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Патент USA US2406653

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Aug.> '27, 1946.
4' t.Film June 1o, 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Aug; 27, 1946.
Filed June 1o, 1944
2 sheets-snaai 2
Patented Aug. 27, 1946
`f ^
- 12,406,653
Y Clyde
l’viatchelor,- Nichols, Conn., assignor to
Raybestosr-Manhattan, Inc., Passaic, N. J., a
corporation of New Jersey "
Application June 10, 1944,'Serial No. 539,657 _
9 claims.
(o1. 18s-234)
v 2
lThis invention relates" to improvements in
friction> assemblies such 'as brakes 'and clutches
brake mung material coated with a. bestanden
>able resin, this material being separable 'along
comprising a layer of friction material and a me
lines roughlyparallel'to itsfaces> so as to per
mit it to be readily stripped or ground jfrom
tallic or supporting mounting element therefor,
and to the method of cementingo'r bondingi the
the brake shoe or band.
friction material to the metallic- supporting ele- '
It has heretofore -been proposed to bond or ce
It will be readily apparent, however, that the
very advantage ofjsuch proposal from a service
standpoint is detrimental in applied usage, since
fment brake linings or clutch facings/with their
-`'respective mounting ormetallic supporting elc
f ‘such’ cleavageplane presents a point o'f weakness
10 during> operation, particularly under high tem
' ments by meansl of adhesives'such as heat hard
' enable'synthetic resins for the purpose of avoid
" ing or eliminating the necessity for `use of rivets,
' perature, high speed 'andheavy duty ‘operation
resulting in failure from premature and undesir
able vcleavage or separation.
' "
or drilling, boring, or coun-terboringand regis
In accordance with thepre'sent invention it is
tering the component parts; vor( with >the end in. ,15 proposed to bond friction material 'such as brake
Yview of eliminating- waste or portions of the"4
> thickness of the friction material or for the pre
linings, clutch facings or other clutch structural
Vworn; or for ¿the purpose of obtaining 'a 'better'
elements, composed 'of conventional hard, dense,
formed friction‘material to brake shoes, clutch
'facings cone clutch element supports vand the`
like, by means of a heat hardenable binder with
the. attendantV advantages of a strong uniform
" union between the adjacent surfaces of the fric
bond and the 'elimination of conventional rivet-s,
tion `material and the metallic mounting sup
drilling and the like, and also avoidance Vof the
vention'of 'scoring of the mating .surfaces,"such
' as the brake drums, by Ameans 'of projecting riv
‘ ets when the friction material or lining Ibecomes
» port so as to spread torsional stresses and also
detrimental effects of interposed, readily' cleav
to induce more even mating and wear of the fric 25 able materials or' compositions, in a manner
which "at the same timepennits'separation of
old or wornv friction materials from vtheir metal
lic mounting 'supports and the ready replace
ment thereof without the necessity rfor a high
Vdegree of skill, excessive labor costs, and poten
tial damage to metallic parts in such operation.
- tion material.
The attempts or proposals to directly bond
friction material such as'brake linings,- conven
` tionally composed of a densified hard- composi
' tion of asbestos ñbers, mineral fillers anda heat
~ hardenable binder, to the brake shoe by means
' of- a heat curable binder such as a synthetic resin,
The objects of the present invention are in
-has rendered'the normal removal and-replace
general accomplished by interposing between
ment of the friction lining diiiìcult and at times
detrimental to the metallic support and partic
the surfaces of a friction element, such as a‘con
ventional pre-formed friction lining, c-lutch lfac- .
' ularly when the attempt at removal and re
' placement-is to be carried out at a customary
ing, or clutch structural element, and la metallic
mounting or supporting element therefor, an in
vrterlayer composed of a relatively thin network,
service station, since a conventional hard fric
tion element or layer of friction material can
web or sheet of cellulose fibres coated with a'heat
only with diñìculty be removed by the expensive
operations of grinding and chiseling entailing
40 hardenable bonding agent such as a synthetic
resin, and subjecting the assembly to heat and
pressure tofcure the resin and to bond the friction
skillful labor andY time, and which always have
the tendency to damage the brake shoe or other
metallic mounting surface.
