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Патент USA US2406773

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SePL‘B, 19u45-
F.
IYELFIELD»A ï '
2,406,773
CEREAL CUTTER
Filed Oct._ 7' 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
hh, '
INVENTOR,
«f 05,»
ATTQRNEYS K
Sept. 3', 194s.
F. c. IELFIELD
À
2,406,773
C'EREAL CUTTER `
Filed Oct, 7, 1944
'
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
F
Patented Sept. 3,1946l
i
2,4%,7'13
“UNITED "STATES PATENT OFFICE
CEREAL CUTTER
Fred C. Ielfield, Silver Creek, N. Y., assignor toy
Silver
Creek
Precision v Corporation,
Silver
Creek, N. Y., a corporation ofNew York
Application October 7, 1944, Serial No.'557,627
1 Claim.
(Cl. 14S-71.5)
This invention relates to a cereal cutter and ` _
more particularly for cutting corn, wheat, rye,
beans, oats and all other hard cereal grains from
whole'kernels in the `preparation of chicken and
animal feed. This invention is an improvement
on the cereal cutter described and claimed in
my United States Patent No. 1,973,169, dated
September 11, 1934.
-
'
The principal object vof this invention is to
provide a cerealy cutterwhich requires a very
small amount of power to operate and which
2
and also serving to securely hold the knives in
their „adjusted operative position.
Other purposes are to provide such a .cutter
in which there is no danger of uncut or oversize
grain passing through the machine; is entirely
adjustable throughout; can be readily taken
apart and cleaned or repaired; provides no space
for the accumulation of materials; is extremely
`simple and inexpensive in construction andA will
operate at high efñrciency for a long period of
time and under adverse conditions without get
will rapidly and eiiiciently cut large amounts
ting out of order or requiring resharpening or
of grains to adesired uniform maximum size and
replacement of any of the elements. ,
in which all grindingV action is avoided S0 that
, In the accompanying drawings:
practically the entire output is of a uniform size i115 , Fig. 1 is a vertical longitudinal sectional View
as'compared with cutters now on the market
through a cereal cutter embodying my inven
which produce a relatively large amount of very
tion.
small pieces of grain and powder.
Fig. 2 is a Vertical transverse section, through
Another object of the present invention is to
the cereal cutter.
Y
provide'such a cutter which will handle large
Fig. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary section, taken
amounts of material and will not choke or clog
on line 3_3, Fig. 2.
up, special provision being made to prevent the
Fig. 4 is a perspective View of a backing plate
grain being cut from compacting in the throat
for one of the knives, these backing plates jointly
adjacent the cutting knives.
forming the periphery of the cylindrical rotary
Another purpose is to provide such a cereal f 25. cutter head and also serving to hold the knives
cutter which is readily adjustable from the ex
terior to provide any desired maximum size of
material so that the cutter can be efficiently
used in cutting small batches of grain in which
different sizes are required to be produced.
f in properly adjusted position.
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary perspective view of one
' Another purpose is to provide a rotary cutter
the invention is applied to a grain cutter having
end heads I5 to which side plates I6 and I‘I are
secured in any suitable manner as by providing
ñanges on the side plates I6 and I‘I and securing
these to the end heads I5 by fastenings I8. The
upper ends of the end heads I5 are rounded and
carry a sheetrmetal vcover I9 which rises from
the side plate I6 and terminates near the top.
head which is cylindrical in form and from the
periphery of which only a small extent of the
blades project. This not only prevents the ro
tary cutter head from becoming clogged but also
prevents very substantial amounts of the partly
cut grain from being'carried around with the
head, such carrying around being disadvanta
geous since it not only increases the power re
Vof the cutting blades.
.
’ While the form of the cutter canbe varied
greatly as to detail, as shown in the drawings,
To the end heads are also secured by screws 20
quired to operate the rotary head but also results 40 or in any other suitable manner a cross bar 2|
in a grinding action on the kernels and reduces
the uniformity of the product.
Another object is to improve the cutting eili
'ciency of the cereal cutter, in particular to so
which extends downwardly from the upper end
of the top I9 and forms one wall of a hopper
22. The wall I1 is formed at its upper end to
provide an inwardly extending shelf 23 which
arrange the stationary knife as to meet the rotary 45 slopes upwardly and inwardly from the wall I1
>knives rat an angle, this arrangement having been
and, as hereinafter described, carries the sta
found to provide cleaner cutting with less power
tionary cutting blade and above this shelf is ar
and to reduce breakage of the kernels and wear
ranged an angular plate 24 having a. lower part
upon the knives.
