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Патент USA US2406644

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Aug. 27, 1946.
L. SPRARAGEN
REVERSIBLEk RELEASABLE CLUTCH'
vF‘iled June 14,l 1943
2,406,644 '
Patented Aug. 27,y 1946
2,406,644
f >Ulvi'r-ran STATES _PATENT l OFFICE
RÉVERSIBLE RELEASABLE CLÚTCH
Louis Sprarag'en, Bridgeport, Conn., assignortov
Automatic Locking Devices Incorporated,
Bridgeport, Conn., a corporation of Connecticut
Application June 14, 1943, Serial No.`-¢i90f,768
18 Claims. (Cl. 192-17)
,2K
and more particularly to a clutch or coupling
nents .betweenthem,> as well as the control mem
ber', are so arranged that the, power may beY
device for releasably connecting a power shaft,
transmitted and controlled through the clutch
for instance a shaft of an electric motor or other
in either directionof rotation of the dri-ving shaft,
This invention'relates to machine e1ements,` ~
prime mover, and a driven shaft adapted to per
form work.
there being one set of interponents for driving in
" a clockwise >direction and anotherfset -of inter
An object of the present invention is to pro-y
vide an automatic clutch in which the driving
and driven shafts are normally coupled or
ponents Afor driving ina counterclockwise direc
tion, there preferably being a spring between the
two interponents so as to normally urge both
clutched together for rotation and in which the 10 of them to driving position. In this situation
_the control member is provided with double oper
ating means, „one foreach direction of rotation.
braking force to a controller rotatablewith the
In the broader aspects .of the invention, the
driven member and which is so arranged that
driven- shaft may be brought to a stop throughy
when the stopping or brakingY force is >removed
shafts arezuncoupled by applying stopping or
the clutch again becomes operative to transmit
braking action produced between the control
power from the driving to the driven shafts.
This is accomplished, according to the' present
invention, by providing av driving member in the
form of a circular housing adapted to be con
member, the interponents and the vdriven mem
ber, or it may .be applied to the driven member
directly through the -control member.A For this
purpose, .the control member and the kdriven
nected to a driving shaft, a driven member within 20
member ,may ,have cooperating parts adapted to
the housing and adapted to be connected to the
driven shaft, and interponents between the two
in the form of rollers adapted to wedge between
converging surfaces on the driving and driven
members to couple these together for movement 25
engage when ythe control member has had lim
ited movement (ineither direction if the device
is reversible) relative toA the driven member.
Further, when the `driven member is under a load
which is greater _thanthe momentum of its parts
so that it .stops as vsoon as the driving force is
removed, no braking action between the control
the driving and driven members when the clutch
member and the driven member is needed. Such
is uncoupled, and a control member rotating with
a situation occursin ythe drive betweentreads
the driven member and having movement rela
tive thereto for moving the interponents from 30 of a vmilitary tank land the engine for driving
them, and in such a situationthere would be no
wedging or driving position as a result of said
tendency for the driven member to overrun the
relative movement between itself andthe driven
driving member when these members are un
member.
coupled.
`
.
In the broader aspects of this invention, any
' Other features and advantages will hereinafter
suitable means may be employed for applying
appear.
braking or stopping force to the control member
In the accompanying drawing which illustrates
to uncouple the driving and driven members de
several embodiments of this invention;
pending upon the circumstances and conditions
Figure 1 is `a longitudinal sectional view show» `
of the use of the clutch.
In one form of the invention, the control mem 40 ing one form of this invention.
Fig. 2 is a vertical transverse sectional view
ber may be stopped positively causing the clutch
on line `2--2 of Fig. 1, showing the relation of
to disengage. In another form, frictional brak
the driving and driven members, the interpo
ing power may be applied to the control member
nents andthe control member, the parts being
to retard it and thus cause suii‘icient relative
in position for driving in a clockwise direction.
movement between the control member and the
as one or to iioat freelyin the space between
driven member, vand if desiredthis braking action
may be transmitted to the driven member
through the control member to gradually bring
the driven member to a stop. This latter form
of the invention may be further modiiied by pro
viding a brake drum on the control member so
that the latter may be brought to a stop by means
of a brake band and operating lever.
