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Патент USA US2406673

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Aug. 27, 1_946.
BOILERFiled April 19 , 1944
, 3 Sheets-Sheet -1
l‘MIN f "UI/pl' W I “
Aug. 27, 1946.
` 2,406,673
Fi1ed_Apri1 19, `1944 v
3 Sheets-,Sheet 2
. l5
Aug. 27, 1946.> y
Filed‘April 19, 1944
’ `
s sheets-sheet 5
Patented Aug. 27," 1946
2,406,67 3
Andrew Drummond, St. George, Staten Island,
N. Y., assignor to Lehigh Valley Coal Sales
Company, New York, N. Y., a ’corporation of
New Jersey
Application April 19, 1944, Serial No. 531,753
7 Claims. (Cl. 1229-158)
This invention relates vto improvements in
boiler or furnace construction, particularly to
improvements in units of the type suitable'for
domestic'or home heating by means-of steam or
hot water. However its features are also appli
cable to installations larger than those of the
ucts of combustion from the secondary combus
tion chamber to the chimney. A simple and
more effective way of applying such tubes is to
insertV them in place in the boiler construction,
and thenroll over or crimp their end portions
in order to Yhold the tubes in position and form
home heating type.
the desired tightjoint. Because of the limited
In my Patent 2,228,757 I have disclosed a boiler
space provided in the secondary combustion
construction of a type particularly suitable for
chamber it is difficult, if possible at all, to roll
use in the heating of homes by means of steam 10 overfthe endsrof the tubes at the point where
or hot water. That construction is character
they enter that chamber when the construction
ized by a lower combustion chamber, and by an
upper or hopper portion forming with the com
bustion `zone a boiler and fuel storage assembly
disclosed in my patent is utilized.
In the construction shown in my patent I have
also provided a number of ducts arranged in
arranged in- hourglass fashion. YThus, the ar-k 15 tubular form to provide communication between
rangement includes a constricted neck portion
the .primary combustion chamber in the lower
providing a 'throat or passageway for the trans
half of .the hourglassrconstruction and the sec
fer of coal between hopper portion and combus
ondarycombustion chamber. While these tubes
tion chamber. Each of the two elements of` this
perform their Afunction very satisfactorily, they
construction, the hopper and the combustion 20 add to the cost of the construction and they com
chamber, are arranged in conical or pyramidal
plicate the problem of cleaning the boiler. These
form, the hopper Walls in the lower part being
are, of course, factors of considerable impor
inclined to the horizontal at an angle~ approxi
tance, especially where the units are intended
mately that of the angle of repose of thekk fuel.
for home heating. purposes.
In the construction disclosed in my patent there
I havek now devised a new and improved boiler
is also provided a secondaryV combustion cham
or furnace construction of the general type shown
ber which surrounds the above mentioned throat,
and is of substantially triangular vertical cross
sectionv and wherein gases evolved from the coal
in my issued patent, which construction involves,
however, theV simplification of that structure to
the end thatthe boilers may be manufactured
or other fuel utilized are burned. This secondary 30 more readily and at lower cost than previously
combustion chamber is connected with the pri
possible. Accordingly, it is a main and primary
mary combustion chamber by means of tubular
object of this invention tov simplify the boiler
conduits, and with the flue gas header leading
or furnace construction shown in my issued pat
to the chimney by means of a number of con
ent, at the same Atime retaining its advantages
duits which are also tubular in form and which 35 without modifying the principles under which it
serve to carry out the products of combustion
operates, tothe end that the units may be manu
formed in both combustion chambers.
factured and maintained more economically than
While the hourglass construction with its sur
heretofore possible.
rounding secondary combustion chamber of tri-`
Another object of this invention involves the
angular cross section is very satisfactory in many 40 elimination `of the four reentrant portions of
installations, and while the principles ofits oper
my formerv construction, these reentrant portions
ation are admirably adapted for the heating of
providing an hourglass shape, and their replace
hot Water or the generation of steam by vmeans
ment by a single reentrant -portion without, how
of coal or other solid fuel, especially in instal
ever, surrendering any ofthe advantages of oper
lations of the domestic type, the necessity for 45 ationinherent in the arrangement shown in my
providing four reentrant portions to give the
hourglass shape hasV increased the cost of manu
facturing units of this type. Moreover, the sec
ondary combustion chamber of triangular cross
A third object of my invention involves modi
fying the .conformation of the secondary com
bustion chamberv wherein the fuel gases are
section is so shaped as to render it and-related 50 burned before their passagel to the chimney so
parts very diflicult 'of'construction and assembly.
