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Патент USA US2406819

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Sept. 3, 1946.
A. w. FARRALL
2,406,819
BUTTER mumcwunn
Filed June 12, 1944
8 Sheets-Sheet 1
S°Ph 3, 1946.
2,406,819
A' W- FARRALL
BUTTER MANUFACTURE
Filed June 12, 1944
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Sept- 3, 1946.
A. w. FARRALL
2,406,819
BUTTER MANUFACTURE
Filed June 12, 1944
8 Sheets-Sheet 3
Sept. 3, 1946.
A. W. FARRALL
2,406,819
BUTTER MANUFACTURE
Filed June 12. 1944
8 Sheets-Sheet 4
Sept- 3, 1946-
A. w. FARRALL
2,406,819
BUTTER MANUFACTURE
Filed June 12, 1944
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Sept- 3, 1946.
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A. w. FARRALL
BUTTER MANUFACTURE
Filed June 12, 1944
2,406,819
‘
8 Sheets-Sheet '7
Sept. 3,1946.
A. w. FARRALL
2,406,819
BUTTER mnumcwunn
Filed June 12, 1944
8 Sheets-Sheet 8
2,406,$l9
Patented Sept. 3, 1946 '
UNITED STATES PATENT orric
2,408,819
I
_
v
V
,
BUTTER- MANUEAOTUBE. ~
Arthur w. Far-rail, Wilmette, m, assignor to The '
Creamery Package Mfg. Company, Chicago, 11L,
a corporation of Illinois
_
>
Application June 12, 1944, Serial No. 539,969
.32 Claims.
(Cl. 99-119)
2
I
The invention relates to the manufacture of'
butter by continuous process. The primary ob
ject of the invention is to provide an e?icient,
sanitary and economical method for producing
a superior quality of butter by continuously pro- '
cessing a ?owing stream of cream to exhaustively‘
separate the milk fat with effective conservation
' both fat and serum contribute substantial sta
bility to the emulsion in resistance to release and
separation of the fat from the serum. In its
essentials, butter making comprises breaking the
normal cream fat-in-serum emulsion for release
of the fat, and reconstituting an emulsion of the
fat with a portion of the serum in reversed rela
tion wherein the serum is in dispersed phase and
the fat is in continuous phase, or a serum-in
"~ selective proportions of the separated fat and 10 fat emulsion.
‘ The di?iculties of commercial butter manufac
the required nonfat butter components, and to
ture arise largely in accomplishing this conver
‘ controllably work the composition into ?nished
sion by sanitary means in short time and with
butter having in high degree the consumer de
accurate control, without appreciable loss of fat
sired characteristics in body, texture, ?avor and
aroma. Another object of the invention is to 15 in the surplus serum, and without sacri?cing any
of the inherent characteristics essential to the
provide a method by which a ?owing stream of
cream is in part similarly processed to produce
?avor, aroma and texture of the butter, nor los
ing any of the valuable by-products of the sur
dehydrated butter oil suitable for intermediate
plus serum. Eiforts heretofore made to improve
storage, and subsequent further processing for
the production of butter and other food products. 20 upon the conventional method or butter making
The invention provides for the accomplishment
have been short of success because of failure of
better results in overcoming these di?lculties.
of these objects without resorting to the dilu
The present invention provides a continuous
tion of the cream with water to facilitate sepma
process by which a ?owing stream of normal
tion of the butter fat from the cream, nor to
churning cream, heated to a temperature at least
the addition of any other substances intended for
su?icient to melt the fat contained in the cream,
that purpose.
is centrifuged for fat concentration within they
rI'he conventional method of producing butter
range of e?icient and uniform separation by such
is of ancient origin, being that of subjecting a
means; the concentrated cream fat-in-serum
batch of milk or cream to violent agitation for
a considerable period of time to cause the nor 30 emulsion is broken into a de-stabilized freely
of all of the cream constituents, to constitute a
butter composition with accurately controlled
mally dispersed plastic fat particles to coalesce
separable mixture of liquid fat and serum in re
versed phase relation with the fat in continu
ous phase; serum is withdrawn to effect further
fat concentration to a degree above that in but
of butter. ‘As practiced in the modern butter
churn and worker of the batch type, the con 35 ter; salt solution, serum solids and other de
sired ingredients are added as desired to the fat
ventional method produces excellent butter, but
and remaining serum to make the requisite but
the requirements of commercial practice de
ter composition; the reversed phase mixture of
mand improvements in ef?ciency of time and
fat and serum with added ingredients is re
labor expended, in preservation of sanitary con
ditions, in effectiveness of operating controls for 40 emulsi?ed in serum-in-fat relation; and the re
and separate from the milk serum in free gran
ules which subsequently are worked into a mass
quality and uniformity of product, in recovery of
fat and by-products, and in other respects known
tobutter manufacturers.
,
,
constituted emulsion is chilled, re-stabilized and
worked into ?nished butter.
‘
The invention further provides for practice of
the foregoing process in part by which a ?owing
Milk is a natural emulsion of minute globules
of fat dispersed in a colloidal solution of pro 45 stream of normal churning cream, heated to a
temperature at least su?lcient to melt the fat
teins in water, the solution being known as
contained in the cream, is centrifuged for fat
serum. Cream is a similar emulsion contain
concentration within the range of e?lcient and
ing the fat in concentrated proportion. Cream
is obtained by separating the fat with a portion
uniform separation by such means; the concen
of the serum from the remaining substantially 50 trated cream fat-in-serum emulsion is broken
into a tie-stabilized freely separable mixture of
fat-free serum or skim milk. In both milk and
liquid fat and serum in reversedphase relation
cream, the emulsion comprises the fat globules
with the fat in continuous phase; serum is with
in dispersed phase and the serum in continuous
drawn to e?ect further fat concentration to a
phase, otherwise described as a fat-in-serum
emulsion. The complex physical properties of 55 degree above that in butter; and the remaining
2,406,819
4
serum is extracted to an extent substantially
arrangement of composition mixing vats in sub
stitution for the composition control pump H6
eliminating moisture from the fat and producing
dehydrated butter oil.
‘
shown in Fig. 1.
All of the operations are performed upon'the
continuously ?owing product within enclosed
machines and conduits without exposure to at
mosphere or manual handling. Highly sanitary
i)
.
'
Fig. 20 is a sectional view in elevation of the
emulsi?er 200 shown in Fig. 1, and Fig. 21 is a
detailed view of a part thereof.
Fig. 22 is a sectional view in elevation of a
conditions prevail throughout the process. There
cylinder and appurtenances in the chiller 2"
shown in Fig, 1, taken on the plane of the line
is no dilution of the product with water or any
other'liquid or substance for purposes of sep 10 22—22 in Fig. 26. Fig. 23 is a cross-sectional view
aration or washing of the fat. By-product values
in elevation taken on the plane of the line 23—23
are not wasted. Fat losses are substantially re
in Fig. 22. Fig. 24 is a partial plan View of the
duced. All operations are readily controllable to
agitator shown in Fig. 22. Fig. 25 is a cross
select and uniformly maintain the desired com
sectional view of the agitator taken on the plane
position, body and texture of the butter. With 15 of the line 25-25 in Fig. 24. Fig. 26 is a partial
out dilution, exposure to atmosphere or evapo
front view in elevation of the chiller. Fig. 27 is
ration, the volatile elements contributing desired
?avor and aroma are preserved in high degree.
The time cycle involved is much less than in con
ventional butter production, and the continuous 20
operations ., proceed without critical variations
from predetermined control conditions. The
process'is freely adaptable to the varying sea
sonal, geographic and age conditions of market
cream.
a sectional view in elevation of the rear end por
tion of a cylinder in the chiller.
Fig. 28 is a view in elevation of the chiller dis
charge pipe 245 and the extruding tube 250 shown
in Fig. 1. Fig. 29 is a cross-sectional view of the‘
discharge pipe taken on the‘ plane of the line
29—29 in Fig. 28.
Fig. 30 is a diagrammatic representation of
‘
print cutting, wrapping and cartoning machines
The following more speci?c description of the 25 suitable
for packaging prints of butter.
invention is made with reference to the accom
The process is initiated with a supply of cream
panying drawings in which is represented ap
propriate apparatus for practicing the invention.
In the drawings,
normally prepared as for conventional churning
and having the normal churning cream fat con
tent of between 25 and 35 per cent. The cream
may be either fresh sweet cream having low
acidity or the common market product having
paratus employed in practicing the invention for
higher acidity and known as sour cream. The
the continuous production of butter.
delicate ?avor and aroma characteristic of good
Fig. 2 is a perspective view of the emulsion 35 butter
is due largely to the reaction in the cream
breaker I l shown in Fig. 1, and Fig. 3 is a detailed
I to lactic acid resulting from the presence in the ,
sectional view in elevation of a portion thereof.
cream of lactic bacteria. These bacteria are
Fig. 4 is a sectional view in elevation of the
natural to milk,- and in controlled quantity are
serum separator 49 shown in Fig. 1.
desirable and healthful in food products for
Fig. 5 is a sectional view in elevation of the
human consumption. Their lack is supplied in
emulsion breaker intake receptacle 9 shown in 40 churning cream by the addition of a pure culture
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic representation or ?ow
diagram of a complete system of typical ap
Fig. 1, and Fig. 6 is a plan view thereof.
knownin the butter industry as “starter.” Ex
Fig. 7 is a sectional view of the pressure relief
cessive acid causes certain well known objection
valve 19 shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic representation of an 45 able results in butter making and requires that
the excess be neutralized by the established prac
arrangement for substitution of a centrifugal
tice of adding calcium or sodium salt solution to _
separator for the serum separator 49 shown in
the cream to reduce the acidity. Churning cream
Fig. 1.
is thus commonly standardized to an acid content
Fig, 9 is a diagrammatic representation of an
of between two-tenths and three-tenths of one
arrangement for producing dehydrated butter oil 50 per
cent.
