Патент USA US2406708код для вставки
Aug. 27, 1946; v F. J. PEPERSACK, 2,406,708 ACCESS DOOR FITTING ‘FOR TANKS Filed Aug. 15, 1942 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 fkaxvcllaJ/vzpéwsaur, Aug. 27,1946. F. J. PEPERSACK ‘ 12,406,703 ‘ ACCESS DOOR FITTING FOR TANKS ' Filed Aug. 15, 1942 3 Sheets-Sheet '2 gihHw-W: W _ ’ W N y I \ l L fkA/VOGJPEPéR-SHC/f, . Aué- 27, 1946. F. J. PEPERSACK ' ‘ ACCFiSS DQOR_FITTING FOR TANKS Filed Aug. ‘15, 1942 2,406,708 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 , ,, A . m. @w a r7? Z» WM m. w 13M1 M W Patented Aug. 27, 1946 2,406,708 'e UNITED STATESaide-hos I PATENT OFFICE ACCESS noon FITTING FOR TANKS’ Francis J. Pepersack, Towson,‘Md.,' assignor to The Glenn L. Martin Company, Middle River, Md., a corporation of Maryland ' ‘if Application August '15, 1942, Serial Nqii'ssess ' 5 Claims. (01. 1'5o_3) 2 The invention to be described pertains to ‘ac; v ' thetank'cell on the rigid housing structure and assist in the assembly of the access door. 'cess door ?ttings for vtanksjarid particularly for ' 'Still other features of novelty contributing to tanks adapted to contain liquid hydrocarbons, and comprising a rubber-like cell' con?ned by a ' the, ‘e?iciency and simplicity of the fitting con struction of this invention, will be pointed out rigid housing structure. Tanks of thisinature -5 in connection with the following detailed descrip are used as fuel ‘and oil tanks forairplanes. 5 . a tion of severai illustrative embodiments taken in They are ?tted into the different parts ‘of the connection with the accompanying drawings, in fuselage or Wings so' that the normal structure provides the rigid housing element of the tank. An illustration of this practice is found in Gray 10 i Fig. 1 shows a fragmentary plan view of an access door ?tting for a: circular tank opening, et a1. PatentiNd 2,102,590 disclosing a cellular the view being partly broken away to show cer "form of tankapplied to aircraft construction.’ taindetails in section; ,, 1 ' I _ However, this cellular form of tank is also ap Fig; 2 is a fragmentary plan view of a clamp plicableto other kinds of transport vehicles such ' as ships,’ motor trucks, and freight cars. 15 ing member of the ?tting; which , The general purpose of this invention is to ' ‘ . ' '. Fig. 3; is a vertical transversesection to reduced ‘provide a cellular tank of the type indicated with a relatively large ‘access door or closur'e'which scale taken along the line ‘III-III of Fig. 1; ‘Fig. 4 isv a ,_ similar vertical transverse section taken‘ along the linejI_V—-IV of Fig. 1; vwill facilitate manufacture of the. tank cell and 51s a transverse vertical section similar itsassembly, in a housing structure, and also 52,0 to‘Fig. 4m mostrespects, but‘ showing a different afford access to the entire interior of the cell, as i ' "form of tank cell; ' . In so doing, it v is’ often convenient or necessary. Fig. 6 is ‘a vertical transverse section showing a is desirable to employ a door or closure of the same ?exible, rubber-like material as the'cell and to give the cell opening and the door or closure ‘25 su?icient'reinforcement so thattheymay be eas ily assembled together and subsequently clamped in closing relation. . v, modi?ed form of clamping means; Fig. 7 is a vertical transverse section of the two ‘clamping members employed in the modifica tionof Fig. 6; and ‘ ‘Fig.8 showspartially in elevation and partially > *inftransverse section a‘ special form of clamping More speci?cally, it is intended to provide an access door and tank cell opening with a,con-> 30 means and hanger arrangement for the tank cell. tinuous, peripherally extending reinforcement which will maintain the shape of both of these parts and yet ?ex readily in any direction. An additional object of the invention resides in Referring to'Figs. 3 and 4, a tank cell of flex ible rubber-like‘materia1 is designated generally ‘as l0 and is provided With a rigid housing“ struc ture l2’, which'in this instance is the surface structure of an aircraft.v It will be noted that the provision of opposed clamping elements pro; 35 the tank cell'Hl is'formed to provide a relatively vided with spacing means fOr preventing undue large opening I4 which is circular in the illus compression of the cell material which is often trated embodiments. An access door iii of the. of a rubber subject to cold flow deformation. same or similar material as the tank cell, is made A further speci?c object is to modify the con 0 slight1y smaller and'of the same shape as the struction of the tank cell around its opening and opening l4 into'which it is ?tted. the access door around its periphery so as to ‘An outer clamping ?ange l8 and an inner replace a portion of ‘the cell-‘construction which clamping ?ange 2i] engage the corresponding is most susceptible to cold flow with a material sides of the tank 'cell 10 and door or closure i6 50 as to span their juncture and clamp thesetwo which is resistant thereto.