material to the metallic element, the curedk resin
permeating `the interlayer and Vjoining the fric
In order to render the operation of removal 45 tion material to the metallic member. When oc
and replacement of bonded. brake linings less ~
casion for replacement for the friction mate
diñicult and expensive, and to prevent injury of
rial arises, it may be separated from the metal
lic surface to which it is bonded by soaking the
assembly in a caustic solution which penetrates
and effects at least the- cellulose of the inter
layer, to cause material disintegration and swell
ing of the interlayer, to thereby render the fric
» the metallic supporting surface, it has been pro
I posed in United States Patent No. 2,272,532 to
bond brake linings to brake shoes by the intel'
position of one or more layers of a material sim-`
ilar to that of which the brake lining is com
- posed, that is, of asbestos, ñllers and a binder,
but of a relatively softer nature than thev hard
„ and densîñed brake lining, that is, Va cleavable
tion material readily separable. >
' » The invention, the method of carryingïout the
`liliV same, and the advantages thereof will be more
particularly described with reference to the ac
companying drawings wherein:
Fig. 1 is a plan View with parts broken away
of a brake shoe assembly formed in accordance
with the present invention.
lose structure allowing intimate contact with the
bonding material, and the action of the caustic
,_ further induces swelling. of .thecellulose to exert
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the brake Shoe as
semblyof Figùyl. :_i
.7. _A
of the cellulose fibres. In any event the cellulose
fibres are directly attacked by the caustic solu
tion resulting in a weakening of the libre portion
of the structure, penetration of the fibrous cellu
..._ ,n
..."afwedging. action between the. friction material
is a“ seötionLon; the line ZeemofFig. 2..
and the metallic support, all of which permits
Fig. 4 is a plan view with parts broken away
of a cone clutch assembly formed in accordance 1Q >`the Vfriction material or lining II to be readily
Fig.my5 invention.
is a sectional view on the line 5-5
. of
,l removed” or Y_split olf from the brake shoe I0 by
inserting> a'tool between the adjacent faces of
Fig' 4°
, thebrake shoe.v l0 and the lining II, without,
.'“. "1f
.vQldovveverg:necessitating the use of force to a de
Referring to the drawnigstlp
to 3, there is illustrated a co?ventioñallbi’akefslrioe ‘1’5` ,gree_`which;would tend to damage the surface
I0 having bonded thereto a >brake- lining II "by y „ofthe brake shoel or requirement for finish grind
means of interlayer I2. The fricti‘orfmate‘r'ial II
' ing lto a' degree‘which would be necessary if the
may be of conventional brake lining composition
liningdl had been directly bonded to the shoe
Iû in the absence of the caustic disintegratable
such as asbestos, mineral fillers and a`h`eat hard
leneclbinder and mayh‘ave _been cut fromy a'zroll 20
forhalve been supplied.. in theffòrrn of. al shaped
interlayer or linerv I2.
. .
In accordancefwith the present'_.inïvefr'iy
has been further found. that .whenthepaper'or
other cellulose web, of which „the interlayer I2`.is
‘segr'nent"Thekinterlayerfv IZ jis'fQQITíD s'ed ofv a
’ perme‘ablehnetwork or web of cellulose ñbresfsu‘ch
_' formed Ais thinner than .001Í__i'r'1c`h. the. re'SinÄÍor
The surfaces of the interlayerwlßare coated,‘--25 other `>bonding agent penetrates .so .thoroughly
ìasyfor example afelted fibrous'sheetof paper.
.by spraying, brusbinaeic., .Wîthïalbêa'i herd
.ênablefbindersuches i011'. example a'thermQ-Sei
from both
at all
so ut'io'n.