In the preferred form of _this invention, the
driving and driven members and the interpo
Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 2, but showing
the driven shaft uncoupled from the driving
shaft.
Fig.
4 is a view similar to Fig. l, but showing
a modification of this invention in which the
control member `and the driving member if de
sired 'areuncoupled and stopped by the appli
cation of friction.
y
Fig. 5 is a view similar to Figs. 1 and 4, but
showing a further modiñcation of this invention
2,406,644
„u "
3
d
in which the controlling member has a brake
drum controlled by a brake band and also has
a mechanically limited movement relative to the
driven shaft so that the latter may be gradually
brought to a stop by friction applied to the brake
member 2D and a spring 26 between the rollers
of each pair, the rollers are wedged between the
concentric surface 24 of the driving member and
drum.
Fig. 6 is a transverse section on line 8-6 of
the cam surfaces 25 of the driven member, and
this wedging action locks the driving member I6
and driven member 2i) together for movement
both clockwise and counterclockwise as viewed
Fig. 5.
in Fig. 2. There may be a single set of rollers 23
As shown in the accompanying drawing, the
or a plurality of sets as shown, depending upon
reversible coupling device of this invention is 10 the load to be carried and the extent to which
adapted to be interposed between a driving mem
the load may be safely distributed between the
ber, such as an electric motor I0 or other prime
mover for drive shaft Il, and a driven or work
f roller surfaces.
In order to uncouple or declutch the driving
member I6 from the driven member 2&1, the pres
being provided with a bearing I3 in a bracket I4. 15 ent invention provides a controller 2l having
This may be mounted on a common support I5 `
lugs 28 extending into the space between the
with the motor IU or other bearing member for
circular internal race 24 of the driving member
the drive shaft Il. The driven shaft I2 may
and `circular sections 29 on the driven member.
extend to or may be connected to operate any
rFhe controlling member 27 is rotatably mounted
producing shaft I2, the latter when necessary
suitable device or mechanism.
In its broader aspects, the device of the present
invention may conveniently be employed to un
couple or temporarily disconnect the driving shaft
20 on the driven shaft I2 and rotates with the lat
ter due to friction or drag between it and the
driven shaft, yet it is free to be moved relative
to the driven shaft by the pressure of the springs
and the driven shaft in power trains so that the
2S transmitted through the rollers 23 to the
driven shaft may stop or naturally come to rest 25 ends of the lugs.
as it will if the load on the driven shaft exceeds
When the drive shaft II is stationary, a bal
the momentum of the parts driven thereby.
anced condition will exist due to the power of
In other situations, it is frequently desired that
the springs 28 so that both rollers 23 of each
the driven shaft be forcibly stopped without stop
pair are in wedging condition. When, however,
ping the motor or drive shaft, and yet be able 30 the drive shaft I I begins to turn, say for instance
merely by removing the stopping force or member
clockwise as shown in Fig. 2, the leading roller
to permit the drive to be resumed. Stated other
wise, it is frequently desired to declutch and stop
being bound between the drive and driven mem
bers, causes the driven member to rotate while
with a single operation and reclutch and drive
35 the following roller becomes overrunning and
with the reverse of the operation.
simply rotates idly down the incline or cam 25,
The present invention provides a simple and
expeditious structure for declutching and clutch
ing the drive and driven shafts and which de
pends for its operativeness and inoperativeness
upon a control member which rotates with the
being assisted in this operation if necessary by
being engaged by the end of the lug 28, the trail
ing end of the next advanced lug having moved
away from the leading roller 23. The driving
member I 6 and driven member 25 being thus
coupled together continue to rotate with the con
driven member and which is so organized that
when it is free the drive shaft and the driven
trolling member 2'! being dragged along.
shaft are clutched together, but when it is stopped
When it is desired to declutch the driven mem
the shafts are declutched and if desired braking 45
ber from theV driving member, it is merely neces
or stopping force is applied to the driven member
sary to retard the advancing movement of the
to stop it. The device of the present invention is
control
member 21 causing the trailing edge of
so organized that it is operative both when the
each lug 28 to strike the driving roller 23' and
drive shaft is rotated clockwise and counterclock
move it down the incline, and thus become operan
wise, and is therefore reversible. Yet, regardless
tively disengaged from the race 2d of the driving
of the direction in which the shafts are turning, I
member. When, as in many cases occurs, the
the stopping or retarding of the control member,
as by means of a manually or mechanically op
erated stopping lever or brake, causes the driven
shaft to be unclutched and also stopped if de
sired.