, '
by supplemental centrifugal treatment, and Fig.
10 is a diagrammatic representation of an alter
native arrangement for producing dehydrated
butter oil by supplemental vacuum treatment.
Having attained the desired acid content, the
cream is‘past'eurized to arrest further develop- .
ment of the lactic bacteria and destroy any
pathogenic bacteria that might be present.
Fig. 11 is a sectional view in elevation of the 55 Pasteurization is accomplished by heating the
vacuum pan and condenser shown in Fig. 10. Fig.
cream to a selective coupled temperature and time
12 is a cross-sectional view of the vacuum pan
period varying from 145° F.'for 30 minutes to
taken on the plane of the line l2—l2 in Fig. 11.
190° F. for a few seconds. The longer time period
‘Fig. 13 is a plan view, partly in section, of the
pasteurization of the cream is done in heating
composition control pump H6 shown in Fig. 1. 60 vats, while the short time pasteurization is done
Fig. 14 is a sectional view in elevation divided by
by passing the cream through suitable continuous
the irregular line A-A, the upper portion being
taken on the plane of the line I4U-—I4U and the
lower portion on the plane of the line ML-HL
in Fig.‘ 13. Fig. 15 is a partial front view in ele
vation of the control pump. Fig. 16 is a partial
sectional view of part of the piston stroke adjust
ment means taken on the plane of the line |6-—l 6
?ow heating apparatus, both being established
practices in the industry according to the ar
rangement of individual plant equipment.
For the purpose of description of‘ the present
invention, it is assumed that the cream, either
fresh sweet cream or standardized (sour cream,
has been properly pasteurized before beginning
in Fig, 14. Fig. 17 is a diagrammatic representa
the presently described process.
tion of the operating structure of the composition
A suitable vat or tank, indicated in Fig. 1 of g
control pump.
the drawings by the numeral I, is provided for the
Fig. 18 is a front view in elevation, with a por
cream supply. The vat l is of any suitable type,
tion in section, of the supply reservoir l6! shown
preferably incorporating means for heating its
in Fig. 1.
contents. Such a vat is exempli?ed in U. S.
Fig. 19 is a diagrammatic representation of an 75 patent to Gilbert No. 2,196,012, issued Aprilf2,
5
8,408,819
1940. Heating means may be otherwise provided
without heating in the vet, if desired, by conduct
ing the cream ?owing from the vat, as herein.
after described, through a suitable ?ow type
heater 2. Aheaterofthistypeis
ation upon sweet cream. Insepai'ating sour
creamtothishighfatconceniratlmtheairtight
typeofseparatortendstoclogwithcurdcaus
higfailureoi’properseparationofthefatand
a. in 5 requiring frequent stopping of the operation for
U. S. patents to Astle, No. 2,248,933, imued J
15, 1941, and No. 2,314,966, issued March 30, 19%3.
A plate type heater embodying the Astle inven
uponthecolloidalproteinsinihesermn. The
tions is described and illustrated on pages 180 and
excessacid tendstocoagulatetheproteinsand
removalofthecurd. Thisdi?culwisattributa
bletothee?ectoftheexcessacldinsourcream
181 of “Dairy Engineering,” written by Farr-all 10 cause their precipitation to some extent as free
(the present inventor) , copyright 1942, and pub
curdintheserum. 'l‘hisactlonisproportionate
lished by John Wiley 8a Sons, Inc, of New York.
tothedegreeofexcess acidity, andisintensi?ed
‘ The cream is heated to a temperature prefer
ably between 170° F. and 190° F. This approxi
mate temperature is preferable prlmarib to de
stroy the fat-splitting enzymes and w: w i o
=
isms which cause rancidity in butter‘, am to de
velop the anti-oxidant qualities which prevent o?
?avors due to oxidation of the fat. Tempera
tures between 170° F. and 190° F. also facilitate
the subsequent operations in the process by lique
fying substantially all of the fat and reducing
the normal viscosity of the cream emulsion, with
out damaging the cream from overheating.
Substantially lower temperatures cause excesive
fat losses in the skim milk in the separat‘mg
operation next described.
Cream separation
The hot cream is drawn from the vat l thmum
apipe 3 byapump 6 ofpositivetypehaving
variable speed drive.
One such pump is exem
pli?ed in U. S. patent to Diemel No. 2,193,273.
bytheheatof pasteurization. Asaconsequence,
aportionoithe relativelyheavyprecipitatedcurd
istm'ownoutoftheserlnndm'ingthe centri
operation?and remains in the separator
bowhinsteadof?owingoutofthebowl withthe
skimmilk asinthecaseofsweet creamwherein
the proteins have not‘ been precipitated. Cen
trifugal separators having specially designed sep
arating bowls are available which overcome this
bowl clogging dimculty and successfully operate
continuously in separating the fat from sour
cream. Onesuchknownasavalvebowlsepa
rater, embodies automatic valve means for sepa
rately discharging curd accumulations from the
separating bowl while otherwise performing the
usual operation of separating the fat from the
serum. The valve bowl type of centrifugal sepa
rator is shown and described on page 439 in
“Chemical Engineering Catalog 1943-44,” copy
right 1943, published by Reinhold Publishing Cor.
poration of New York, New York.
Either type of centrifugal separator is success
issued March 12, 1940, and of which a commer
cial embodiment is illustrated and described on 35 fully operable in practicing the present invention,
page 54, Fig. 22, of “Dairy Engineering,” supra. ' accordingly as to whether sweet cream or sour
The pump 6 delivers the cream throum a pipe
Inthepresentim‘
5 in continuous ?ow to a cream separator E, pref
stance, sweet cream is assumed as being proc
erably of centrifugal type. In the case of the
emedandtheseparator 6 isshowninthe draw
use of the ?ow type heater 2, the creamis pumped 40 ings as of the airtight type.
by the pump 4 through the pipe 5 as indicatw
Breaking emulsion and reversing phase
in broken lines, through the enclosed ?ow heater
2 and thence to the separator G. A centrifugm
The heated concentrated cream ?owing con
cream separator, suitable for the practice of the
tinuously from. the separator 6 is conducted
present invention, is described and illustrated on 45 through a pipe 8 to an enclosed receptacle 9 from
pages 168 and 169 of “The Butter Industry,”
which the cream is fed continuously through a,
third edition, written by Hunziker, copyright 1940
pipe I8 into an emulsion breaker II.
and prior, and published by the author at La
The heated cream enters the emulsion breaker
Grange, Illinois. The separator B separates the
H in a state of normal emulsion having the fat
cream into a portion containing the fat in high so in dispersed phase and the serum in continuous
concentration and a remaining portion of sur
plus serum or skim milk. The skim milk dis
charged by the separator from a pipe ‘I is col
lected for processing to recover the valuable pro
tein by-products contained therein.
The cream separator is adjusted to deliver uni
formly a selective per cent of fat in the concen
trated cream within an upper limit of approxi
mately eighty per cent. When separating nor
phase. Although the volume of liquid fat is now
three or four times greater than the volume of
serum, the natural stability of the cream emul
sion continues to maintain the fat globules in
55 dispersed relation, each globule being surrounded
by a tenacious ?lm of serum preserving the nor
mal state of emulsion. This is attributable to
physical forces operating within the fat globules
to retain their globular form, and upon the col
mal cream to deliver a fat concentration above W loidal proteins contained in the serum to cover
that limit, di?iculty is experienced with the avail
and adhere to the surfaces of the fat globules.
able centrifugal cream separators in maintaining
Probably, like electric charges carried by the fat
that degree of uniformity and e?iciency of fat
globules and having a repellent effect also tend
separation which is readily obtainable by operat
to prevent the merging of the fat globules.
ing them at a lesser per cent of fat concentra 65 In the emulsion breaker ll, these forces are
tion, and which uniform e?iciency prevents ex
overcome and the normal emulsion is broken by
cessive fat losses in the skim milk and facilitates
subjecting the ?owing stream of cream to counter
stable control of subsequent operations in the
forces effective to disrupt the protective ?lms
present process. Fat concentration at this step
covering the fat globules and cause these globules
in the process preferably is selected at between m to coalesce, or merge in part amorphously, to
75 and 80 per cent.
form a free continuous liquid in which the lesser
vohnneofsermnisat?rstdispersedinsmall
In separating cream to the high fat concen
tration mentioned next above, the airtight type
droplets. The breaking of the emulsion, of fat~
of centrifugal separator described by Htmziker,
iii-serum phase, and the reversing of this relation
supra, is successfully eifective in continuous oper
75 to a serum-in-fat phase is done substantially in
aeoaero
' stantly' by the emulsion breaker ii. The result; '
ing product is a freely separable mixture of liquid
,fat and serum without stability in their reversed
by the crank mechanism housed in the casing l2.