‘ A further object of the invention, the details 45 tank cell parts in sealing relation. The outer circular clamping ?ange I8 is provided with a of which will be pointed out subsequently, is to provide a form of clamping means for the tank cell and access door which may be used without series of spaced holes 22 for receiving the shanks of a set of screws 24 which are threadedly en modi?cation for tank cells of widely varying 50 gaged in’ a correspondingly spaced set of tapped bosses 26 formed on the inner clamping ?ange thickness withthe addition or subtraction of a ‘20, as shown in Fig. 3. rIv‘he clamping portion of molding strip of resilient material. ~ the outer ?ange. i8 is formed to provide rounded One of the more speci?c objects is to provide gripping edges 28, 28 and a series of gripping a special form of threaded means which may be vused with the cell clamping; members toi'support v55 ‘ridges or ‘similar ‘formations .30, 30. Flange 20 2,406,708 3 has identical projections in the form of gripping edges 32 and gripping ridges 34 acting in opposi cell I0, it is believed unnecessary to repeat those details. tion to those of the clamping ?ange l8. _ A particular feature of the inner clamping flange 29 is a series of spacer elements 36 ex , The clamping means and tank cell opening and access door reinforcements which have been de scribed with respect to the illustrative embodi ment of Figs. 1 to 4 may be adapted without modi?cation to a tank cell‘ 58‘ of single layer con struction. The tank cell 53 shown in Fig. 5 is provided with an opening 6!] for receiving an tending between the screw holes 22, as shown best in Fig. 2. The spacer elements 36 are prefer ably of arcuate shape or may be of short lengths and arranged on the arc of a circle having the radius of the centers of the screw openings 22. 10 access door 52. The tank cell 58 comprises a thin It is the function of the spacer elements 36 to wall layer 64 of ?exible rubber-like material such ?t between the peripheral edges of the tank cell as neoprene or other synthetic rubber, which is 10 and the access door [6, and to engage the opposite part of the outer clamping ?ange l8 resistant to the action of liquid hydrocarbons. . Abo-utthe opening 69 the rubber-like layer 641 is so as to limit the threaded screws 24 toa pre 1.5 faced and reinforced by identical inner and outer layers 68 and 68, respectively, adhesively secured pressible tank cell and door material. 7 thereto and composed of heavy fabric material Figs. 1, 3 and 4 show the manner in which impregnated with neoprene or the equivalent. By the opposed peripheries of the tank cell ii] and reason of the much less thickness of the tank cell the access door of closure [53 are reinforcedby 20 58, it is necessary to provide a resilient molding means of a hoop 38 andan identical but slightly or ?ller strip "it, of any suitable rubber material smaller hoop 41!, respectively.‘ Preferably, the which willtake up the space and permit the use, tank cell hoop 38 and the door hoop 4e are of of the same clamping ?anges ‘wand 26 previously rectangular cross-section andformed of braided described. The outer surface of the door 52 will determined clamping engagement with the com steel wire impregnated and covered with a syn 25 also be provided with a molding or ?ller strip thetic rubber material such as neoprene?or, other 12 about its periphery and extending beyond the equivalent material. As used herein, ‘the term “hoop” is not limited to a circular ring, but denotes a continuous element having the con ?guration of the tank cell opening Ill. The tank cell IE) is of the self-sealing, bullet proof type speci?cally disclosed and claimed in so point of contact with the outer clamping ?ange IS. The