`
25 which is arranged parallel with and above the
Another object is to provide a. simple and se 50 shelf 23 and an upper part 26 which forms a
cure meansy for mounting Ythe knives to project
support for the lower inclined wall 21 of the
from the periphery of the rotary cutter head,v
these means being of simple construction, per
mitting ready access to the knives for the pur
pose ofadjusting, resharpening and replacement
hopper 22.
This hopper 22 includes a sheet metal structure
having end Walls 28 and side walls 29. One of the
55 side walls 29 lits against the bar 2l and the in
2,406,773
duce the weight of each backing plate 45 its face
clined wall 2'! rests upon the upper leg 2li of the
angular plate 2li, the lo-wer end of the inclined
Wall 27 extending downwardly past the throat
rfi-9 can be hollowed out, as indicated at 5|, be
tween its ends and between the three holes 52
of the hopper and into close proximity to the
d3 which hold the knife blades ¿iii and backing
stationary cutting blade, as hereinafter de
scribed.
The rotary cutter head, indicated generally at
30, includes a shaft 3l suitably vjoufrnaled in
roller bearings 32 provided in the end heads l5,
which roller bearings are preferably so construct
ed that they can be packed with grease. This
-shaft 3| can be provided with a drive pulley 33
which is adapted to be connected to a power
source by a belt (not shown). 'The shaft 3l lis
shown as provided with a spline >groove 3A 'and
on this shaft is secured a plurality of square
heads 35, each of lthese heads 'being s'ecured'by Aa
key 35 to the spline groove 3A. To hold the
square heads 35 against axial displacement,
which receive the heads and shanks of the screws
plates ¿l5 in position.
In assembling the rotary cutter head 30 a knife
blade ¿it is placed on three corresponding dat
faces of the square heads 35, this blade being
arranged eccentrically to the shaft 3| so that
one of its cutting edges is arranged in opposi
Y«tion -to the direction of rotation of the shaft 3|,
this being clockwise, as Viewed in Fig. 2. On this
blade dû is «then arranged one of the backing
'plates i5, this ‘backing plate being so arranged
'that its Ifeather Aedge 45 is in juxtaposition to
the effective »cutting edge of its blade ¿ill and so
that its fiat face 5d is coplanar with the next
succeeding `faces of the square heads 35. The
screws ¿i3 are then inserted through the holes
screws 38 are provided which extend into screw 20 B2i in this backing plate, slots ¿il lin this 'blade
holes providedin the -main shaft '34.
llû and into the ycorresponding screw holes >42 of
The square heads 35 are of identical size and
the square heads 35. VThe second cutting blade
shape and are Yarranged so that each face of
llil is then positioned against 'the :next succeed
each head lies in ïthe same plane as the corre
ing faces of the square heads 35 with its 'inner
responding faces o'f the other two heads. These
face against the flat face 5E] Aof .the backing .plate
heads are arranged vso that one-is at the-center
'd'5 just assembled .and with its effective cutting
ofthe shaft Sil and `one adjacent ’each end lhead
edge projecting outwardly from vthe curved face
l5 »and four ïknife ’blades 40 are `>secured ¿to ‘the
‘Lid of this Vbacking plate e5 just assembled. A
four faces vof each of these square heads, each
second backing ,plate 155 is then 'secured .by .its
`of these knife ïblades being thereby supported 30 screws ‘d3 in the same manner ‘as with the yfirst
-a't Íits center land -at lits-opposite rends on `’a cor
backing plate. The -third and fourth :sets of
responding square >head ‘35.
blades Aläd vand backing ‘.plates 'd'5 aresecured "by
Each of the'kni-feïblades 'f’?û is'ihïthe form of a
screws ¿i3 t‘o Ithe'rernaining ï-fac'es ofthe square
flat blade of elongated .rectangular ~for-rn 'with
heads 35 in the same rrn'anner vandthe completely
-its opposite longitudinal e'dg'e'ssharpened toïpro 35 assembled vcutter head di] ‘thereby is >.in ‘the form
vide cutting edges, as 4hereinafter described, -'only
of a cylinder, the periphery :of which is jointly
one of these cutting edges being used at one time.