form’ed.. that...ís,lihe'i1.1 Sklave ‘ I ¿2Q interposed
tween the brake shoej._.I0l. andl. efbrakelining .I I,
.ent in the intermediate Zone( „'Betweenltheseap
On the other hand, whentheinterlayer is thicker
Ating ‘syntheticf _rr-isin.> one example offsuch resin
than about .005Í inch, lpenetration'- .is'iìísu?cient
o‘f` those commercially( a_.ya'ilabilev "beingwfthe
f phenolic Lresins.,f“Afterfthe' assembly 'has been'go and some traces of.a_.cleavage pla'nemayfbìe> pres
proximate limitations >a ñrmÁbond may'ßbe Íob
tained which does'. not "exhibit'any planesß'of
cleavage during the.. most Í critical.v conditions. of
_ the „ component vportions'are ' clamped ‘together by
>means ofsuitable'cl'ampa'or other'vpressure dee-„ë
vices" or'pla'.tensfnotl illustrated,v andthe friction“
usage but whichneverthelèss maybe weakened
and softened ~to ' permit .separation >by attack'cf
' ’ máterialbonded to .the brake.' slide. While 'apply
.lí'ns 0r .maintaining 'preSSl'lre' throushfthefilidî
a caustic solutionon the. interlayer‘andparticu
' cated devices, by rneansjof` a' heat'sourfce‘ .such
.larly . the . cellulose Á libres.. thereof whenv itf'is Íde
si'red to remove and replace.'thefriction'niaterial.
asy for example,_ radiant `h`e1at,`f‘direct electrical
resistance, _steam heated`platensÍ andfthe _like'well
Figs. .4'. and .5'.illustratefanother form of.. fric
tion assemblyand morésp'eciñcallyla particular
known Vheating means,..tlïe’pressureiand 'heat and .
@form of clutch ‘ assemblywherein employrnénftis
degrees thereof4 being appuedjrera pèriodlof'ume
.made (of. a `,co'né`fclutch structuralfele?i'ent .I A3'Í'in
Y suincient to' bond 'theipom'xöónents 'íntd‘en ’as
lentf'ii-ivenntionïftlie '45
' employment. bij.; ordìnary'kraftífpeiàer
' the formlof'ahellow 'regularÃtruncatedfconeîhav
ing a >relativelythickened wall,"compos'ed'îofV a
¿substantially uniform .mixture of. asbestos-übers,
a heat hardened synthetic resinfbin‘derandfcon
Athickness vof approximately'. .0.03.2V
`p'air`1ted on> both surfaces',w'ithgaI so "tiongo‘f îa
ventio'nalv -friction material lmineral 'Ífille'rs~~ Ä The
„heat hardenable phenolic resin, hasjbeen fo :d_d
Í clutch >element I3 . is.V -supported ‘ÍbyQmeans' of la
tion causingthe binder to, penetrateîÍîthefinter
flange of a .shaft suchas a crank "shaft,Y ¿The
satisfactory, the ,pressuremand heat'curjingfopera- 50. ’ supportingl plate
I4 ladapted to _be= .secured ytothe
plateïld is .provided` with `arelatively narrow
layer and` to bond; the'fric'tion materialfft'o' _the
>metallic element therethrough, î‘ andto thus. gde
_coiled rim le; .the clutch eiementple being joined
y -stroy any inherent _cleavage properties'bf thegin
to .theface ofthe conedfrim‘rIf-i by `meansmlofian
terlayer. While, _Äthew'resultìngïfirrn. bon'd‘pre- 55` Virfiterlayer I6, the‘layer I6 being of .av similarer
like nature to the interlayer I2 previously de
’ vents vready removalforfseparationfof"'tlie. layer
of'. friction "materiallfrom [the 'metallic VVsii'ppfofi'ît,
loe-joined tothe Vrim I5 ofthe supporting’ plate I4
bythe application of suitablelheat> and pressure
it. of course also preventsfanyfoperativelsurface
failure by reason of premature cleavage or'sep- H
Y In like _manner .the cone „clutchelementdâ may
in V.the manner previously , indicated Ywith respect
is attacked by a causticsolutionand çswells ma
g' terially, _the . friction ` material _as appliedV Íin'ffae
. Gordan@ with »the Present ïeYe3'1iiO1fëáQ-«~bß-frè- ~
Arnovedand replaced >when desired _byl'subject‘ing G5
>:the bondedassemblyto soaking, for Vexample from
_about ..3 *t0 5 hours. in "a1§tr0fie~,-ßeusiie.solution
such as for example> aößïlßodium hydroxide
solution. Although it is irnpossible:tolapprrecà bly .
to Figs. >l and 3, to bond the friction material, I3
to the surface of the metallic support I5. _to form
a firmly bonded structure suitable fcnuse as a
driving or driven member capable of transmitting
» ._ Althoughin the 'foregoing .two forms .of fric
tionassemblyl have.. been .illustrated it'. will., be
readily, understood „that other .forms _iof.. friction
.attack Curedlesin Smiles the.. pheuoliß resins, 7o Àassembly may be employed forautomotiveïoriirl
vdustrial l,uses and formed
.accordance with .the
l.with caustic, when theresinis'a `continuoivls
form, it is believed that‘in accordanceìwithïthe
present invention .Sugli resin. is,
.degree ab
„tacked by the..strdrl1g.pßeusiie ,.slollitîpn .by reason».