reinforcement of the tank cell opening 59 and the periphery of the door 62 is by means of hoops ‘l4 and ‘i6; respectively, whichare identical with those which have been disclosed vin con Gray and DeWeese patent application Serial No. nection with the principal embodiment. ,Corre 338,052, ?led May 31, 19410, entitled “Self-sealing spending use is also made of an impregnated tank.” The cell ll! comprises four principal lay 35 braid reinforcement 13 as retaining means for ers which are adhesively bonded together and arranged in the manner shown. These layers are the cell hoop 74, it being noted that the mold ing or ?ller strips ‘l9 and ‘MY are provided with a soft, vulcanized outer layer 42, a middle layer adhesively secured fabric reinforcements 8c and d4 of crude, unvulcanized rubber which is sub- . 82 on their respective inner faces. ject to cold ,?ow and loss of shape under con reinforcement layer 84, preferably'of balloon cloth tinued clamping pressure, a highly, liquid hydro carbon resistant, inner layer 45 of neoprene or equivalent synthetic rubber composition,>and a An outer fabric impregnated with neoprene, covers the out er end of the braid reinforcement 18 and is pro vided with an upstanding ?ange 66 extending relatively thin, inner liner layer 48 composed of generally parallel with the thickness of. the ‘hoop a strong fabric impregnated with neoprene, or '45 7A. As will be appreciated from an inspection equivalent non-fabric material. Because‘of sus of Fig. 5,, the door or closure reinforcing hoop ceptibility to cold flow, the middle layer-M: of ‘i6 is secured in place in an identical manner. crude unvulcanized rubber is replaced by a cir Figs. 6, '7 and 8 illustrate a modi?ed form of cular layer 58 extending as a ring about the clamping means which may be used with the tank cell opening Ill. The circular layer of filler 50 tank cell l0 and access door It of the principal element to is preferably formed of fabric im embodiment. The only difference is, in .an vouter pregnated with neoprene or other synthetic rub clamping ?ange 18%] which is provided with a ber-like material of equivalent properties. vtroughlike recess N32 for receiving the heads of Means for retaining the reinforcing hoop 38. the threaded clamping screws, the other ends in position around the periphery of the tank gcell of which threadedly engage an’ inner clamping opening it are shown in Fig. 4 as comprising a braid reinforcement 52 which is wrapped around the edge of the opening so as to cover the hoop 38 and extend over the inner and outer sur ?ange'zeil in the same way as has been set forth. It will also be noted that the clamping flanges I80 and 208, which are of circular shape to corre spond with thevcell opening, lack the inter faces of the tank cell [0. This braid reinforce 60 mediate clamping ridges used in Figs. 3 and 34. ment or continuous binding is impregnated with With reference to Fig. '7, the inner clamping ?ange 299 is further modi?ed in its provision neoprene or the like and secured in the position for a spaced series of transverse holes or open shown by Fig. 4. The outer side of the tank cell ings 202 through its web 2134 for permitting free NJ has a seam cover 54, of balloon cloth fabric ' drainage of gasoline or other liquid hydrocar impregnated with neoprene or the like, and pro bon. vided with an upstanding ?ange 56 extending In Fig. 8 there is shown a special screw or bolt within the space between the tank cell opening 246 which functions both as a threaded clamping l4 and the spacer elements 36, or clamping .means for the outer and inner ?anges £89 and screws 24. This seam cover 54 will also be se 70 290, and also as a hanger for securing the at cured in place by a suitable adhesive. Since tached tank cellto its rigid housing structure I2. the means for securing the door reinforcing hoop The bolt 240 is provided vintermediate its length 4B in position and the construction of the door with a nut-shaped head 242 abovea washer 254 I6 around its edge are identical with that which .» "have been described for the opening of the tank "is received in the outer face recess I82 of the ?ange 189. By means of the head 242, a threaded 2,406,708 shank'part'?d may 'be'turned into the inner ‘clamping member 200 to draw it toward ‘the outer clamping“ member‘ I80. ‘The ‘outer’ end of the bolt 24il'has~ a larger threaded