It complicates particularly the problem of form
ing> a firm 'and leak-proof connection between
this chamber'an‘dthe ends of theftubes which
provide ,the conduits `for the »escape> of theprod
that fthe endless, `triangularly cross-sectioned
combustion chamber surrounding the throat of
my» former Vconstruction is replaced by one‘which
is straight andzgenerally trapezoidal in cross sec
55 tion.- By this changethere is provided adequate
. 2,406,673
throat portion I4 may advantageously be less
than one-quarter of the horizontal cross-sectional
area of the lower portion of combustion chamber
II. As shown in Figure 2, both the fuel storage
chamber and its shape in plan I am also able
to secure «more >satisfactory combustion of the
gases in this chamber than previously possible
with the triangularly shaped member shown in
my issued patent and the cleaning problem is
greatly simplified.
Vzontal cross-sectional area of thisI restricted
room for the rolling in of the ends of the fire
tubes forming the du'cts communicating with the
nue gas header. By changing the cross-sectional
hopper and the main portion of the combustion
chamber are roughly in the form of wedges of
generally triangular cross section meeting at the
throat I4.
At the lower portion of the combustion chamber
there are provided a plurality of grate bars I 5 on
A fourth object of this invention involves the
which the fuel is supported during burning. The
simpliñcation of the connection between the main
angle that the wall I1 of the combustion chamber
combustion chamber and the secondary combus
I I, and its continuation up to the throat, forms
tion chamber whereby the series of tubes previ
with the horizontal is preferably approximately
ously 'utilized is replaced by a single large open 15 that of the angle of repose of the solid fuel used,
ing, thus permitting free passage of the gases
‘thereby insuring that the fuel will entirely fill said
between the combustion chambers.
This change '
combustion chamber and spread out more or less
uniformly over the entire area of the lower por
tion of the combustion chamber so that there will
is also simplified, since ash or dirt readily falls 20 be substantially no air or gas space above the
back into the main combustion chamber and
fuel within the combustion. chamber and the fuel
not only eliminates the replacement problem
present when such tubesy are used, but cleaning
does not remain in the connecting conduits.
.A fifth object of my invention involves the sim
pliiication of the upper storage hopper construc
tion wherein a single boiler plate and not the
water space of the boiler as in my issued patent
now formsthe sides of the hopper. Thus, the
only heated surface coming in contact with the
fuel in reserve is the sloping bottom I1a. These
and still other objects of this invention will be
apparent from the ensuing disclosure of certain
preferred embodiments thereof.
My invention is best illustrated with reference
to the annexed drawings >which show a preferred
embodiment of a boiler or furnace construction
incorporating it. While this description is given
in some detail it should be regarded as illustra'
tive, keeping in mind that the inventive Principles
will not tend to enter the secondary combustion
chamber to be hereinafter described. As shown,
the hopper I2 is provided with sloping bottom
I1a, which is the only heated surface coming in
contact with the fuel in the hopper.
Surrounding the combustion chamber II and
the throat I4, there is provided, as shown, a water
jacket or compartment I9 forming the water
space of the boiler in which water is heated by
means of the heat developed in primary combus
tion chamber II and in secondary combustion
chamber 29.
As shown, this water space I9 is a
rectangular shell in form having a relatively nar
row width at three sides of the unit designated
by numerals 2l, this Width increasing at the
fourth side and surrounding the flue tubes 22 to
the width shown at the right hand end of Fig
ure 2. The Water space also partially surrounds
4.0 the secondary combustion chamber 29, as shown
struction than that illustrated.
