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Патент USA US2406833

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Patented Sept. 3, 1946
Bertram M. Harrison, Wellesley Hills, Mass., as
signor, by mesne assignments, to Submarine
Signal Company, Boston, Mass, a corporation
of Delaware
Original application June 11, 1940, Serial No.
. 339,922. Divided and this application Decem
ber 11, 1942, Serial No. 468,865
2 Claims.
(Cl. 177—386)
The present application is a division of appli
cation Serial No. 339,922, ?led June 11, 1940.
The present invention relates to echo ranging
systems employing underwater compressional
wave transmitters and more particularly to fre
quency control arrangements for such systems.
In echo ranging systems it has heretofore been
proposed to transmit a compressional wave im
pulse by means of an underwater transmitter
electrically energized at the desired frequency
by current supplied from a vacuum tube oscil
lator in which the frequency was controlled by
a tuned tank circuit containing a variable con
denser. Such arrangements required positioning
resents a schematic wiring diagram of a control
system in accordance with the present invention
and Fig. 2 shows schematically a modi?cation
of the invention.
As shown in Fig. 1, a compressional wave
transmitter l is supplied with electrical energy
of the desired frequency, preferably in the super
sonic range, through an ampli?er 2 energized by
a vacuum tube oscillator. The oscillator tube 3
may be of any suitable form; it is here shown as
a triode having a cathode 4, grid 5 and anode 6.
The anode-cathode circuit of the oscillator in
cludes a tank circuit 1 comprising an inductance
8 shunted by a condenser 9, these elements hav
the tuning condenser in the vicinity of the vacu 15 ing such magnitudes that the circuit 1 is resonant
at some average frequency. The grid 5 is con
um tube oscillator. It is often desirable, how
to the cathode 4 through a resistor Ill.
ever, to place the system controls at a point re
The grid circuit is coupled to the anode circuit
mote from the oscillator or to have a plurality of
through condenser H and inductance [2 in such
controls at various points. It is an object of the
present invention to provide an arrangement for 20 a manner that sustained oscillations can be ob
tained. Anode potential for the oscillator is sup
controlling the frequency of the oscillator from
plied from the terminals marked B+ and B-,
a remote point or from a plurality of remote
the ground connection being completed through
the key 22.
In my copending applications Serial No. 1'74,
081, ?led November 11, 1937, No. 231,390, ?led 25 ‘In parallel with the tank circuit ‘1 there is a
second vacuum tube circuit which may be des
September 23, 1938, and No. 231,391, ?led Sep
ignated as a reactor tube circuit. This includes
tember 23, 1938, I described echo ranging systems
the triode tube I3 having cathode l4, grid 15
in which the frequency of the transmitted com
pressional wave was varied during the period of 30 and anode [6. The anode circuit of the tube
includes a resistor H in series with a capacitor
transmission. It is a further object of the pres
l8, these elements being also in parallel with the
ent invention to provide a simple and efficient
tank circuit 1. The grid I5 is connected to the
arrangement for automatically varying the fre
junction of the resistor l1 and condenser l8
quency of the transmitted signal through a pre
through a large blocking condenser IS. The cath
determined but adjustable frequency range in any
35 ode M is connected to the common or ground
desired direction of frequency change.
lead 20.
In my copending application Serial No. 314,
It will now be observed that the alternating
803, ?led January 20, 1940, I described an echo
current ?owing through resistor l1 and con
ranging system employing a compressional wave
denser l8 will be substantially in phase with the
signal continuously ?uctuating in frequency back
40 voltage across the tank circuit 1 which is in
and forth between predetermined limits. It is
parallel with the series connected resistance l1
a further object of the present invention to pro
and condenser l8 since the condenser I8 is given
vide a simple and efficient arrangement for auto
a relatively small value of capacitive reactance
matically obtaining such a frequency fluctua
with the magnitude of resistance H.
tion in the transmitted compressional wave sig 45
The voltage across the condenser I8, however, is
nal, and one which can be controlled from a
in quadrature with the voltage across the tank
plurality of points.
circuit. This results in the application to the grid
A still further object of the present invention
l5 of an alternating voltage which is in quadra
is to provide an alternating current source for
ture with the voltage across the tank circuit.
operating an underwater transmitter through a
50 Similarly, the plate current in the tube l3 will
very wide range of frequencies.