'
A ?anged valve retainer 29 is removably posi
tionedin theupward opening of the right end
phase relation. If quiescent, the-mixture will
‘ ward pocket 22,- the retainer having a central
. ' stratify immediately, the heavier serum‘ and its ' 5 bore 30 with a tapered bottom terminating in a
~ . contained proteins gravitating from the fat.
'
Preferably, the emulsion breaker ll isan adap-f
passage at which communicates with the pocket
22. A cone-shaped valve 32 is seated upon the
tapered bottom wall of the bore 38 and controls
. ,sure valve type characterized in operation by
the passage 3|. A laterally recessed compression
pumping a'stream of liquid at ,high pressure 10 plug 33 is freely positioned in the bore 38, and
through one or more closelyv con?ning valve, ori-- -,
rests upon the valve 32. A casing 34 is mounted
?ces wherein extreme flow velocity is generated.
"above
the retainerv 23 and is secured to the block
The type of homogenizing machine preferred
it by bolts 35, the retainer‘ 29 being- clamped in
tation of a homogenizing machine of the pres
_ for use in the present process is described in
position between the casing 34 and the block‘ IS.
“Dairy Engineering,” by Farrall, supra, on pages 15 A central passage 36, provided in the casing 34,
228 to 233, and Fig. 122 in particular. Further
communicates with the bore 30 in the retainer 29
description of homogenizing machines suitable
and opens laterally at its upper end into a. dis
for use in the present process is given on pages
charge passage 31 extending outward through a.
117 to 126 of “The Theory and Practice of Ice
coupling nipple 38 formed on the casing 34.
Cream Making,” third edition, written by Som 20 A compression bar 33 is operatlvely supported
mer, copyright 1938 and prior, and published by
in an upper extension of the casing 34, the lower '
the author at Madison, Wis.
portion of the bar 39 extending in spaced relation
The homogenizing machine described and illus
to the side wall of the passage'36 and endwardly
trated in Fig. 122 in “Dairy Engineering,” supra,
contacting the valve compression plug 33. The
is illustrated herein as employed for the described 25 upper portion' of the bar 39 extends into a cham- '
function of the emulsion breaker N. Fig. 2 of the
her 40 provided in the casing 34 and endwardly
drawings shOWS the complete machine in perspec
carries a disk 4|. A compression spring 42 is
tive, and Fig. 3 is a sectional viewshowing the
positioned upon the disk 4| and is surmounted
cream flow passages and the arrangements of the
by another disk 43 bearing upon the inner surface
parts performing the described function of the 30 of a compression adjusting cap 44 having screw
emulsion breaker ||. A high pressure, crank
threaded engagement with the casing 34,
driven triplex piston pump is suitably housed in
A pressure gauge 45 is mounted upon a closure
an upper casing 12, and for which a suitable
' 46 secured in the upward opening of the left end
motor drive is provided and housed in a base |3.
ward one of the intercommunicating pockets 22
The pump and drive are of similar type to that 35 in the block I6. The upper opening of the center
described and illustrated by Farrall, supra, and by
pocket .22 is provided with a plain closure 41
Summer, supra, as common to the wellknown
secured therein.
'
_
homogenizing machines, and further details of
The heated concentrated cream is pumped from
construction of the pump and its drive are deemed
the receptacle 9 through the pipe II), the intake
not necessary to the present description except as 40 manifold l4 and the passages l8 into the respec
shown in Figs. 2 and 3.
tive piston chambers IS. The cream is forced
The pipe I0, leading from the receptacle 9 to
by the pistons 28 from the chambers I9 through
the emulsion breaker H, enters an intake mani
the passages 2| into the ' intercommunicating
fold I 4 having three similar lateral branches l5
pockets 22, thence through the entry passage 3|
respectively communicating with three similar 45 in the valve retainer 29 ‘and through the valve 32
piston chambers provided in a head block IS.
The sectional view in Fig. 3 is taken on a vertical
to the passage 36 and the discharge outlet passage
31. The emulsion-‘breaking forces herein de
plane through the axis of the right endward
scribed are generated by the pressure and velocity
piston chamber in the block l6 as appearing in
of ?ow of the concentrated cream in passing the
Fig. 2, and the structure shown is identical with 50 valve 32.v The latter is resiliently compressed
that appurtenant to the other two piston cham
upon its seat by the spring-pressed bar 33 and ad
bers. Each branch I5 is removably coupled to a
justed to the requisite compression by the cap 44.
nipple I1, provided on the block l5, and having an
The conventional function of the homogenizer,
inlet passage I8 leading to a piston chamber I9
as described by Farrall and Sommer and as known
formed in the block IS. The passage I8 is con 65 to the dairy industry in the treatment-of milk,
trolled by an inlet valve 20 of the poppet type
cream and other dairy products, is directly con
operatively seated at the entrance of the passage
traryto its function in the present invention. Its
|8'to the chamber IS. A discharge passage 2|
common use is to increase the stability of the
leads from the piston chamber I!) to an upwardly
normal fat-in-serum emulsion and prevent ag
opening pocket 22 formed in the upper side 01' 60 glomeration of the fat globules by breaking up
the head block IS. The discharge passage 2| is
the normal fat globules into multiple smaller
controlled by a discharge valve 23 0f poppet type
globules and thoroughly dispersing the smaller
operatively seated at the entrance of the passage
globules in the continuous serum phase. The
2| to the pocket 22, The three pockets 22 are
smaller globules present a greater surface area,
interconnected by a bore 24 extending. longitudi 65 relative to volume, for adherence by the viscous
nally through the block l6 and having a suitable
colloidal protein components of the serum, thus
closure at each end.
overcoming the natural slight buoyancy of the
Each piston chamber I9 opens laterally through
normal tat globules. Hcmcgenization assures a
the block I6 in alignment with a cylinder 25
uniform stable distribution of globular fat in the
mounted in the pump frame 26 and abutting the
treated emulsion. as illustrated by homogenized
block Hi. The cylinders 25 and the block l6 are
milk in which the common phenomenon of “ris
secured in position by bolts 21 extending through
ing” cream is prevented.
the block it and into the frame 26. A recipro
Milk and cream as commonly homogenized vary
cating pump piston 28 is operatively positioned in
in fat content from four per cent or less in whole
the cylinder 25, the three pistons being actuated 75 milk to. about 40 per cent in special purpose
2,406,819
10
stance, the disruptive force for reversing the nor
cream, the latter per cent being considered the
maximum for successfully accomplishing the
bene?ts sought by homogenization.
mal phase relation into serum-in-fat relation may
be generated by passing the stream of heated
cream in a. thin ?lm between closely adjacent sur
For the purposes of the present invention, it .
is desired not to increase the stability of the nor
mal emulsion by subdividing and further dispers
5 faces moving relatively at high velocity. Any
suitable colloidal mill of the revolving disk type
ing the fat-globules in the continuous serum
can be adapted, with necessary control of disk
spacing, to accomplish the purpose of the emul
phase, but, contrawise, to destroy the normal
stability of the fat-in-serum emulsion by break
sion breaker ll. However, it has not the advan
ing the continuous serum phase and causing the 10 tage of the accurate control of flow volume and
fat globules to unite in continuous liquid form.
velocity possessed by the pressure pump type of
' The homogcnizer, operating under the conditions
emulsion breaker, nor is it as‘ readily adaptable
to the continuous enclosed ?ow operation of the
high fat concentration, successfully accomplishes
present process. If a colloidal mill type of emul
the latter purpose in reverse of its previously 15 sion breaker is substituted for the above described
preferred type of emulsion breaker ll, then a
utilized function. _
In the present process, the heated cream en
pasitive pump, such as the pump 4 before de
tering the emulsion breaker II has a fat concen
scribed, is required to withdraw the broken cream
tration of 75 to 80 per cent. In such proportion
in controlled volume from the substituted mill
\ of fat to serum, the serum is so reduced in rela 20 type emulsion breaker and deliver it continuously
tive volume that the continuous ?lm structure of
for further processing as hereinafter described,
the pump being connected into the discharge pipe
serum between and about the dispersed fat glob
ules is attenuated to a degree which materially
leading from the substituted emulsion breaker.
lessens its resistance to rupture and substantially , A colloidal mill, such as may be adapted to func
nulli?es its normal capacity to re-cover the fat 25 tion as above described, is exempli?ed in U. S.
globules and preserve the continuous serum phase
patent to China, No. 1,523,632, issued January
20, 1925. A mill of this type also is shown and
after such structural disturbance as is effected
of the present process upon hot cream having
by the ordinary homogenization treatment of
described on page 981 in “Chemical Engineering
cream having substantially less fat concentra
Catalog 1943-44,” supra.
tion. In cream having the‘ high fat concentra 30
Separating serum from fat
tion employed in the present process, the attenu
The broken cream in reversed serum-in-fat
ated continuous serum ?lm structure cannot pre
phase is discharged continuously from the emul
sion breaker ll through the discharge nipple 38
serve its continuity against the shearing forces
generated by the extreme velocity of its ?ow
through the emulsion breaker l I, and consequent
ly the serum ?lm breaks into dispersed droplets
of serum.