'
load on the driven shaft I2 exceeds the momen
tum of the parts, the disconnection of the driven
member from the driving member will cause the
former to naturally stop. However, this condi
tion does not always prevail, and when it is de
sired not only to declutch the driven member but
to stop it, some means acting through the inter
a collar I1 fitting over the drive shaft II and a
mediary of the control member may be employed
set screw I8 or other connection to the shaft.
The rotary member IB has a cavity or chamber 60 to stop or retard and then stop the driven mem
ber.
I9 within which is housed a driven member 2l)
In the broader aspects of this invention, the
forming part of or secured to the driven shaft I2.
control member 2l may be retarded or stopped
Shafts I I and I2 are mounted so as to be coaxial
in any suitable manner depending upon its speed,
and this concentricity may be obtained and main
tained by providing a socket 2| in the driven
the power being transmitted, and the inertia of
member to receive the end 22 of the drive shaft
the parts. For instance,Y in a light mechanism,
I I, as shown in Fig. 4.
it is merely necessary to apply one’s ñnger to the
The driven member 20 is smaller than the
control member 21 to retard it sufficiently to un
cavity of the driving member I6, and in the space
couple the driving and driven members and then
between the two there are provided pairs of in
to stop it if desired. However, mechanical means
terponents in the form of rollers 23, see Figs. 2
may be employed to retard or stop the control
and 3. The rollers 23 may ride on the internal
member and the driven member if desired. In
wall 24 of the driving member I6 which is con
the form of the invention shown in Fig. l, the
centric with the shafts. Normally, however, due
means provided not only positively stops the
to camming or wedging surfaces 25 on the driven ' control member but through the latter stops the
In the form of the invention herein disclosed,
Ythe clutch comprises a rotary member I6 having
" 2,406,154.41
5
.
,
driveni shaft: immediately upon the. stop. being'k
made '.operative.,
_
For. this. purpose. the control` member: isV pro--l
vided: with. a series of stoplugs 36“ on its periphery
and> these. are> adapted to bel engaged. byY a stop
dog 3i .pivot'ed at 32l one an extension 33 voiîjtlre
bracket id.. and normally` hel'd elevated, in. this
particular case, by a> spring 34;» When it is. de
sired to declutchfv the shaft I2, fingerpiece. 35. or
other operating connection t0 the dog 3i is de-`
pressed; moving. the. dog into> the'. path of the lugs
3G- and' abruptly stopping. the control; member to
uncouple the shaft l2 from the shaft. lgl.. Where
it isdesired to; also. positivelyfstopv the driven shaft,
a-lost motion connection. maybe provided between
the control member and the. driven shaft. For
this, purpose, as'shownin Fig. 1, a. disk se’ mounted'
on a collarv 3l issecured to the drive shaft l2 by
a` set screw 3d, and this has a slot 3B. indicated in
dotted: lines in Fig. 2,` through which a screw t0
threaded in thel controlr member eXtendsLw When
the screw ¿iii reaches thev` endV of the slot 39, the
rstopping or braking action appliedto the control
member is also transmitted tothe. disk 35 and
the driven shaft to:A stop the. latter. The length
of tlie‘slot ¿i9 is suchasto permit the amount of
relative'- movement. ybetween the driven member
and the control membernecessary to permit the
lugs 2B on the control member to move beyondr
`>6
the controlling. member'. 21'ais. retarded,A the roll
ers îäfare madey inoperative, .then the' lugs te
engage theA lugs 50.1' and friction applied to the
brake' drum',vr thus gradually bringing the driven n
shaft Y.|25 to ai'stop..