In the annexed drawings,
at 23. As shown. the water space I9 is normally
Figure 1 is an elevational view of the improved
filled with Water to about the level indicated.
boiler as seen from the rear.
As shown particularly in Figs. 2 and 3, the in
Figure 2 is a central, longitudinal, vertical sec
clined wall of the upper hopper section is sup
tion through the boiler taken on line 2-2 of Fig
ported by the usual stay bolts 24 and 25. The
ure 1 looking in the direction of the arrows.
lower end of the water space I9 is stayed by means
Figure 3 is a transverse vertical section through
of stay bolts 26 running in one direction and stay
the boiler taken on line 3-3 of Figure 2. As
bolts 21 running in the other direction. .The
shown, this section is taken along a bent line in
primary combustion chamber is supported trans
order that the interior features of the boiler con
versely by means of stay bolts 29, while stay bolts
struction may be more adequately illustrated.
3l support the narrower sections 2| of the boiler
Referring now to the drawings, my improved
compartment I9 as shown, for example, at the
boiler or furnace construction may be said to con
left hand end in Figure 2 and in Figure 3.
sist of three principal portions: a base 1 forming
The primary combustion chamber II is in di
the ash pit of the unit; a main boiler portion 8; 55 rect communication with the secondary combus
and a magazine or storage portion 9. The water
tion chamber 20 through opening 36. As shown,
space of the boiler is located between an outer
this secondary combustion chamber has a trape
wall 8a and an inner wall 8b. One side of the
zoidal shape in transverse cross section and ex
inner wall is reentrant and shaped so as to form
tends across the boiler compartment. ln this
a combustion chamber II and a fuel hopper I2. 60 combustion chamber gases distilled from the fuel,
The base is a box-like member which may be
as well as gases resulting from incomplete com
formed of sheet metal or cast iron or steel, suit
bustion in the primary combustion chamber, are
ably bent and welded or otherwise fastened to
burned. On either side of the unit there are
provide a sturdy supporting structure. The mag
provided doors 31 shown in Figures 1 and 3, by
azine portion 9 may be of sufficient capacity to
which access may be had through the trapezoidal
retain an adequate supply of solid fuel to enable
openings 33 to the secondary combustion cham
the operation of the boiler continuously over an
ber 20.
extended period, twenty four hours or longer.
The secondary combustion chamber 20 is con
Turning ñrstto the main boiler section 8, this
nected with the flue gas header 40 by means of
includes the combustion chamber I l in whichvthe 70 flue tubes 22. As shown (see Fig. 3) , these tubes
fuel is ignited and permitted to burn, and the fuel
are arranged across the boiler unit and extend
supply member or hopper I2 in open communica
horizontally in a number of rows, the position of
tion with the combustion chamber, the fuel being
the tubes being staggered in successive rows. By
delivered to the latter from the hopper I2 through
means'v of the doors 31 providing access to the
the constricted portion or throat I4. The hori
thereof may be embodied in other types of con
secondary. combustion chamber~2ß through
openings 38 it is possible to insert a tool for the
purpose of rolling over the ends of tubes 22 to
hold them firmly in place and form a tight joint.
Sufficient room for the insertion of a suitable tool 5,
is readily provided by the large cross-sectional
the water level. .Provision forsupplying vaddi
tional water whenever desired, and for draining
the boiler, may be made in connection with the
pipes leading to one or both of the ports 64. Any
of these ports which are not used may be pro
vided with suitable closures, not shown, as usual
in boilers. These or other passages communi
cating with the interior of the boiler may be
used'V for the 'introduction of auxiliary devices,
area, trapezoidal in shape, of the secondary com
bustion chamber 20. A tool may Aalso be inserted
through clean-out Ydoor 43 of flue gas header 40
to permit rolling over the >outer ends o-f tubes 22, 10 such as pressure gauges or temperature record
thus permitting firm securement of these tubes
ing devices, in accordance with practices well un»
in place in the boiler and permitting their ready
derstodiny the boiler art. As shown most clearly
replacement in the event they ybecome burned
in Figure 1, there is also provided a number of
out. Tubes 22 serve'not only to draw olf the
draw-off cocks and water level indicators of a
products of combustion developed in combustion 15 type usual in boilers, these being indicated gen
chamber 20, but also the products of combus
erally by the numeral B5. Also included is a sight
tion developed in primary combustion chamber
glass 66 of any usual type for observing the level
i i, the primary and secondary combustion cham
of water in the boiler, valves 6l being provided
bers communicating, as previously noted, through
for controlling» access of liquid thereto.