35
and a connecting pipe 48 entering laterally into
a serum separator 49. The serum separator t9
provides an enclosed chamber which is ?lled with
the in?owing broken cream. Upon entry into
The emulsion breaker II is adjusted for op
the chamber, the reversed and de-stabilized liquid
eration at a pressure only suf?cient to generate
such ?ow velocity as to disrupt the weakened 40 fat and serum phases of the broken cream emul
sion immediately separate by strati?cation, the
continuous serum structure without materially
lighter fat fraction rising to the top of the cham
breaking up the fat globules. Coincident with
ber and the heavier serum fraction gravitating
the disruption of the protective serum ?lm, the
to the bottom of the chamber.
closely associated and now uncovered fat globules
immediately coalesce and merge into the con 45 Fig. 4 shows a preferred construction of the
serum separator 49 in which is provided a cylin
tinuous liquid phase carrying the droplets‘ of
drical shell 50 having a downwardly sloping bot
serum in free unstable dispersed phase. It is
tom 5| and a removable cover 52 normally se
probable, also, that such like electric charges as
cured by swinging clamps 53, together forming
may be carried by the fat globules are discharged
in the emulsion breaking operation and the fat 50 the stratifying chamber. The broken‘ cream is
introduced into the chamber through a lateral
is brought to a state of electric equilibrium where
inlet tube 54 mounted in the shell 5!) and adapted ‘
by the fat globules may readily coalesce by con
for connection with the pipe 48 from the emul
tact in the absence of the repellent force operat
sion breaker l I. An outlet tube 55 is provided in
ing between like charged globules.
A range- of pressure somewhat lower than that 55 the cover 52 for discharge of the liquid fat from
ordinarily used in homogenization successfully
the chamber, and another outlet tube 56 is pro
vided in the bottom wall 5| for discharge of the
accomplishes the thorough brealn'ng of the emul
serum from the chamber, both outlet tubes hav
sion, as above described, into a semm-in-fat rela
ing ?ow connections as later described herein.
tion. The required pressure exerted upon the
cream in the emulsion breaker ll depends upon 60 A structure for guiding the ?ow of the stratify
ing liquids within the chamber is removably
the acidity and other conditions and character
mounted therein and comprises one or more hol
istics of the cream. If the pressure is too low,
the continuous ?lm structure is not su?iciently
low truncated cones, two being shown in the
present instance and indicated at 51 and 58. The
broken to release the fat. If too high, the serum
is broken into too ?ne dispersion and becomes 65 cones are open at top and base, and are secured
emulsi?ed in the fat with consequent retarding
to each other in vertical spaced relation by a
of the subsequent immediate gravitation of the
plurality of bars 59, the lower ends of the bars
resting upon the bottom wall 5| at its juncture
serum from the fat as desired in the next step in
the process.
with the shell 50 and thereby supporting and po
The required degree of disruptive force for 70 sitioning the cones within the chamber. The bot
tom edges of the cones 51 and 58 are spaced from
breaking the normal cream emulsion and revers
the shell 50 to provide ?ow passages therebetween.
ing the phase relation into a serum-in-fat rela
A tapered ring 60 is secured upon the upper sur
tion may be generated by other means, and my
face of the upper cone 51, the lower edge of the
process is not con?ned to the employment of the
machines speci?cally mentioned above. For in
75 ring 60 being substantially spaced from the shell
2,406,81 9
'
11
.
a
,
50 and the upper edge of the ring being in close
contact with the upper portion of the shell. Flow
emulsion breaker pump will take all of the con
centrated cream that the cream separator will de-v '
‘ openings -6I may be provided through the upper
liver.
cone 51, the openings being positioned just above
the juncture between the. cone and the ring 60.
'
The rate of discharge of concentrated
cream from the cream separator varies with the
initial per cent of fat in the cream being sepa
rated, and the latter may vary by 10 per cent or
The in?owing hot broken and reversed phase
serum-in-fat cream enters through inlet 54 into
the space 62 between the ring 60, the lower por
tionrof the upper cone 5‘! and the shell 50, and
more as normally received at. a \creamery.
In
order to accommodate the constant pumping rate
of the emulsion breaker II to the variable deliv
is directed through that space circumferentially 10 ery rate of the cream discharged from the cream
around the chamber. From the space '62, the
separator 6 and to provide a full supply of con
broken cream ?ows uniformly downward through , centrated cream in the intake receptacle t, a
the passage between the lower edge of the cone 51
branch pipe 65 is connected into the discharge
and the shell 50 into the space between the two
pipe 48 leading‘ from the emulsion breaker II to
cones, and therefrom ?lling the entire chamber. 15 the serum separator 49, the branch pipe 85 hav
Without appreciable turbulence in the volume of
ing its other end leading into the intake receptacle
?owing liquid within the chamber, Strati?cation ' '
of the fat and serum immediately occurs. The fat
rises-against the under sides of the cones 51 and
9 and ‘functioning to return broken cream from
the emulsion breaker discharge pipe 48 to the in
take receptacle 9 in such continuous quantity only
58 and is directed upwardly and inwardly toward 20 as is necessary to make up the deficiency in the
the fat outlet 55 in the cover 52. The serum
.gravitates to the upper surfaces of the cones and
in?owing stream of cream from the cream sepa
rator 6 _and maintain a constant supply level in
the intake receptacle '9. The small portion of
the openings GI and through the passage between
broken cream. so returned to the receptacle 9 and
the lower edge of the lower cone 58 and the shell 25 intermixed with concentrated cream from the
50 into the sump formed at the bottom of the
cream separator 6 appears to increase the effi
chamber and toward the serum outlet '56.
ciency of the emulsion breaker I I in de-stabilizing
is directed downwardly and outwardly through
The fat is continuously discharged from the
top of the serum separator‘ 49 through the outlet
the broken cream.
Figs. 5 and 6 show a preferred construction of
'55 and a connected pipe 63 to other apparatus, 30 the intake receptacle 9 and its several connections
hereinafter described, for further processing in
as above mentioned. A cylindrical shell 66 having
accordance with the present invention. The se
a laterally sloping bottom 61 is provided at its
rum is continuously discharged from the bottom
lower bottom" edge with an outlet 68 adapted for
ofv the serum separator through the outlet 56 and
connection with the pipe I 0 leading into the emul
a connected pipe 64, the pipe 64 being intercon 35 sion breaker II. - A top closure 69 has a ?anged
nected at its other end with the pipe 3 between
opening 10 upon which a cover‘ ‘II is adjustably
thencream supply tank land the pump 4. The
mounted. The cover ‘II is provided with an open
ing 12 which may be adjusted in position by ro
into the pipe 3 wherein the serum is mixed with
tation of the cover ‘II to accommodate the entry
the cream ?owing from the tank I to the pump 40 into the receptacle of the open discharge end of
4 and is thereby returned to the cream separator
the pipe 8 carrying the hot concentrated cream
6. Thus, any fat which is entrapped in the serum
' ?owing from the cream separator 6 and from
returned from the serum separator 49 is recov
which the concentrated cream ?ows continuously
ered by the cream separator 6 in the concentrated
into the receptacle.
.
cream, and the serum proteins are recovered with
A lateral inlet tube ‘I3 is fixed in the side wall
the skim milk discharged from the cream sepa
of the shell 66, the outer end of the tube ‘I3 being
rator.
''
adapted for connection with the branch pipe 65
The fat loss in the present process is limited to
which returns a portion of the broken cream dis~
the fractional per cent carried by the skim milk
charged from the emulsion breaker II as de
discharged from the cream separator 6 as the
scribed above. A removable sleeve bracket 14‘ is
process retains all of the fat which is ‘otherwise
mounted on the extended inner end of the tube
lost by conventional churning in the buttermilk
‘I3 and held in position by a removable pin ‘I5.
and the wash water. Elimination of the use of
A ?oat ‘I6 is ?xed upon one end of a supporting
water for washing the butter granules after con
rod 11, the other end portion of the rod 11 being
ventional churning, or for diluting the cream to 55 bent at a right angle and extending freely
\ serum ?owing through the pipe 64 is discharged
7' facilitate centrifugal separation for high fat con
centration, avoids possible'contamination by the
, water andprevents washing out of the product
those volatile and soluble elements of fat and se
rum making for the ?ne ?avor and aroma pleas
ingly characteristic of fresh butter of high quality.
through lateral openings in the bracket ‘I4, thus
serving as a pivot for vertical swinging movement
of the ?oat ‘I6 and rod 11. The tube ‘I3 is later
ally slotted to receive the pivot portion of the.
rod ‘I1 when the bracket ‘I4 is assembled on the
tube ‘I3. A ?y valve ‘I8 is ?xed upon the pivot
portion of the rod ‘I1 in position for entry into
the tube ‘I3 when the bracket is assembled on the
tube. The valve ‘I8 is operable by the ?oat ‘I6
65 through the support rod 11 to control or throttle
No washing or dilution also conserves in the skim
milk the valuable serum by-products otherwise
lost in the water. Thus, one of the advantages of
the present invention resides in the elimination of
the use of water for washing the butter granules
the in?owing stream of broken cream returning ‘
in churning or for diluting the cream in separat
through the branch pipe 65 from the emulsion
ing the fat.
breaker II. Thus, the combined quantity in the
The volumetric intake rate of the positive pump
receptacle 9 of the in?owing concentrated cream
in the emulsionbreaker II is slightly greater than 70 from the cream separator 6 and the in?owing
the normal maximum rate of discharge of con
broken cream from the emulsion breaker II is
centrated cream from the cream separator 6 to
maintained at a predetermined level and balanced
the intake receptacle 9 which delivers the heated
against the rate of out?ow of the mixture to the
cream to the pump in the emulsion breaker. This
emulsion breaker II.