The driven shaft may` be held against move
l ment-relative to the bracket by' any suitable means
such., for instance,v as by a spring ring 53 ñtting
in a-grocve 54- in the shaft l2.
,
Variations andV modifications may be made
within the. scope: of thisqinvention and portions
of thev improvements. may be used without others.
IV claim:
LA clutch having. a driving member and a
driven member, interponents iioatingly carried
between them, resilient means for movingisaid
interponents to position to become >wedged be
tween the driving and driven members and simul
taneously couple them for movement as one in
either direction, a controlv member rotatable with
the driven. member for moving said interponents
to inoperative position against the force of said
resilient means to uncouple said members fory in
dependent rotation of the driving member; and
means-.for causing relative'movement of the con
trolrmember and the driven member for render
ing said. interpohents inoperative and uncoupling
the driving and driven members.
„
2.. A clutch having. va vdriving member anda
the advancedvv rollers 2.3.' both for-‘forward and .30 driven member, interponents floatingly carried
between them, resilient> means for moving said
backward rotation.
So longr as the dog 3'igisf-in engagement with . Y interpcnents to position to become wedged be
the stop lugs fit: on. `the controller, the. driving
tween the. driving and driven members and simul
taneously couple them for movement as one in
driven shaft i2 isy interrupted. However, afsl soon. 35 either direction, a control member rotatable with
the driven member for moving said interponents
as they dog 3i is disengaged from the controller,
to inoperativeposition‘against the force of said
ther springs
acting on they rollers>
shift the
resilient means to'uncouple said members for in
latter to" driving position and` in doing? so move.
the controller ahead sov that the.` advanieed'rc'ller Y dependent rotation. of the driving.»member; and
may jambetween the'race 24< or thefdríving mein# 40 means for applying ‘braking force to said control
_member to. cause it to move relative to said driven
ber andthe cam'sufrf ace 25ct the-driven member.
member and render the interponents inoperative
Aïe stated. abovathe controlling member 2ï- may`
so as to uncouple the driving and driven members.
be retarded; by' application of friction.v In the
31.
clutch` having a driving member and a
form. of thefinvention shown in Fig. 4», thisfis ac- ' '
connection` between. the- driving shaft ^ il and
complishedy by applying a friction brake: 4.1i car- '
driven. member, interponentsv ñoatingly carried
ried by a brake arm 4?; pivoted at4 133 ony an ex
betiveenthem, resilient means for moving said in
terponents to position to'become wedged between
the, driving and driven members and couple them
tension dd ofv thebracket Hit-'tothev side; ci the’
control. member, and this produces the relative
movement necessary to` nncouple the; driving' and
driven members.
.
-
`
' for movement as one, a control member rotatable
with the driven member for moving said inter»
l
Ii desired; the application or friet-.ioni to the
controller
also retard the. driven' shaft. I2',
and for4 this purpose friction-producing surfaces
bev pro'~.fided`r on. the rface of the driven.
'm mb
or'the adjacent face. of the-controller.
2? or both. When the brake 4f!- isi applie‘dlthis
case it will not only retard the controller but
also press the controller against the driven. mem
ber and through the controller retard theïdriven
ponente to inoperative position against the force
of saidresilient means to'uncouple said members
fc-rfindependent rotation of the driving member;
means for applyingbraking force to said control
memb‘errto cause it to move relative to said driven
member and?. render the interponents inoperative
and uncrniplev thedriving and driven members;
and; av ‘lost-motion. device between the control
memberV and'` the- driven member whereby the
(SU braking action applied to the. control member
applied to the driven member after said inter
Where the inertia of. t‘ne parts is> particularly
ponents have been rendered- inoperative to stop
great, the controller may be retarded; and then
rotation of the driven member.
stopped and may actv mechanically to retard and '
4. A- clutch- having a driving member and a
stop the driven. shaft'. Suchv anarrangement is.
shown in Fig. 5 in which the controller 2in has; ‘ driven member, interponents floatingly carried
between them, resilient means for moving said.