the opening 36.
Any appropriate means may be provided for
The boiler is also provided at its upper portion
regulating damper 54. In the construction shown
with a fuel charging opening 41 closed normally
there is provided damper operating rod 68 ex
by hinged cover 48. Access to the upper sur
tending to either side of the boiler, this rod being
faces of the grate bars I5 may be afforded through
adapted for remote operation by mechanism of
the door 49 but its main purpose is to provide for 25 any suitable type not shown.
the admission of air through the sliding grid 49a
,While a preferred form of the invention has
(if desired) in order to offset the increased re
been described in considerable detail vit will be
sistance of the _fuel bed at its greatest depth to
understgod that various changes may be made
the normal penetration _of ‘ air through the grate.
' in the construction or in the arrangements of
By providing . additional air in this manner 30 the various parts thereof without departing from
through thesliding grid 49a, a bright spot nor
the general form of the invention. While my
mally present on the lower surface of the fuel
invention has been described with particular ref
bed and necessary to ignite the gases distilled
erence to a boiler for the generation of steam or
from the green fuel as it falls downwards from
for heating water, certain features -thereof are
the upper. storage hopper, may be extended up 35 applicable to other types of furnaces, for exam
wards along the surface of the fuel bed all the
ple, to those of the hot air type, and it is my in
way to the throat in order to accelerate combus
tention that my invention shall be construed to
tion. There is provide grate shaker mechanism
cover such modifications. The scope of the in
including the handle 5I which serves through
vention is therefore not to be restricted to the
mechanism not shown to shake the grate bars, 40 preferred form and to the detailed description
thereby permitting the ashes to drop into the ash
thereof given as illustrative, but is to be con
retainment section 1. Access thereto for the
strued in accordance with the appended claims,
removal of ashes is provided through ash door 52.
I claim:
The draft regulating arrangement is substan
’ l. In a boiler of the class described, an outer
tially identical with ythat shown in my Patent 45 wall structure; inner walls within said outer wall
2,228,758 and includes draft damper 54, normally
structure, one of said inner walls being provided
closed when air is permitted to travel directly
with a reentrant portion forming with said outer
through the burning fuel on grate bars I5. This
walls a primary combustion chamber of substan
draft damper is positioned in conduit 55 com
tially wedge-shaped form and a superposed
municating with flue gas header 40 which, in 50 wedge-shaped fuel storage hopper, said primary
turn, leads to the chimney (not shown) through
combustion chamber and said fuel storage hopper
flue duct 56.
being connected for the passage of fuel therebe
As«shown particularly in Figures 2 and 3, the
tween at a restricted throat portion, said re
water in vthe boiler section I9 surrounds the ñue
lentrant portion providing also a roof for said
tubes 22, thereby deriving heat from the burned 55 combustion chamber inclined at a substantial
gases as they travel from the secondary combus
angle and being formed to provide a secondary
tion chamber 20 to the flue gas header 40. There
combustion chamber, said secondary combustion
is also positioned in the upper portion of this
chamber communicating with said primary com
boiler section, above the flue tubes 22, a series of
bustion chamber whereby the products of the
U-shaped pipes 58 which are connected to a
combustion may pass therebetween; means pro
header 59. These pipes serve to hold Water for 60 viding an additional supply of air to the fuel in
heating, this hot water supply being then With
said primary combustion chamber whereby in
drawn through header 59. This feature is par
candescence thereof may be controlled; and flue
ticularly important when the boiler is designed
means including tube means providing communi
for domestic or home use as it provides a ready
cation between said secondary combustion cham
supply of hot water While the heating system is 65 ber and a chimney, said outer Wall structure and
in operation,
said inner walls being adapted to retain water
The boiler is lagged by the usual insulation,
around at least portions of said combustion
designated generally as 6|. It is also provided
with the usual relief valve 62 to permit the escape 70
2. A boiler according to claim 1 in which the
of excessive steam pressure. To provide for the
secondary combustion chamber is of substan
withdrawal of steam from the boiler section I9,
tially trapezoidal cross section.