'
‘
'
is necessary for operating assurance that the 75 As a further provision for control of the return
2,406,819
13
_
14
eight per cent fat andtwopercentserumlsa ‘
how of broken cream from the discharge side of
the emulsion breaker II to the intake receptacle
convenient proportion for the subsequent addi
tion of the ingredients required to make a normal
9, a, pressure relief valve ‘I9 is mounted in the
butter composition.
discharge pipe 48 from the emi?sion breaker II
The function oi! the serum separator 49, in
to the serum separator 49 and positioned between 5
separating the dispersed serum from the continu
the serum separator and the junction of the re
ous liquid fat in the broken and reversed phase
turn branch pipe 65 with the discharge pipe 48.
cream after treatment by the emulsion breaker,
also may be accomplished by centrifugal separa
conventional coupling between sections of the 10 tion. As previously mentioned herein, the avail
able centrifugal separators do not satisfactorily
discharge pipe 48. Referring to Fig. '7, a cup
separate churning cream, in its normal state of
shaped member 80 is positioned in one of the
unbroken i'at-in-serum emulsion, to produce a
coupled sections of the pipe 48 and extends in
Fig. 7 shows a preferred construction of the re- ”
lief valve 19 adapted to be moimted within a
concentration of the fat in excess of about 80
49. The member 80 is provided with an integral 15 per cent. However, having so produced a concen
trated normal cream with somewhat less than?ii
radial ?ange extending between the adjacent ends
per cent fat, and having broken the concentrated
of the two sections of the pipe 48 and is clamped
cream into a de-stabilized reversed phase serum
in position by drawing up the coupling nut 8|.‘
in-fat mixture, as previously described herein,
The member 80 is provided with a valve orifice
82 opening through its inner end and in which 29 then the available centrifugal separators may be
successfully employed to separate further the
is operatively seated a poppet valve 83 having a
broken mixture of fat and serum to produce a
?xed stem 84 slidably extending through a guide
concentration of the fat in excess of 98 per cent.
bearing provided in a spider 85 positioned across
A centrifugal separator of either the airtight
and abutting the member 80. A coiled spring 88
is positioned about the outer end portion of the 25 type or the valve bowl type previously described
herein may be substituted for the serum sepa
stem 84, the spring bearing at one end against
rator 49. A sweet cream operation being as
the spider 85 and retained imder compression at
sumed in the present instance, the airtight type
its other end by abutment with a retainer 81
of separator is preferable. Fig. 8 of the draw
removably mounted upon the end of the stem 84.
Thus, a predetermined pressure in the rearward 30 ings illustrates the arrangement of a centrifugal
separator of the airtight type and its ?ow con
section of the pipe 48 forces the poppet valve 83
nections
in such substitution. Referring to Fig.
from its seat in the ori?ce 82 for ?ow of the
8, the separator 89 receives the broken reversed
broken cream therethrough.
serinn-in-fat mixture ?owing from the emulsion
The pressure relief valve 19 functions to divert
ii through the pipe 48 and pressure re
all of the broken cream discharged by the emul 35 breaker
lief valve 19. The separated liquid fat fraction
sion breaker ll through the return branch pipe ' is discharged from the separator 89 through the
85 until the receptacle 9 is ?lled and until the
pipe 63:; for further treatment in accord with
?oat-controlled ?y valve 18 operates to throttle
the present inventioh as hereinafter described.
the ?ow from the branch pipe 85, whereupon the 49 The separated serum fraction is discharged from
relief valve 19 automatically opens to direct the
the separator 89 and returned through the pipe
the direction of ?ow toward the serum separator
flow of broken cream into the serum separator
54a to the pipe 3 wherein the returned serum is
intermixed with the initial cream supply as previ
ously described herein. In this instance, the
except for that small compensating portion re
quired to maintain the supply level in the re
captacle 9.
previously described pressure relief valve 88 is
Another pressure relief valve 88, similar in con 45 omitted from the pipe Ma.
struction and operation to that above described
While the function of separating the dispersed
and shown in Fig. ‘7, is mounted in the pipe M
serum from the continuous fat phase in the
leading from the serum discharge outlet 58 of the
hrokm cream after treatment by the emulsion
serum separator 49. The pressure relief valve 88,
breaker ii may be accomplished by centrifugal
in the serum discharge pipe 84, functions to pre 50 separation, the first described serum separator :39
vent discharge of the serum from the serum sep
has the preferable advantages of simplicity of
arator 49 until the latter is ?lled with the strati
omratlon
and low cost of construction.
‘ ?ed broken cream and until the fat in the upper
portion of the serum separator is being discharged
Dehydrated butter oil
through the fat outlet 55 and the connected pipe 55
63 by the pressure of the in?owing broken cream ‘
After obtaining the high fat fraction contain
ing approximately 98 per cent of liquid fat and
from the emulsion breaker ii. Thereupon, the
relief valve 88 automatically opens and permits
the continuous discharge of the serum from the
2 per cent of serum or moisture in de-stabilized
pump 4.
The serum separator 59 may be varied in de
sign, such as by providing more or less holding
capacity in the chamber to vary the time allowed {55
fat fraction may be treated to remove substan
tially all of the remaining serum or moisture and
bottom of the serum separator 45 through pipe 6B relation, the continuity of the present process for
making butter may be interrupted and the high
64 to the intake pipe 3 of the cream supply
for stratiilcation, and by providing greater or less
cross-sectional area in the chamber with constant
capacity to vary the depth of travel of the gravi—
tating serum. These factors of design, together
with the relation of the rate of ?ow of fat from
the serum separator to the rate of flow of broken
cream into the serum separator, enable accurate
predetermination and control of the proportion
ate amount of serum being carried by the fat
discharged from the serum separator. Ninety
produce dehydrated butter oil. The latter prod
not has distinct advantages for the storage and
shipment of butter fat. Properly packaged in
sealed containers, it enables the accumulation,
storage and shipment of butter fat at the centers
of milk-producing areas, without the usual
79 hazards of deterioration and the necessity for
refrigeration involved in the storage and ship
ment of milk, cream and butter, and with sub
stantial savings in transportation costs. Thus
dehydrated butter oil may be produced, properly
75 packaged and shipped to remote facilities at cen
15
2,406,819
16
ters of consumption areas for further processing
in accordance with the hereinafter described fur
ther steps of the present invention in the manu
.
"Chemical Engineering Catalog 1943-44," supra.
The boiling temperature of the liquid fat in
the above mentioned vacuum is well above 165° F.,
facture of butter. The dehydrated product may ' so that the fat is not evaporated in the vacuum
be otherwise utilized to advantage in the making C1 pan. The liquid fat is collected in the vacuum
of ice cream, reconstructed milk and cream, but
pan 93 substantially free of moisture, and is
ter spreads and other dairy food products, espe
withdrawn therefrom through a pipe 99 leading
cially in areas where a safe fresh milk supply is
to an oil pump I00. The oil pump I00 is similar
not available.
to the cream supply pump 4 previously described.
Substantial dehydration of the high fat frac 10' The
oil pump discharge pipe MI is adapted to
tion having approximately 2 per cent of serum
deliver the dehydrated butter oil into suitable
or moisture may be accomplished by centrifugal
containers as previously described.
separation or by vacuum treatment. The remain
Referring to Figs. 11 and 12, the vacuum pan
ing moisture thus may be reduced to less than
93 and water jet condenser 95 are shown in sec
.05 of one per cent, which is satisfactory for the 15 tional views which exemplify the construction of
purposes and‘ uses above mentioned.
these well known devices. The vacuum pan 93
Standard centrifugal separators which are
comprises a cylindrical shell I02 having a remov
adapted for such exhaustive separation of mois
able -top closure I03 and an inclined bottom wall
ture are available. The previously described air
I04, together forming an evaporating chamber
tight type of separator is preferable for use in 20
The vapor outlet pipe 94 is connected in
this instance, the separating bowl being provided
the upper end' of the shell I03 and leads to the
with discs which are of standard manufacture and
condenser 95. An oil outlet tube I06 is mounted
adapted for the exhaustive separating treatment
in the bottom wall I04 and is adapted for con
of oil and moisture mixtures having not to ex
nection with the pipe 99 leading to the oil pump
ceed approximately 2 per cent of moisture. Fig. 25 I00. An inlet tube I0‘! is provided in the upper
9 shows an arrangement for the employment of
portion of the shell I02, the outer end of the tube
such a centrifugal separator in the production of
I01 being adapted for connection with the pipe
dehydrated butter oil. Referring to Fig. 9, the
63 through which the high fat fraction is de=
hot tie-stabilized high fat fraction, having ap
livered from the serum separator 49 to the vac
proximately 98 per cent liquid fat and 2 per cent 30 uum pan 93. A spray pipe I08 is provided within
serum or moisture, flows from the serum separator
the chamber I05, the spray pipe having one end
49 through the pipe 63 as previously described.
closed and the other end connected to the inner
The pipe 63 is connected to and delivers the
end of the inlet tube I01. Multiple lateral spray
fat fraction to a centrifugal dehydrating separa
openings I09 are provided in the spray pipe I08
tor 90. The separated serum or moisture is dis 35 from which the hot liquid fat fraction is sprayed
charged from the separator 90 through a pipe 9|,
into the evaporating chamber I05 and the mois
and may be collected for recovery of such protein
ture evaporated therefrom. The water jet con-_
by-products as it contains. The dehydrated but
denser 95 comprises a cylindrical casing I I0 hav
ter oil ?ows from the separator 90 through a
ing a tapered bottom wall III and a removable
pipe 92 from which the oil is discharged prefer
ably into sterile containers having scalable clo
40
sures and suitable for storage or shipment of the
'
oil.