a brake drum $5' adapted to- be'Y engaged. by a
interponents to position to become wedged be-v
brake band «3l made operative by operation of' a
tween the driving. and driven members and simul
lever $3. The brake drum 4S may extend. over
tane'ousiy couple them. for movement as one in
the driven member it so as to house the latter
either direction, a control member rotatable' with
within itseif and thus makev a very compact con
theV driven member for moving said interponents
struction. In this form or” the invention, the
toY inoperative position against the force of said
controller is provided with Vlugs 492 adapted to be
resilient means to uncouple said members for
engaged by lugs Eil> on a collar 5i secured to the
independent rotationV of thedriving member; and
driven shaft I2 by a set screw' 52 or other suit
able means. Thus, when the brake. drum. Non 75 means for posi~tivelystopping the control member
member.
'
'
.
2,406,644.
7
8
to free the interponents from driving position and
uncouple the driving and driven members.
carried between them, resilient means between
5. A clutch having a driving member and a
driven member, interponents ñoatingly carried
between them, resilient means for moving said
interponents to position to become wedged be
tween the driving and driven members and couple
them for movement as one, a control memberV
rotatable with the driven member for moving said
interponents to inoperative position against the
the interponents of each pair for moving said
interponents to position to become wedged be
tween the driving and driven members and couple
them for >movement as one in either direction, a
control member rotatable with the driven member
for selectively moving one of the interponents of
each pair to inoperative position against the force
oi said resilient-means depending upon the direc
tion of relative movement between the controller
and the driving member to uncouple said mem
force of said resilient means to uneouple said
members for independent rotation of the driving
member; means for positively stopping the con
trol member to free the interponents from driving
position and uncouple the driving and driven
members; and means for limiting said relative
movement between the control member and the
driven means whereby said stopping means also
acts through said control member to positively
stop said driven member.
bers for independent rotation of the driving mem
ber; and means for retarding the movement of
the control member relative to the driven member
te produce relative movement for rendering said
interponents inoperative and uncouple the driv
ing and driven members regardless of the direc
tion of rotation of the driving and driven mem
bers, said resilient means being operative to cause
6. A'clutch having a driving member and a
the driving member to the vdriven member for
driven member, interponents iloatingly carried
driving in either direction when the retarding
means is disengaged from the control member.
10. A clutch having a'driving member and a
between them, resilient means -for moving said
interponents to position to become wedged be»
said interponents to become operative to couple
'tween the driving and driven members and simul
driven member, interponents iloatingly carried
taneousiy couple them for movement as one in
between them, resilient means for moving said
either direction, a control member rotatable with
the driven memberV for moving said interponents
to inoperative position against'the force of said
interponents to position to become wedged be
tween the driving and driven members and couple
resilient means to uncouple said members for in
them for movement as one, a control member ro
30 tatable with the driven member for moving said
dependent rotation of the driving member; and
interponents to inoperative position against the
means for retarding the movement of the control
member relative to the driven member to produce
relative movement for rendering said interpo
members for independent rotation of the driving
member; and means for applying friction to the
nents inoperative, to uncouple the vdriving and
driven members.
`7. A clutch having a driving member and a
force of said resilient means to uncouple said
control member to retard the latter and cause
relative movement between it and the driven
member to render the interponents inoperative
driven member, interponents ñoatingly carried
between them, resilient means for moving said
interponents to position to become wedged be
Yand uncouple the driving and driven members.
ll. A clutch having a driving member and a
tween the driving and driven members and cou
ple them for movement as one, a control member
between them, resilient means for moving said
rotatable with the driven member for moving said
driven member, interponents ñoatingly carried
interponents to position to become wedged be
tween the driving and driven members and couple
interponents to inoperative position against the
them for movement as one, a controll member ro
force of said resilient means to uncouple said
tatable with the driven member for moving said
members for independent rotation of the driving
member; a brake drum carried by the control
member; and a brake band engageable with said
brake drum for applying braking force to said
interponents to inoperative position against the
driven member, pairs of interponents ñoatingly
means for applying friction to the driven mem er
force of said resilient means to uncouple said
members for independent rotation of the driving
member; means for applying friction to the con
control member to move it relative to said driven '50 trol member to retard the latter and cause rela
tive movement between it and the driven member
member and render the interponents inoperative
to render the interponents inoperative and un
and uncouple the driving and driven members.