provided by the curved ‘facesißäûof the fourëback
VAs best show-n Lin Fig. 5, each Jo'f ïthe cutters à@
ing plates d5, 'the lblades v4€! projecting outwardly
is provided with three slots il! whichiare -elon
from this 'periphery at vright 'angles 'to eachother
»gated transversely »of 'the Y,blade and '.r'egïi'ster »with 40 and each `parallel with :a radius 'of the rotary
screw holes d2 provided at Ithe center of each
cutter »30.
of lthe four faces of eachs'quare »head 35. The
Before ‘tightening the >screws "d3, each of athe
-blades 'lili 'aresecur'edlby screws “d'3 whichîextend
, blades 13|! is adjusted to ¿pro-ject :outwardly `from
'through ítheislots 42| Iinto .the screw ¿holes '222. «Tt
zthe cylindrical surface vprovided vby the vcurved
'will therefore îbe seen .that upon ¿loosening lth‘e 45 _faces ¿lâ of the backing `plates ‘l5 yto -an Iextent
screws ‘i3 for one 'blade "íìü, lthe lelongated slots
determined -by `the vdesired size vof ~the granular
lll permit "of `adjusting ‘this 'blade transversely of
`cut material produced vby vthe cutter. ‘The
the axis of the shaft 3|, thereby lto adjust the
.screws 43 eare then tightened to hold the cut»cutting effect of this blade .as -well1as to «permit
ters @il in Ythis adjusted position.
of 'compensating for the narrowing fof 'the knife
The projecting cutting edges of the several vro
lblade through repeated resharpening.
»tary cutter blades 40 cooperate with >a station
The body of »the rotary fcutter 30 is Aof -cylinf
ary »cutter blade 55 which «is :mounted -on the
drical form, the periphery oi' `the -'cylindrical
angular shelf 23 and `which 'is secured thereon
cutter being provided by a backing plate 'd'5 'for
by screws -56 the Shanks of which extend 'through
`each knife, these 'backing ¿plates '45 :being lsecured
transversely extending elongated vslots '5B pro'
.in ìp'osition by 'the screws E3. >As best shown Jin
vided in the stationary Acutter ‘blade 55. :It will
Fig. 4, each of "these backing Aplates [i5 Aisïfor-rned
particularly be noted »that since Ythe stationary
to ¿provide a curved ‘face iid which is 'concentric
blade 55 is mounted on the shelf ’<23 which in
with the axis of the main shaft Í3-| ‘when vrse
.clines upwardly and inwardly toward the center
cured in position by `the `screws '43 so that 'these 60 of the machine, -the stationary cutting vblade .55
curved faces ‘d5 of the four backing :plates »45
is arranged at an angle .to each rotary vcutter
jointly provide `a cylindrical face when Vassem
blade which it meets. ~It is »apparent that upon
bled in the rotary cutter 353. At one side the
loosening each of the screws r5t the stationary
curved face 'liíi of 4each knife terminates in -a
blade 55 Ícan be adjusted inwardly ror Joutwardly
‘feather edge lili which is provided by -a iìat 'face 65 to follow the blades 40 as they Vare adjusted'in‘
49 vadapted ‘to bear against the face of the blade
wardly kor outwardly.
4E! to which ~itis secured :by the screws 133. On
`It will be seen that theisize of :the grain 'when
its opposite side from its .feather edge 48 ’each
cut is determined by the extent to ‘which -the
backing lplate ¿i5 is formed to .provide a flat face
movable cutter blades A0 »are adjusted inwardly
5S which is arranged at right angles '-to its -iìat 70 or outwardly‘and not .by lthe 'gap between the
face de vand serves to `-provide a shoulder against
rotary cutter blades 40 and the stationary cut‘
which the adjacent knife blade dû is held `'by its
ter blade 55. Thus, kupon reference Vto -Fig. A2, 'it
'backing .plate ¿55, >the ‘flat lface 58 of each ‘back
’ing .plate »being vcop'lanar with the adjacent races
of the square heads 135 (for `this purpose.