An alternative arrangement for producing de
hydrated butter oil by vacuum treatment‘ is
shown in Figs. 10, 11 and 12. Referring to Fig.
10, the high fat fraction ?owing from the serum
separator 49 is conducted through the pipe 63
into a vacuum pan 93 wherein a vacuum'is main
tained of approximately 27 inches of mercury.
At that vacuum, the boiling temperature of the
moisture in the high fat fraction is lowered to
about 115° F. The fat fraction enters the vacuum
top closure IIZ, together forming a, condensing
chamber H3. The pipe 97, leading to the vac
pump 93, is connected into the bottom wall
III. vThe top closure H2 is provided with a
water inlet tube II4 having a Water jet head II5
mounted on the end within the chamber H3.
The outer end of the water inlet tube II 4 is
adapted for connection with the cooling water
supply pipe 96. The vapor outlet pipe 94, leading
from the vacuum pan, is connected laterally into
the casing IIO for discharge of the vapor into,
the condensing chamber II3. A spray of cold
water ?owing from the jet head I I5 intermingles
with and condenses the hot vapor entering‘the
condensing chamber H3. The water, condensate
pan at a temperature of about 165° F. There
and any entrained air or vapor are withdrawn
being only about 2 per cent of moisture in the
from the ‘chamber II 3 through the discharge
fat fraction, the 50 degrees of super heat in the
pipe 91 by the vacuum pump 98, thus maintain
fat fraction over the boiling temperature of the
ing the desired vacuum in the vacuum pan 93.
moisture at the vacuum mentioned is su?icient
Centrifugal separation and vacuum treatment
to evaporate substantially all of the moisture con
tained in the fat fraction entering "the vacuum 60 for dehydrating butter oil have their respective
advantages. Centrifugal separation preserves in
pan vwithout the application of additional heat.
high degree those volatile elements previously re
The evaporated moisture is withdrawn from the
ferred to as contributing to the desirable ?avor
vacuum pan 93 through a pipe 94 and into a water
jet condenser 95. The cooling water is supplied 65 and aroma of butter. Centrifugal separation re
moves the serum and its contained curd, but does
to the condenser jet by a pipe 96. The con
densate and spray water are withdrawn from
the condenser 95 t rough a pipe 97 leading to
a vacuum pump 98.
The vacuum pump 98 is
not remove the entrained air which may be in
the fat fraction and may cause some oxidation
of the dehydrated but-ter oil during storage, nor
does it remove objectionable volatile odors and
effective to withdraw water, vapor and air from
?avors such as result from the consumption by
the condenser and the vacuum pan, and main
grazing cows of certain‘ kinds of vegetation some
tain in the pan the selected degree of vacuum
times growing in feed pastures. Vacuum treat
mentioned above. A pump of the type required
ment, as above described, removes from the fat
for this service is shown and described as an
air compressor and vacuum pump on page 854 in 75 fraction the entrained air and the objectionable
volatile odors and ‘?avors'resulting from cow
2,406,819
17
feed, or sometimes resulting from excessively sour
cream, but with the sacri?ce of removing also
some part of the low vaporizing glycerides and
volatile elements contributing desirable ?avor
and aroma in high grade butter. Also, the vac
uum treatment evaporates the moisture from the
serum contained in the fat fraction without re
moving the curd contained in the serum.
18
of dehydrated butter oil. In such case the
vacuum pan and its accessories are installed and
connected for operation as shown in Fig. 10 and
as described above for the production of dehy
drated butter oil, except that the ‘oil pump I00
is omitted and the pipe 99 conducting the liquid
fat from the vacuum pan is connected to the
composition control pump next hereinafter de
scribed. Such installation and connections are
A choice between centrifugal separation and
vacuum treatment for dehydration is determined 10 shown diagrammatically in Fig. 1 wherein the
vacuum pan 93 receives the high fat fraction
by the characteristics of the cream available to
from the serum separator 49 through the pipe
the producer of butter oil. It may be desirable
83 and delivers the vacuum-treated high fat
in some cases to employ the advantages of both
fraction through the discharge pipe 99 for further
methods by ?rst subjecting the high fat fraction
to a. deodorizing vacuum treatment and then ac 15 processing as hereinafter described for the fat
fraction ?owing directly from the serum sepa
complishing ?nal dehydration by centrifugal
rator 49. The vapor discharge pipe 94 carries
separation. In such a combination dehydrating
treatment, the vacuum employed is substantially
lower than required for complete dehydration.
About 25 inches of mercury is su?icient for sub
the vapor to the condenser and vacuum pump
as previously described and shown in Fig. 10 but
20 omitted from Fig. 1.
In order to accomplish the deodorizing treat
ment here contemplated, it is not necessary to
employ as high vacuum as for complete evapo
ration of the moisture content as described above
elements desired to be retained, but leaving in
the fat fraction an appreciable amount of un 25 for producing dehydrated butter oil. A vacuum
evaporated serum. The ?nal centrifugal sepa
of about 25 inches of mercury is su?icient to
?ash out the mal odorous vapors and entrained
rating treatment removes from the fat fraction
the remaining serum moisture and curd to the
air with the evaporation of a portion only of the
degree described as satisfactory for dehydrated
moisture or serum contained in the high fat
30 fraction.
butter oil.
stantial removal of entrained air and the objec
tionable volatile odors and ?avors without ex
treme vaporization and removal of the volatile
A preferred arrangement for effecting this
combination dehydrating treatment employs the
Butter composition
The high fat fraction ?owing from the serum
separator 49 retains heat at a temperature suffi
sories as previously described herein and shown
in Fig. 10. The oil pump discharge pipe IOI 35 ciently high to maintain the fat in ?uid condi
tion. The stream of liquid fat passes through
shown in Fig. 10 is connected to the centrifugal
pipe 63 (Fig. 1)_ to a composition control pump
dehydrating separator 90, previously described
IIB wherein the ingredients required to make up
and shown in Fig. 9, the oil pump discharge Pipe
the desired composition of the ?nished butter are
IOI taking the place of the fat fraction delivery
introduced into the fat. In preferable form, the
pipe 63 shown in Fig. 9. By this arrangement
pump II6 comprises the construction shown in
the high fat fraction ?owing from the serum
Figs. 13 to 16, inclusive, the essential working ar
separator 49 is conducted through the pipe 63
rangement of which is further shown diagram
(Fig. 10) into the vacuum pan 93. After treat~
matically in Fig. 17. Referring to Figs. 13 to 16,
ment in the latter, as described, the treated fat
fraction is withdrawn through the pipe 99 by the 45 inclusive, the pump is provided with three pump
ing cylinders H1, H8 and H9 which are remov
oil pump“ I00 and delivered through the pump ‘
ably secured to a frame I20. The two cylinders
discharge pipe IM to the centrifugal dehydrating
III and H8 are of like bore and capacity while
separator 90 (Fig. 9). The separator 90 func
the third cylinder H9 is of smaller bore and
tions to remove the serum and deliver dehy
capacity. Each of the two cylinders II‘! and H8
drated butter oil as previously described herein.
is provided with a piston I2I having one end oper
In resuming the present butter-making process
atively positioned within the cylinder and having
with the dehydrated butter oil, the latter is re
its outer end secured to a crosshead I22 slidably
moved from its storage containers and placed in
mounted in a suitable bearing provided in the
a heating vat (not shown in the drawings) sim
ilar to the cream supply vat I previously described 55 frame I20. A pair of like connecting rods I23
are pivotally connected respectively to the cross
herein. The butter oil is heated to a temper
heads I22, the opposite ends of the connecting
ature sufficient to completely liquefy all of the
rods being operatively mounted upon offset ec
fat, preferably above 160° F. The hot oil is with
centric journals I24 provided respectively there
drawn from the vat through an outlet pipe hav
ing a discharge connection equivalent to the dis 60 for on a crank shaft I25 having suitable end
charge connection hereinafter described for the
bearings in the frame I20. The crank shaft I25
pipe 63 (Fig. 1) conducting the high fat frac
is rotatable by means of a gear I26 ?xed upon
tion from the serum separator 49, the hot butter
the crank shaft and having driven engagement
oil being further processed as her'einafter de
with a pinion gear I21 carried by a pinion shaft
scribed for the fat fraction ?owing from the 65 I28 having suitable hearings in the frame I20
serum separator.
and having a drive pulley I29 mounted upon
Before leaving the subject of vacuum treat
its outer end.
ment as employed in the present invention, it is
The third and smaller cylinder H9 is similarly
here pointed out that under the above mentioned
provided with a piston I30, of less diameter than
conditions which cause mal odors in cream and 70 the other pistons, having one end operatively
in the product made therefrom, the vacuum pan
positioned in the cylinder and having its outer
may be employed to deodorize the high fat frac
end secured to a crosshead I3I slidably mounted
tion ?owing from the serum separator 49 when
in a suitable bearing provided in the frame I20.