.present invention wherein. . pre-formed friction
, .materiaL is.,to .be .joined .to almetallic vmounting
,surface by meansîof a .firm bond', butwhich `bond
ofthe fact; thatthe resin penetrates a network 75 is disintegratable for replacement purposes so as
_ 2,406,653
to enable ready separation of the friction mate
rial from the metallic support when occasion re
I have referred specifically to synthetic resins
in the foregoing specification as an example of a
of the metallic element by means of a synthetic
resin permeating the intermediate sheet.
4. A friction assembly comprising a layer of
formed friction material in bonded engagement
with the surface of a metallic mounting and sup
porting element, and an intermediate layer com
prising a network of cellulose libres having a
thickness of from about .001 to about .005 inch.
5. A friction assembly comprising a layer of
resin as the bonding material but in its broad
aspect embraces any bonding material which 10 formed friction material in bonded engagement
good type of bonding material for coating the
cellulose strip. The invention in its broad as
pects is not restricted to the use of synthetic
will form a satisfactory bond at temperatures be
tween about 200° F. and about 400° F. and Which
will not be destroyed at abnormal service tern
peratures of say 550° F. at the bond. Thus, in
with the surface of a metallic mounting and sup
porting element, and an intermediate layer corn
prising a network of cellulose fibres having a
thickness of approximately .003 inch.
6. A friction assembly comprising a layer of
formed friction material, a metallic mounting
and supporting element therefor, and an inter
layer of cellulose ñbres having a thickness of
the Vinylites, Bunas, neoprenes, resin-oils and
from about .001 to about .005 inch, the friction
the like. The terms “heat hardenable,” “heat
setting” and “heat curing” as used in the speci 20 material being bonded to the surface of the me
tallic element by means of a heat cured syn
iication and claims are intended to embrace
thetic resin permeating the cellulose fibre inter
binders of the foregoing type.
addition to the phenol-formaldehyde type of 15
resin hereinbefore discussed, I may use other syn
thetic resins as well as other binders, including
The principal vitalizing feature of the present
'7. A friction assembly comprising a brake shoe,
invention is the provision of an intermediate
bonding element comprising a relatively thin net 25 a brake lining, and an interlayer of cellulose
fibres having a thickness of from about .001 to
work of cellulose fibers. _
I claim as my invention:
about .005 inch, the brake lining being bonded
to the shoe by means of a synthetic resin heat
1. A friction assembly comprising a friction
cured in place and permeating the interlayer,
element, a metallic supporting element therefor
8. A friction assembly comprising a clutch ele
and an intermediate bonding element comprising 30
ment of formed friction material, a metallic
a network of cellulose ñbres having a thickness
mounting element therefor, and an interlayer of
of from about .G01 to about .005 inch permeated
cellulose ñbres having a thickness of from about
with a cured resin.
.001 to about .005 inch, the clutch friction ele
2. A friction assembly comprising a layer of
formed friction material in adhesive'bonded en 35 ment being bonded to a surface of the metallic
mounting element by means of a synthetic resin
gagement with the surface of a metallic support
heat cured in place and permeatin'g the inter
ing element and an intermediate cellulosic fibre
web having a thickness of from about .001 to
9. A friction assembly comprising a friction
about .005 inch permeated with a heat hardened
a metallic supporting element therefor
and an intermediate bonding element comprising
3. A friction assembly comprising a layer of
a network of cellulose fibres having a thickness
formed friction material, a metallic supporting
of from about .001 to about .005 inch and a heat
and mounting element therefor, and an inter
mediate sheet of felted cellulose ñbres having a
thickness of from about .001 to about .005 inch, 45
the friction element being bonded to a surface
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