shank 248 engaged by'a wing nut‘250 and locked by a wire 252 when clamped'down upon the plane portions 6 of ‘ reiniorced,~rubber-like material extending around the periphery of the door,‘ similar con tinuous binding means for securing said second ?exible hoop to the door, an outer clamping ?ange spanning the juncture between the cell opening and the door, an inner clamping ?ange arranged in opposition to the outer ?ange, means at spaced positions on one of the clamping ?anges and extending betweenethe two hoops for limiting cell Ill and its access door or closure ' I6 are clamping action of the clamping ?anges on securedjor hung to the rigid housing structure 10 the the tank cell and the door, and detachable of the ‘structure l2 through van intermediate clamping Washer 254. In this manner, the tank l2. ' 'i' t - ' It will be apparent that the modi?ed form of clamping means illustrated in Figs. 6, '7; and 8 may be" appliedleither to’ the multiple layer cell I0’ or “to thesinglelayer tank cell'58 with the use‘ of rubber molding ‘or ?llers-‘I0 and ‘I2. The access‘ doorv ?tting 'whichfhas been de-, scribed ‘in detail is readily attachedtothetank threaded Tmeans engaging the clamping ?anges to. maintain them in [clamping position, said clamping ?anges beingformed with opposed projections for gripping the tank cell and the door. ' 3. The combination comprising a hydrocarbon licijid, container cell formed of three layers of "rubber-like} material, the intermediate layer of which'issubject-tocold?ow, said tank cell being cell and lanj'adequate, but non-destructive, seal ingis obtained with the- clamping means of this 20 'provide'dwith a relatively large opening in its wall, a closure of the tank cell wall material ?tted invention. With the special form of cell open within said opening, a ?rst ring-shaped ?ller lay ing and door edge de?ning hoops of this inven er of material resistant tocold ?ow inserted be tion, the mating edges are fully protected against tween two of the layers of rubber-like material tearing and damage so that the access door may be removed and replaced as often as may be 25 around the tank cell opening and in place of the intermediate layer, said intermediate layer being necessary. _ cut away from the tank cell opening to receive the ?rst ?ller layer, a second ring-shaped ?ller shown illustratively, other forms of opening and layer of material resistant to cold ?ow inserted ?ttings may be employed as convenient. It will between two of the layers of rubber-like material also be understood that various changes may 30 around the periphery of the closure and in place be made in the details of construction and ar of the intermediate layer, said intermediate lay rangement of the elements of this ?tting without er being cut away from the closure periphery to departing from the spirit of the invention and receive the second ?ller layer, a binder strip se the scope of the appended claims. Having thus described my invention, what I 35 cured to the inner and outer faces of said closure around said opening, an outer clamping ?ange co claim as new and desire to secure by Letters extensive with the tank cell opening and spanning Patent of the United States is: the juncture between the tank cell opening and 1.‘ An access door construction for a ?exible, the closure, an inner clamping ?ange coextensive rubber-like tank cell provided with a relatively large generally circular opening in its wall, com 40 with the tank cell opening and arranged in oppo While a circular access door ?tting has been prising, a door of the same material as the tank cell ?tted within said opening,'a ?rst ?exible hoop sition to the outer ?ange, means on one of the ?anges and extending between the cell opening and closure peripheries for predeterminedly lim of reinforced, rubber-like material positioned iting the clamping action of the ?anges on the against the periphery of the circular opening of the tank cell, means for securing said ?rst 45 tank cell and the closure, and separable means en gaging the clamping ?anges to maintain them in ?exible hoop to the tank cell, said means com clamping position. prising a continuous strip covering said hoop, said 4. The combination comprising a hydrocarbon strip being secured to the inner and outer sur liquid container cell 'i’ormed of three layers of rub faces of said wall around said