To >re
`is apparent Vthat upon yadjusting the .rotary Icut
ter blades All inwardly a much smaller cut will
75 ‘be 'takenoff from 'the grain thanwhen itis ad
v2,406,773
justed outwardly. »The stationary- blade 55,
however,~must be adjustable since it is desirable
.to have the gap betweenjthe-blades as Vsmall as
possible. > The rotary _blades are therefore> ad
justed‘to provide the desired size of the com- Y
minuted material and the stationary blade 55 is
f "ln forderte _retard the vvelocity ofthe stream
lof grain flowing through the hopper 22 toits
>throat; retarding bañles ‘l5 can be provided in this
hopper. . The cutgrain falling from the screen
661s also preferablyy directed by an inclined apron
16 to one side of the cutter Where it can be con
brought up to provide the desired space between
.veniently collected and conveyed away.
it and the rotary blades. It is also apparent,
,Iny operation it is apparent that the stream of
as _best shown in Fig. 2, vthat the effective part
grain admitted to the hopper 22 is retarded in its
of the cutter head 30 is cylindrical in form and 10 downward movement by the baille l5 and passes
is broken only by the slight extension of the cut
through the throat at the lower end of this
ter blades out from the peripheral face provided
hopper into the zone of action of the cutting
by the curved faces 46 of the several backing
blades. The rotary blades 40 then engage the
.plates 45. By this means the tendency of the
grain resting upon the stationary blade 55 and
rotary cutter head 35 to pick up and idly carry 15 cut off a slice or piece of each grain, the size
around a large quantity of partly cut or uncut
ofy this slice or piece being determined by the
grain is greatly reduced since the only impellers
.degree to which the rotary blades 40 project out
provided are the comparatively small extensions
wardly from the cylindrical surface provided by
’of the blades 40.
the curved faces 45 of the several backing plates
Instead of employing straight cutting edges 20 45. `Since both the stationary and rotary knives
»on` each of the rotary and stationary blades 45
are formed >to provide sharp serrated teeth this
and 55, each cutting edge of each of these blades
cutting is effected with the expenditure of a very
:is preferably serrated and indented, as best shown
little power. The cut pieces or slices of grain
in Fig. 5. In providing such a cutting edge each
thereupon pass downwardly into the semi-cylin
longitudinal side of each lblade is ñrst beveled,
drical screen 66 and, if sußlciently small, pass
as indicated at 63. The face of the blade adja
cent each sharper edge formed by this bevel 63
is then formed to provide a plurality of notches
through ,the perforations in this screen. Since
Y.the teeth 65 of the cutting knives are serrated
in form and intermesh with one another it is
64 which are V-shaped in cross section and ar
apparent that practically all of the grain will be
ranged one after the other the full length of
30 cut to a maximum size and will pass through
the cutting edge. With the blade formed in this
the screen. Such small quantities as are not
manner it is apparent that in plan the cutting
cut to this maximum size are carried around by
blades are provided with a plurality of V-shaped
the rotary knives 40 and brought back to the
teeth 65 of regular form and that these teeth
throat of the hopper 22. This is a very small
are also V-shaped when viewed edgewise of the
35 quantity, however, and by reason of the cylin
knife. These teeth, therefore, have sharp cut
drical form of the rotary cutter head 35 there
ting points and provide a serrated edge. The
is no tendency for this partially cut grain to col
stationary cutting knife 55 is arranged with the Y
lect in the rotary cutter andv be carried around
sharp points of its effective cutting teeth extend
and around until it is ground down to the re
ing upwardly and the rotary knives 45 during 40 quired maximum size as would be the case if
their effect movement past the stationary cut
the rotary cutter head were not cylindrical.
ting knife 55 have their cutting points facing
Such grinding not only produces waste in the
downwardly. The points of the stationary and
form of powder but also results in the highly
rotary cutting blades preferably are arranged to
undesirable result of heating the grain.
pass in intermeshing relation so that the space
An important feature of the invention resides
between the rotary and stationary blades is of
in the fact that the stationary blade 55 is mount
zig-zag form of uniform width.
edat an angle so that each rotary blade 4D is at
vThe rotary cutter 3U is embraced by a screen
' an angle to the stationary blade when they meet
66 which is generally of semi-cylindrical shape
andV so that the sharp edges of the rotary and
and is provided at its opposite longitudinal edge 50 stationary knives are in direct opposition as they
with a iìange G8, this flange being secured by
approach each other with the bevels 63 of the
screws 69 to the lower part of the cross bar 2l
stationary knife 55 and the corresponding rotary
of the cutter frame. Along the lower longitudi
knife 6U substantially parallel with each other at
nal edge of the screen 66 is secured an angle iron
this time. By this angular arrangement of the
'10', this angle iron being arranged to project out
wardly from the corresponding edge of the screen
and being secured at its ends to the' shelf 23 by
screws 'll or in any other suitable manner.