couple the driving and driven members; and
â. A. clutch having a driving member` and a
carried between them, resilient means between 55 through the control member whereby said first
named friction means also acts through said con
the interponents of each pair for moving said
trol member to stop said driven member.
interponents to position to become wedged be
l2. A reversible drive clutch comprising a driv
tween the driving and driven members and couple
ing and a driven member, an opposed overrunning
them for movement as one in either direction, a
control member rotatable with the driven member 00 means selectively ’operative to drive the driven
member in either direction, resilient means nor
for selectively moving one of the interponents of
each pair to inoperative position against the force
Y mally urging said overrunning means to opera
tive position; and a control member rotating with
of said resilient means depending upon the direc
the driven member; halting means for retarding
tion of relative movement between the controller
and the driving member to uncouple said mem 65 free rotation of the control member, said control
member moving the overrunning means to inop
bers for independent rotation of the driving mem
erative position whenretarded against movement
ber; and means for retarding the movement of
relative to the driven member by the halting
the control member relative to the driven mem
means.
ber to produce relative movement for rendering
13. A reversible drive clutch comprising a driv
said interponents inoperative and uncouple the 70
ing and a driven member, an opposed overrunning
driving and driven members regardless of the
means selectively operative to drive the driven
direction of rotation of the driving and driven
member in either direction, resilient means nor
members.
mally urging said overrunning means to operative
9. A clutch having a driving member and a
driven member, pairs of interponents fioatingly 75 position; a control member rotatingY with the
2,406,644
driven member for moving the overrunning means
to inoperative position when retarded against
movement relative to the driven member; and
10
means to inoperative position when retarded
against movement relative to the driven member;
and a brake device for retarding movement of
means acting through said control member for re
the control member.
tarding movement of the driven member.
14. A reversible drive clutch comprising a driv
ing and a driven member, an opposed overrunning
means selectively operative to drive the driven~
,
means selectively operative to drivethe driven
1'7. A reversible drive clutch comprising va driv
ing and a driven member, an opposed overrunning
member in either direction, resilient means nor
mally urging said overrunning means to opera
member in either direction, resilient means nor
mally urging said overrunning means to opera 10 tive position; a control member rotating With the
driven member for moving the overrunning means
tive position; a control member rotating with the
to inoperative position when movement of the
driven member for moving the overrunning
control member is stopped, said control member
means to inoperative position when movement of
having -stopping lugs; and a stopping dog mov
the control member is stopped; and 10st-motion
able into position to engage said lugs and stop
means for halting the rotation ofthe driven mem 15
movement of the control member.
ber after the control member has been stopped
18. A clutch having a driving member and a
and has ñrst moved the overrunning means to in
operative position.
15. A reversible drive clutch comprising a driv
driven member, interponents floatingly carried
between them, resilient means for moving said in
ing and a driven member, an opposed overrunning 20 terponents to position to become wedged between
means selectively operative to drive the driven
member in either direction, resilient means nor
the driving and driven members and couple them
for movement as one, a control member rotatable
with the driven member for moving said inter
mally urging said overrunning means to operative
ponents to inoperative position against the force
position; a control member rotating with the
driven member for moving the overrunning means 25 of said resilient means to uncouple said members
for independent rotation of the driving member;
to inoperative position When movement of the
a brake drum carried by the control member; and
control member is stopped; and means acting
a brake band engageable with said brake drum for
through said control member for stopping move
applying braking force to said control member
ment of the driven member.
16. A reversible drive clutch comprising a drive 30 to move it relative to said driven member and
render the interponents inoperative and uncouple
ing and a driven member, an opposed overrunning
the driving and driven members, said driven
means selectively operative to drive the driven
member being nested Within the control member
member in either direction, resilient means nor
and the control member being nested within the
mally urging said overrunning means to opera
tive position; a control member rotating with the 35 brake drum.y
LOUIS SPRARAGEN.
driven member for moving the overrunning
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