gardless of the frequency of the received signal.
6. In a radio direction finder system having an’
with said receiver means for imposing on said
transmission line the voice frequencies of said sig- y
antenna station and a remotely located control
nals and a beat note 0f substantially constant fre
station connectedby a transmission line, the com
quency regardless of the selected receiver chan
bination of rotatable directional antenna means
nel tuning, indexing means at said antenna sta 30 at said antenna station including a plurality of
tion for imposing on said transmission line index-'
antenna elements adapted to be selectively con
ing signals differing in frequency from said con
nected in different circuit relations with eachv
trol signal frequency and said beat note fre
other, receiver means at said antenna station
quency, said indexing signals reflecting the com
having an output circuit connected to said trans
pass position of said antenna means, recording 35 mission line, indexing signal means controlled
means at‘said control station having a plurality'of
by rotation of said antenna for imposing on the
energizable tracing elements, monitor means at
antenna end of said transmission line signals of
said control station responsive to voice frequen
predetermined signal frequency, motor means for
cies, and filter means connected to the control
rotating said antenna, a plurality of control
station end of said transmission line for rejecting 40 means at said antenna station for controlling
from said monitor means said indexing, signal and
said antenna circuit connections, for connecting
beat note frequencies, for rendering one element
said receiver means to said antenna means and
of said recording means responsive only to said
for controlling said motor means, a source of
beat note frequency and for rendering another
signal frequency at said control station, signal
element thereof responsive only to said indexing
means at said control station for selectively con
signal frequency, whereby signals picked up by
necting said source to said transmission line to
said antenna means may be monitored and bear
impose thereon signals of different characteristics '
ing traces of the signal energy received from said
separately to effect operation of said antenna
antenna means may be produced at said control
control means, said receiver control means and
station regardless of the frequency of the received 50 said motor control means at said antenna station,
tuned receiver channels.
signal and oriented with the compass position of '
said antenna means.
5. In a radio direction finder system having
and means at said control station jointly con
trolled by said indexing means and said Yreceiver
means at said antenna station and by said signal
means at said control station for determining the
trol station connected by a transmission line, the 55 compass bearing of radio frequency signals picked
combination of rotatable directional antenna
up by said antenna meansV during rotation
means at said antenna station, radio receiver
thereof.
means at said antenna station including a plu
7. In a radio direction finder system having an
rality of channels respectively tuned to receive
antenna station and a remotely located control
signals of different preselected frequencies picked 60 station connected by a transmission line, the com
up by said antenna means, means ’at said control
bination of rotatable directional antenna means
station for selectively imposing on said trans
at said antenna station including a plurality of
mission line control signals of a predetermined
antenna elements adapted to be selectively con
frequency having preselected characteristics,
nected in different circuit relations with each
means at said antenna station responsive to said
other, receiver means at said antenna station
control signals for selectively connecting between
having an output circuit connected to said trans
said transmission line and said antenna meansmission line, indexing signal means controlled
a selected one of said channels of said receiver
by rotation of said antenna for imposing on the
means corresponding to the selected signal char
antenna end of said transmission line signals of
acteristic, heterodyning means associated with
predetermined signal frequency, motor means for
said receiver means for imposing on said trans
rotating said antenna, a plurality of control
mission line an output beat note of substantially
, means at said antenna station for controlling said
an antenna station and a remotely located con
constant frequency'regardless of the selected re- Y
ceiver channel tuning, motor means at said an
antenna circuit connections, for connecting saidÍ
receivermeans to said antenna means and for
tenna station for rotating said antenna means, 75 controlling said motor means, a source of signal
2,406,637
17
frequency at said control station, signal means
18
of said source at said control station, monitor
at said control station for selectively connecting
means connected to one of said channels for re
said source to said transmission line to impose
thereon signals of different characteristics sep
arately to effect operation of said antenna con
trol means, said receiver control means and said
motor control means at said antenna station,
filter means at said control station for dividing
into separate channels said indexing signal fre
quency and the output signal frequency of said
ceiving said voice frequencies, and means :at said
control station energizable from said output beat
receiver means transmitted over said transmis
sion line and for rejecting from said channels
the signal frequency of said source at said control
station, and means at said control station ener
gizable by said output signal frequency and said
indexing signal frequency for recording a bearing
trace of said output signal frequency during rota
not@ frequency channel and said indexing signal
frequency channel for recording a bearing trace
of said output signal frequency during rotation
of said antenna means and orienting said trace
relative to the compass position of said antenna
means.
9. In a radio direction ñnder system having an
antenna station and a remotely located control
station connected by a transmission line, the
combination of rotatable directional antenna
means at said antenna station including a plu
rality of antenna elements adapted to be selec
tively connected in different circuit relations With
each other, receiver means at said antenna sta
tion having an output circuit connected to said
antenna means.
20 transmission line, indexing signal means con
trolled by rotation of said antenna for imposing
8. In a radio direction finder system having an
on the antenna end of said transmission line sig
antenna station and a remotely located control
nals of predetermined signal frequency, motor
station connected by a transmission line, the corn
means for rotating said antenna, a plurality of
bination of rotatable directional antenna means
at said antenna station including -a plurality of NJ on control means at said antenna station for con
antenna elements adapted to be selectively con
trolling said antenna circuit connections, for con
necting said receiver means to said antenna means
nected in diiîerent circuit relations with each
other, receiver means at said antenna station
and for controlling said motor means, a source
having an output circuit connected to said trans
of signal frequency at said control station, signal
mission line for imposing thereon voice frequen- f means at said control station for selectively con
cies including a substantially constant beat note
necting said source to said transmission line to
tion of said antenna means and orienting said
trace relative to the compass position of said
frequency, indexing signal means controlled by
impose thereon signals of different characteristics
rotation of said antenna for imposing on the
at said antenna station for controlling said an
separately to eiTect operation of said antenna con
trol means, said receiver control means and said
motor control means at said antenna station,
recording means at said control station having
a, movable recording surface and a plurality of
tenna circuit connections, for connecting said
tracing elements, ñlter means at said control sta
antenna end of said transmission line signals
of predetermined frequency, motor means for
rotating said antenna, a plurality of control means
receiver means to said antenna means and for
tion for rendering one tracing element responsive
controlling said motor means, a source of signal 40 only to the output signal frequency of said re
frequency at said control station, signal means
at said control station for selectively connecting
said source to said transmission line to impose
thereon signals of different characteristics sep
arately to eñ‘ect operation of said antenna con
ceiver and another tracing element responsive
only to said indexing signal frequency, and means
initially rendered effective by a signal of said in
dexing frequency for driving said recording sur
trol means, said receiver control means and said
face in synchronism with the rotation of said
antenna means to produce at said control sta
motor control means at said antenna station,
filter means at said control station for dividing
tion a bearing trace of said receiver output fre
into separate channels said indexing signal fre
quency, the output beat note frequency of said
receiver means and the voice frequencies trans
mitted over said transmission line and for re
jecting from said channels the signal frequency
quency during rotation of said antenna means
and to orient said trace with the compass posi
tion of said antenna means.
PETER C. SANDRETTO.
ELMER. P. BUCKTHAL.
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