and to permit the return of the condensate there
3. A boiler according to claim 1 in which the
to, there are provided one or more ports 63 above
tube means comprises a plurality of spaced and
the water level and one or more ports 64 below 75 substantially parallel tubes.
4. A boiler according to claim 1 in which the
restricted throat portion has a horizontal cross
sectional area less than one-quarter of the cor
responding area of the lower portion of the pri
restricted throat Yportion has a horizontal crossd
sectional area less than one-quarter of the cor
responding area of the lower portion of the pri-A
mary combustion chamber and in which the roof
for, the primary combustion chamber/is inclined
with respect to a horizontal plane at an angle
at least equal to the angle of repose of the fuel.
'7. A boiler. of the class described comprising
an outer wall structure, inner. walls within said
5. In a boiler of the class described, an outer
outer wall structure arranged to provide within
wall structure; inner walls within said outer Wall 10
latter a primary combustion chamber, a sec
structure, one of said inner walls being provided
ondary combustion chamber in direct communi
with a reentrant portion forming with said outer
cation with said primary combustion chamber
walls a primary combustion chamber of substan
and closelyadjacent thereto, and a fuel storage
tially wedge-shaped form and a superposed sub
stantially wedge-shaped fuel storage hopper, said 15 hopper superposed above said combustion cham
bers, a substantially horizontal grate at the bot
primary combustion chamber and said fuel stor
tom of said primary combustion chamber, said
age hop-per being connected for the passage of
primary combustion chamber and said fuel stor
fuel therebetween by a restricted throat portion,
ager hopperhaving at least two vertical walls in
said reentrant portion providing a roof for said
combustion chamber inclined at a substantial 20 substantial alinement and being connected for
mary combustion chamber and in which the roof
for the primary combustion chamber is inclined
with respect to a horizontal plane at an angle
at least equal to the angle of repose of the fuel.
the passage of fuel therebetween at a restricted
angle and also being formed to provide a sec»
throat portion-provided by the reentrant forma
ondary combustion chamber extending across
tion of certain of the inner walls, said certain
the interior of the boiler, said secondary combus
ofthe inner Walls forming an inclined bottom
tion chamber communicating with said primary
said fuel storage hopper adapted to feed solid
combustion chamber whereby the products of 25
fuel therefrom by gravity, said certain of the
combustion may pass therebetween; and flue
inner walls also being s-o formed and arranged
means including a plurality of tubes providing
as to provide a relatively large primary combus
communication between said secondary combus
chamber adapted to be kept constantly filled
tion chamber and a chimney, said secondary
combustion chamber being suñiciently large to 80 by gravity flow of fuel from said hopper and a
relatively small secondary combustion chamber
permit the introduction of an edge-turning tool
arranged to receive the gases from said primary
whereby the edge portions of said tubes posi
chamber, and flue means including tubes provid
tioned in said secondary combustion chamber
ing communication between said secondary com
may be turned over to form a tight joint and
bustion chamber and a chimney, said outer wall
retain said tubes in place, said outer wall struc
structure and said inner walls being adapted to
ture and said inner walls being adapted to retain
retain water around at least portions of said
water around at least portions of said cham
combustion chambers and said tubes.
6. A boiler according to claim 5 in which the
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