The
screen 66 is made of sheet metal which is punched
to provide a plurality of evenly spaced round
perforations 13. This screen insures against
oversize grain passing through the cutter. It
will be noted that while a small amount of grain
is carried around, inelfectively, bythe rotary cut
ter blades 40, the grain so carried around is very
small in amount because the cutter head is cylin
drical in form and the spacing between the pe
riphery of the cutter head and the screen 66
is very small. By this means the churning of
large amounts of grain _in idly passing around
with the cutter head is avoided and the conse
quent grinding action upon and heating of this
grain is avoided. In cutting very large sized
material this screen 66 can be eliminated, how
ever.
stationary and rotary knives, as they meet, it has
been found that the cutting efficiency of the cut
ter is greatly increased and the power required toy
operate the cutter greatly reduced. A further
feature of the invention resides in the provision
of a built up rotary cutter of the character de
scribed. By making the rotary cutter in the form
ofa simple shaft carrying square heads, to the
faces ofwhich the knives are secured by backing
plates, and by so shaping these backing plates
that they' jointly provide a cylindrical surface
for the body of the rotary cutter and also have
two flat faces which abut the corresponding sides
of two of the rotary cutter blades 40, it will be
seen that the rotary cutter head 30 of the present
invention can be produced at low cost and at the
same time renders the knives readily accessible
and Yremovable for adjustment, removal for re
sharpening and replacement.
‘ From the foregoing it will be seen that the
75 present invention provides a very simple and in
Y42,406,779,
4expensive cereal cutter which operates at ‘high
eñîlciency and requires `a very small amount -of
pow-er to run. The grain is ¿also uniformly cut to
8
sponding cutter blade along a continuous longi
tudinal portion of the outer face 'of the cutter
blade immediately adjacent `the outwardly pro
jecting cutting edge thereof, and each backing
a `maximum size Yand is Auniiforrr-ily graded. V'The
cutter also avoids, as -far as‘poss'ible, all lgrinding oi plate `also having an opposite curved face meet
i-ng said flat face -in a `feat-her edge `at one side of
action and heating of the grain, 'The rotary
said vbacking plate and providing with the vcurved
cutter head »of the machine issalso'freadily assem
facesof lthe other backing plates a substantially
bled from simple parts .and ¿the cutting Jolades
cylindrical and continuous periphery -for Vthe r0
easily adjustable «thereby »adapting 4it 'to -small
batch work. 'The cutter is 'also »easily Icleaned TO taryeuttery with the cutting edges of‘said blades
4projecting outwardly `from said periphery and
and repaired, -is extremely compact and -will
stand up under fconditionsof severe and constant
use ‘without getting out »of order.
I claim as my invention:
A substantially cylindrical, relatively light
Weight,-skeleton-'like rotarygcutter head for 1a ce
real cutter, comprising »a .central shaft, a plural
ity o’f «similarly I‘shaped "heads secured to said
shaft at spaced intervals and being polygonal in
cross section Ito provide »flat ïiaces which join at
an angle to »each other, said >~faces being arranged
`in common planes, ñat cutter blades «direetlyfen
gag'ing -said faces and having cutting edges pro
each backing plate also >having a 4second flat face
Yopposite vsaid feather edge and arranged at an
angle to said ’first ñat ‘face which is complemen
tary to the angles vformed by said polygonal flat
faces and 4directly engaging the inner face of the
succeeding «cutter blade lalong a continuous lon
gitudinal portion of the inner face of the said
succeeding cutter blade immediately 'adjacent
the outwardly projecting cutting edge thereof to
form a backing ysupport there-for, said backing
plate being also vinteriorly hollowed out, and
means securing veach of said backing plates and
the corresponding cutter blade to the corre
formed by said faces, a single backing «plate for’ 25 sponding »face of each of said heads.v
each of said flat cutter >blades and each having a
FRED C. IELFIELD.
ñat face engaging the outer face of the corre
jecting outwardly from the corresponding angles
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