Adjustable means for varying the length of stroke
proceeding continuously with the present butter
making process without the interim production 75 of the smaller piston I30 comprises a yoke I32
vacuum pan 93 with its connections and acces
2,406,819
19
pivotally connected at one end to the crosshead
I3I and having its opposite divided end pivotally
or smaller cylinder II9, the ?tting I59 being con
nected to a pipe I60 leading from a supply reser
voir I6I in which is maintained a supply of liquid
connected to a block I 33 slidably supported in a
slot I34 ‘provided in a rocker arm‘ I35. The di
ingredients to be added to the high fat fraction
vided upper end of the rocker arm I35 is pro
in the make-up of the butter composition.
vided with a pair of stub shafts I36 and I31 hav
The supply reservoir I6I preferably comprises a
ing suitable bearings in the frame I20. A short
cylindrical shell I62 (see Fig. 18) having a slop
connecting rod I88 is pivotally connected at I39
ing bottom I63 and provided at its lower bottom
to one side of the rocker arm I 35, its opposite
edge with an outlet connection I64 adapted for
end being operatively mounted upon a third ec 10 connection with the pipe I60 leading to the smaller
centric journal I40 provided therefor on the
cylinder II9 of the composition control pump II6.
crank shaft I25.
A removable cover I65 provides a top closure. A
The position of the sliding block I33 in the
lateral inlet tube I66 is ?xed in the side wall of
rocker arm I35 is adjustably determined by a
the shell I62. Mounted upon the inner end of the
screw shaft I4I positioned in the slot I34 with 15 inlet tube I62 is a ?oat-controlled valve structure
its ends rotatably supported in the end portions
I61 of similar construction and function to that
of the rocker arm. The screw shaft I4I ex
tends through a screw-threaded bore in the
, sliding block I33. The extended upper end of
the screw shaft I M carries a bevel gear I42 posi
tioned between the divided upper end portions of
the rocker arm and having engagement with an
other bevel gear I43 mounted on a small shaft
I44 operatively supported in an axial bore
through the stub shaft I36. A sleeve I45, posi
ticned outwardly of the. frame iii, is secured to
previously described as a part of the intake re
ceptacle 8 for the emulsion breaker I I and shown
in Fig. 5, parts 14 to 18 inclusive. A quantity of
the liquid ingredients is prepared and heated in a
vat I68 (Fig. 1) preferably similar to the cream
supply vat I previously described. Apipe I69 con
nects the vat outlet to a pump I10 01‘ centrifugal
type such as described on pages 50 and 51 and il
25 lustrated in Fig. 21 on page 54 of "Dairy Engineer
ing,” supra. A discharge pipe I1I leads from the
an outward extension of the stub shaft I36. The
outer end portion of the sleeve I45 is screw
threaded and operatively supports thereon an in
pump I10 and is connected to the outer end of the
inlet tube I66 entering the supply reservoir I6I.
The composition control pump I I6 is operated
ternally threaded cap I46. Within the cap I46 30 by a variable speed motor drive mounted within
and secured thereto is a tube I41 extending slid
the lower portion of the pump frame I20. Refer
ably over the outer end portion of the small shaft
ring to Fig. 14, an electric motor I12 is secured to
I44, the latter having a slot I48. A cross pin
a swinging‘ plate I13 pivotally supported upon a
“9 extends freely through the slot I48 and is
bar I14, the latter being endwardly secured upon
endwardly secured in the tube I41. Graduated 35 the frame I20. A bracket I15 is ?xed upon the .
markings, as indicated at I50, are provided on
plate I 13, the bracket having spaced walls in
the outer surface of the sleeve I45, and over
which like registering slots I16 are provided. A
which the overlying end of the screw-threaded
pin I11 is operatively positioned within the slots
cap I46 passes upon manually turning the latter,
I16. An eye-bolt I18 is mounted upon the pin I16
the markings serving to indicate the position of 40 between the spaced walls of the bracket. The
the cap.
I
It will here be seen that the operating position
of the sliding block I33 in the rocker arm I35 may
be accurately determined and adjusted by man
ually turning the adjusting cap I46 upon the 45
sleeve I45, whereby the small shaft I44, the two
screw-threaded portion of the eye-bolt extends
within an internally threaded ?anged sleeve I18
rotatably mounted in a bearing I80 provided in
the frame I20. -.A turning knob I8I is secured up
on the outer end of the sleeve I19. Turning the
knob I8I moves the eye-bolt I18 inwardly or out
engaging bevel gears I43 and I42, and the screw.
shaft I4I engaging the block I 33 are rotated to
wardly of the sleeve I19 and thereby effects the
.swinging of the plate I13 and the motor I12 about
shift the position of the sliding block I33 within
the pivotal support I 14. The motor I12 is pro
the slot I34 in the rocker arm I35. By this means, 50 vided with a variable pitch V belt drive pulley I 82
the length of stroke of the piston I30 is ac
of conventional and well known design upon
curately determined, and the operating capacity
which is operatively positioned an endless V belt
of the cylinder H9 is accurately adjustable in
I83 running also upon the pulley I29 previously
variable relation to the combined operating ca
described. The swinging of the motor I12 varies
pacity of the other two cylinders I I1 and I I8, for 55 the distance‘ between centers of the pulleys I82
the purpose of closely regulating the proportion
and I29 and thereby automatically-varies the‘
of added ingredients to fat in the make-up of the
pitch diameter of the pulley I82 and consequently
butter composition as hereinafter described.
the speed of the pulley I29.
Each of the three cylinders is provided with an
The variable speed drive for the composition
intake connection I5I having a passage I52 en
tering the cylinder and controlled by a valve I53,
and is also provided with a discharge connection
I54 having a passage I55 entering the cylinder
60 control pump H6 is adjusted so that the com
bined intake ?ow rate of the two larger cylinders
H1 and H8 receiving the heated liquid fat is
of such lesser quantity than the constant dis
charge ?ow rate of the emulsion breaker II that
charge manifold I51 has three branches respec 65 the con?ned excess ?ow from the latter will cause
tively attached to the three cylinder discharge
the previously described return ?ow of broken
connections iii, and receives the discharge in op
cream through pipe 55 to the emulsion breaker
eration from all three cylinders. An intake mani
intake receptacle ‘9, and also cause the previously
fold I58 has two branches respectively attached to
described discharge of separated serum from the
' the two cylinder intake connections I5I leading 70 serum separator 49 through pipe 64 to the intake
into the two larger cylinders H1 and H8, the in
of the cream separator supply pump 4. The ad
take manifold I58 being connected with the high - justed difference in flow rates between the emul
fat fraction delivery pipe 63 leading from the
sion breaker II discharge and the composition
serum separator 49. A pipe ?tting I59 is attached
control pump II6 intake maintains a constant
to the intake connection I5I leading into the third 75 ?ow of liquid fat supplying the two fat receiving
and controlled by a valve I56. A common dis
‘
2,406,819
21
cylinders II‘! and II 8 of the composition control
pump I I6. and coincidently forces return ?ow in
the two return pipes 65 and 64 in such volume
that the separation of the serum from the fat
in the serum separator 49 is in constant balance.
Any change in speed of the cream separator
22
preferably of the manually operated rotary plug
type. Three branch discharge pipes I9I, I92 and
I93 are connected respectively to the outlets from
the vats I84, I85 and I86, the branch discharge
pipes being also connected to a common discharge
pipe I94. Each of the branch discharge pipes is
provided with a valve I95 of the manually oper
ated rotary plug type.
rate of flow of cream from the separator 6 to
In the present alternative arrangement, where
the emulsion breaker intake receptacle 9 and
inverse change in rate of return flow of broken 10 in the composition ingredients are added to the
supply pump 4, with consequent change in the
compensated for by adjustment of the speed of
liquid fat in the standardizing vats and not in
the composition control pump as previously de
the composition control pump II6 to maintain
scribed, the provision in the composition control
the balanced flow of fat from the serum sepa
pump of means for continuously introducing the
cream through pipe 65 to the receptacle 9, is
15 composition ingredients into the stream of liquid
rator 49 to the composition control pump H6.
fat passing through the pump is" not necessary.
The variable stroke piston displacement “er the
In the present arrangement, as shown in Fig, 19,
third cylinder H9 is adjusted to deliver into the
a substitute composition pump I96 is preferably
common discharge manifold I51 with the fat just
of positive rotary type similar to the cream sup
that quantity of prepared composition solution
from the reservoir I6I which, when mixed with 20 ply pump 4 previously described. Also, the sup
ply reservoir I6I, the centrifugal pump III], the
the fat, will produce the desired composition of
vat I68 and their connections as shown in Fig. 1
the finished butter in uniform percentages of fat,
are omitted in the alternative arrangement shown
serum solids, salt and moisture.
in Fig. 19. In the present instance (Fig. 19),
The composition solution, preferably prepared
the common discharge pipe I94 leading from the
and heated in the vat IE8, is made up of those
standardizing vats is connected to the inlet of
ingredients normally added to butter as pro
the composition pump I96. A pipe I9‘! is con
duced by the conventional process. A marked
advantage of the continuous process of the pres
ent invention is that exact percentage propor
tions of the fat and of each of the other butter
ingredients are predetermined and uniformly
maintained in production. The basic solution is
nected to the discharge outlet of the pump I96
and conducts the standardized butter composi
tion mixture to the next step in the process of
the present invention as hereinafter described‘.