opening, a second ?exible hoop of reinforced, rubber-like mate 50 her-like material, the intermediate layer of which is subject to cold ?ow, said tank cell being pro rial extending around the periphery of the door, vided with a relatively large opening in its wall, similar means for securing said second ?exible a closure of the tank cell wall material ?tted with in said opening, a ?rst ring-shaped ?ller layer cell and the door, a continuous inner clamping 55 of material resistant to cold ?ow inserted be tween two of the layers of rubber-like material ?ange arranged in opposition to the outer ?ange, around the tank cell opening and in place of the spacer elements on one of the clamping ?anges intermediate layer, said intermediate layer being and extending between the two hoops for limit cut away from the tank cell opening to receive the ing the clamping action of the clamping ?anges on the tank cell and the door, and separable 60 ?rst ?ller layer, a second ring-shaped ?ller layer of material resistant to cold ?ow inserted between means engaging the clamping ?anges between two of the layers of rubber-like material around the spacer elements to maintain them in clamp the periphery of the closure and in place of the ing position. intermediate layer, said intermediate layer being 2. An access door construction for a liquid fuel or lubricant tank cell comprising one or 65 cut away from the closure periphery to receive the second ?ller layer, a binder strip secured to the more layers of rubber-like material subject to inner and outer faces of said cell wall and said cold ?ow and provided with a relatively large closure around said opening, an outer clamping opening in its wall, comprising, a door of the tank cell material ?tted within said opening, a‘ . ?ange coextensive with the tank cell opening and spanning the juncture between the tank cell ?rst ?exible hoop of reinforced, rubber-like mate m opening and the closure, an inner clamping ?ange rial positioned against the periphery of the coextensive withthe tank cell opening and ar opening of the cell, continuous binding means ‘ ranged in opposition to the outer ?ange, means secured to the inner and outer surfaces of said on one of the ?anges and extending between the wall around said opening for securing said ?rst cell opening and closure peripheries tor prede ?exible hoop to the cell, a second ?exible hoop ' hoop to the door, a continuous outer clamping ?ange spanning the juncture between the tank 7 2,406,708 terminedly limiting the clamping action of the ?anges on the tank} cell and the-closure, separa ble screws engaging the clasping ?anges to maintain them in clamping position, and a rigid housing structure con?ning the tank cell, the closure, and the clamping ?anges, at least one of said screws having a nut threaded on one end and 8 .ing of the tank cell, meansfor securing said ?rst ?exible hoop to ‘the tank cell and its molding strip, said means comprising a continuous binder strip covering said hoop, said strip being secured to the inner and outer surfaces of said cell wall and molding strip around said opening, a second ?exible hoop of reinforced, rubber-like material a Washer thereunder for engaging and hanging extending around the periphery .of the door,.simi the tank cell to the rigid housing structure. lar means for ‘securingcsaid second ?exible hoop 5. An access door construction for a single lay .10 to the door and its molding strip, an outer clamp er, ?exible, rubber-like tank cell provided with a ing ?ange spanning the juncture between the circular opening in its wall, comprising a door of cell opening and the‘ door, an inner clamping similar material to the cell ?tted within said ?ange arranged in opposition to the outer ?ange, opening, a resilient molding strip of appreciable means on one of the clamping ?anges and ex thickness secured to and facing thetank cell lay tending between the, two hoops for predeter er around its opening, another vresilient molding strip of appreciable thickness secured to and fac ing the door around its periphery, a ?rst ?exible hoop of reinforced, rubber-like material ‘posi tioned against the periphery of the circular open- , . minedly limiting the clamping action of the clamping ?anges, and detachable threaded means engaging the clamping ?anges to maintain them in clamping position. , I FRANCIS‘ J. PEPERSACK.