The standardizing vats I84, I85 and I86 are
?lled and emptied in rotation to effect over-all
salt dissolved in pure water. Butter color may
continuous operation. The valve I90 in the
be added to the solution, but preferably should
be added to the cream in the supply vat I for 35 branch inlet pipe I8‘! is ?rst opened to direct the
liquid fat fraction ?owing from the serum sep
better distribution of the color. Flavor and
arator 49 through the pipe 63 into the vat I84.
aroma of the butter may be intensi?ed by adding
When a predetermined quantity of liquid fat has
to the solution a quantity of pure “starter,” corn
been delivered into vat I84, the valve in the inlet
monly used in ripening cream before conventional
churning. The serum solids (proteins) content 40 pipe I81 is closed and the valve in the next inlet
pipe I88 is opened to direct the ?ow of liquid
of the butter is determined in the desired pro
fat into the vat I85. While vat I85 is being ?lled,
portion by adding the required amount of pas
the amount of composition ingredients in solu
teurized skim milk to the composition solution.
tion required to make the desired butter com
The composition make-up may be employed for
the adjunctive purpose of producing edible 45 position is added to the liquid fat in vat I84 and
thoroughly mixed therein. When the second vat
I85 is filled, its inlet valve is closed and the valve
in the inlet pipe I89 is opened to direct the ?ow
of liquid fat into the third vat I86. At this time
also, the outlet valve I95 in the branch discharge
pipe I9I is opened to discharge the butter com
be added for the same purpose. Honey, maple
position mixture from the ?rst vat I84 through
sugar, or other edible flavors may be introduced
the pipe I94 to the composition pump I96. While
in producing flavored “spreads.” Such compo
the third vat I86 is being ?lled, the required
sitions are carried through the subsequent steps
of the present process similarly to the treatment 55 amount of composition ingredients is added to the
second vat I85 and intermixed with the fat
herein described for producing butter.
therein. As the third vat I86 is ?lled, the ?rst
As an alternative procedure to that of intro
vat I 84 is emptied, whereupon the outlet valve
ducing the added composition ingredients into
in the branch discharge pipe I9I from the ?rst
the stream of liquid fat during passage through
the composition control pump II6 as above de 60 vat I84 is closed, the outlet valve in the branch
discharge pipe I92 from the second vat I85 is
scribed, the composition ingredients may be
opened, the inlet valve in the branch inlet pipe
added to the liquid fat in substantial quantities
I89 to the third vat I 86 is closed, and the inlet
of each in suitable mixing or standardizing vats.
valve in the branch inlet pipe I81 to the ?rst
Fig. 19 shows an arrangement whereby this al
'
ternative procedure may be followed in conform 65 vat I84 is opened.
The several inlet and outlet valves for the three
ity with the continuous process of the present
standardizing vats are thus operated progressive
invention. Referring to Fig. 19, three standard
ly through the cycle of three periods for ?lling,
izing vats I84, I85 and I86 are provided, the vats
mixing and emptying of each vat, and continued
preferably being similar to the cream supply vat
I previously described. Thepipe 63, which con 70 in rotation. By this procedure the continuous
flow of liquid fat into the standardizing vats
ducts the liquid fat fraction from the serum sep
and the continuous flow of the butter composition
arator 49, is connected with three branch inlet
“spreads” having a butter fat base. Thus, hy
drogenated vegetable oils may be introduced to
raise the melting temperature above that normal
to butter for consumption in hot climates.
Serum solids, in quantity abnormal to butter, may 50
pipes I81, I88 and I89 leading respectively into
mixture from the vats is maintained in con
tinuity with the other continuous steps in the
the three vats I84, I85 and I86. Each of the
branch inlet pipes is provided with a valve I90, 75 process of the present invention.
'
23
2,406,819
When employing the alternative arrangement
shown in Fig. 19, the previously described auto
matic control of the relative rates of ?ow of
liquid fat and serum from the serum separator
49, resulting from the diiIerence in e?fective
pumping capacity between the emulsion breaker
II and the composition control pump IIG, be
comes ine?ective because of the free discharge of
24
the fat concentration is carried above 80 per cent.
However, centrifugal. separators are available, as
for example the valve bowl type previously de
scribed herein, which may be adjusted to separate
normal undiluted churning cream and produce
a concentration of the cream with fairly uniform
fat content of about 90 per cent. In thus sep
arating for this per cent of fat in the concen
the liquid fat from the serum‘separator 49 into
trated cream, an appreciable amount of fat re
the standardizing vats I84, I85 and I86. In such 10 mains in the skim milk and in the separated
case, the pressure relief valve 88 is omitted from
curd, which may be later recovered by resepara
the serum discharge pipe 64, and the relative
tion to avoid excessive loss of fat.
flow rates of liquid fat and serum from the serum
In practicing this modi?cation of the process,
separator 49 are maintained by means of a posi
the centrifugal cream separator 6, in this in
tive pump I98 connected into the serum dis 15 stance preferably of the valve bowl type pre
charge pipe 64 as shown-in Fig. l. The pump
viously described herein, is adjusted to deliver
I98 preferably isisirnilar to the cream supply.
pump 4 previously described. The variable speed
drive, with which the pump I98 is provided, en
,concentrated cream having approximately 90 per
cent fat content. The concentrated cream is de
livered to and treated by the emulsion breaker II
ables adjustment, ofits pumping rate to with 20 in the same manner and with the same effect as
hereinbefore described. In this modi?cation, the
serum separator 49, the high fat fraction dis
charge pipe 83, and the serum discharge return
to the standardizing vats. Similar installation
pipe 64 are eliminated. The discharge pipe 48
draw serum from the serum separator 49 at such
rate as will maintain the desired balanced dis
charge ?ow of liquid fat from the serum separator
of the serum discharge pump I98 is required also 25 leading from the emulsion breaker I I is extended
when producing dehydrated butter oil as pre
into direct connection with the intake manifold
viously described, both when using the centrifugal
dehydrating separator 90 and when using- the
I58 of the composition control pump H6. Alter
natively, the emulsion breaker discharge pipe 48
vacuum pan 93. The serum discharge pump I98
may be extended into direct connection with the
is likewise required when employing the vacuum 30 branch inlet pipes I81, I 88 and I89 leading into
pan 93 to deodorize the high fat fraction ?owing
the standardizing vats I84, I 85 and I86. The
from the serum separator 49 as previously de
composition ingredients are added to the broken
scribed.
and reversed-phase mixture of fat and serum
Modi?cation
Practice of the hereinbefore described portion
of the process of the present invention produces
a liquid composition mixture of the fat and other
ingredients in the proportions desired in the ?n
ished butter. The remaining portion of the proc
ess as hereinafter described relates to the emul
si?cation, re-stabilization, chilling and working
of the mixture into ?nished butter. Before pro
ceeding with the description of the latter portion
of the process, a modi?cation of the preceding
portion is here pointed. out and described.
In the practice of that portion of the process
hereinbefore described, normal churning cream
?owing directly from the emulsion breaker II to
the composition control pump .I IE, or to the
standardizing vats I 84, I85 and I86, in the same
manner and with the same effect as hereinbefore
described. _ ‘
Recovery of the fat remaining in the skim milk
and in the curd may be made at the conclusion of
the operating run of the butter-making process.
The collected skim milk and curd are intermixed
and reheated to fat-liquefying temperature in
the cream supply vat I. The centrifugal sepa
rator 6 is readjusted to separate the-fat at a rela
tively low per cent of concentration at which
clean separation is attained. The separator dis
charge pipe 8 is disconnected from the receptacle
is heated and separated to produce an interme
9 and arranged to discharge into a suitable port
diate concentration of the cream having between 50 able container. The supply ‘pump 4 is then put
75 and 80 per cent of fat, the intermediate con
in operation and the skim milk is again run
centrated cream emulsion is broken and reversed - '
through the separator 6, the recovered fat being
in phase to produce a de-stabilized mixture of
held for the next run of the butter-making
fat and serum, the de-stabilized'mixture is again‘
process and intermixed with ‘the cream supply
separated to produce a high fat fraction contain 55 provided therefor.
I
ing approximately 98 per cent of fat, and other
ingredients are added to produce a liquid mix
Emulsi?cation
ture having the desired composition of butter.
The
composition
mixture of liquid fat, serum
The foregoing practice is preferred for economy,
and
added
ingredients
is continuously discharged
uniformity and ease of control of results. How
under pressure from the composition control
ever, the foregoing portion of the process may be
pump H6 through a pipe I99 leading to an
modi?ed and the end result of producing a liquid
emulsi?er 200. The emulsi?er 200 is shown in
mixture of the fat and other ingredients having
preferred form in Figs. 20 and 21, and comprises
the desired composition of butter may. be ac
complished by one initial separation of the heated 65 a cylindrical casing 2M having a removable
closure 282 at its upper end and having a lateral
churning cream to produce a ?nal concentration
inlet branch 203 adapted for connection with the
of the cream having about 90 per cent of fat,
discharge pipe,l99 from the composition control
then breaking and reversing the phase of the
pump IIG. A removable plug 204 is positioned
concentrated cream emulsion, and ?nally adding
the inletbranch 203 and is provided with
the other ingredients in required proportion for 70 ‘ awithin
spacing stem 205 endwardly abutting the op
the desired butter composition.
posite wall of the casing 20L Spiral grooves
As before stated herein, centrifugal separation
296 are formed in the perimeter of the plug 204
of cream, in its normal state of emulsion‘ and
to provide ?ow passages for the composition
without dilution, involves di?iculties in operation
and excessive loss of fat in the skim milk when 75
mixture entering the casing 20I _
The lower end of the casing ZOI is adapted for
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