The above and other objects of the present
invention as well as the construction and opera
tion of the same will best be understood from the
following description taken in connection with
the accompanying drawing in which Fig. 1 rep
be in quadrature with the current through the
tank circuit. The reactor tube circuit, therefore,
acts as an inductance in parallel with the oscil
lator tank circuit and thereby changes the res
onant frequency of the latter. The magnitude
of this inductance depends upon the plate cur
rent ?owing through the tube l3. Control of this
current and therefore control of the frequency of
the oscillator 3 can be obtained by‘applying to
the grid I5 a controllable potential. Making the
grid more positive causes an increase in the plate
current and therefore a decrease in the induct
ance in parallel with the tank circuit, resulting
in an increase in the oscillator’s frequency. A
ductor 28 to the switch 33 through movable con
tact 35, stationary contact 31, contact 43 of switch
34, movable contact 4|, conductor 4?, potentiom
eter contact £38, through the potentiometer to
the negative terminal of the direct current supply
and thence by lead 2'! back to the grid of the tube
i3. Adjustment of the potentiometer contact 61.8
thus varies the direct potential impressed be
direct potential may, for example, be applied to 10 tween the grid and cathode of the tube It, there- '
by varying the magnitude of the anode current
the terminals 23 and 24 of the double-pole, dou
the tube 13 and consequently varying
ble-throw relay 25, the grid I 5 being connected
of the oscillator 3. Adjustment
to the terminal 24 through the current-limiting
of the potentiometer ‘39 at station 39, however,
resistor 28 and the cathode being connected to
the terminal 23. This potential may be sup 15 has no effect since the circuit of this potenti
ometer is open at terminal 4Q at station 29.
plied in any desired manner, for example, through
Should, however, the operator at station 30 de
an adjustable potentiometer energized from a’
suitable source of direct current.
> sire to take control, it is only necessary for him
to throw switch 34 to the right. The grid cir
cuit of tube 5.3 will then be completed from con
tential is adjusted so that the tube l3 can be
20 ductor 28 through contacts 35 and 39 of switch
"operated ‘at any point between saturation, and
33, contacts 136‘ ‘and '42 of switch 34, potentiom
cut-off. Moreover, the internal impedance of
‘contact 149 to the negative terminal of the
the reactor tube with maximum positive grid volt
direct current supply and thence by conductor
age should be kept at a minimum in order to pro
53 to conductor 2?. In this manner contro1 of
vide a‘large possible range of frequencies for the
25 the frequency can be taken at either of the ‘two
oscillator output. ' I prefer to employ a tube
whose characteristics are such that its internal
is that
impedance with maximum positive grid potential
the frequency of the oscillator 3 can be indicated
is-approximately equal to the reactance of the
oscillator tank circuit inductor at the highest 30 at each station at all times by the simple pro
For maximum frequency change the direct po
desired signaling frequency.
The control potentiometer ‘can, of course, be
placedv at any desired point remote from the re
actor tube and oscillator. A suitable arrange
ment "of this type is ‘shown in the upper por- ~
tion of Fig. 1.
Since, however, it is usually de
sirable to provide for such a control at more than
one station, I have illustrated two contro1 sta
tions. One of these may be eliminated or others
added as will readily be understood by those
skilled in the, art. Assuming the relay 25 to be
in its upper position, as shownQthe grid-cath
ode circuit of tube 13 will be connected to the
conductors 21 and 28. The two control stations
vision of a voltmeter at each station.' At vsta
tion 29 voltmeter 5| is connectedacross the con
ductors 27 and 28. A similarly connected meter
52 is provided at station 3-3. Both of these
meters, therefore, indicate the direct grid po
tential applied across the grid circuit of the tube
Hi. The meters can, therefore, be calibrated di
rectly in- terms of the ‘frequency ‘of the oscillator
3‘ Thus, not only does my invention make pos
sible the provision of a frequency contro1 of the
oscillatorfrom one or ‘more remote points with
out the necessity of piping high frequency cur
rents through long cables, but also it provides for
an indicator of the frequency at each of the
remote points.
are indicated at 29 and 30. At each station there 45
As above‘mentioned, I. proposed in ‘my ‘copend
is a source of direct potential'across which there
ing application Serial No. 314,803 that in an echo
are connected potentiometers 3| and 32; Each
station is also provided with a double-pole,
double-throw switch 33 and 34. The switch 33
is provided with a pair of movable ‘contacts 35
and ‘36 and two pairs of stationary contacts 31 to
43. The switch 34 is provided with movablecon
tacts (H and 42 and stationary contacts 43 to 46.
ranging system a compressional wave signal be
employed which, continuously ?uctuates in fre
‘quency back and forth between predetermined
limits. The present invention is also applicable
to produce such a signal of ?uctuating frequency.
For this purpose, I provide transformer 65 hav
ing its secondary winding ‘El connected in series
The stationary contacts oft-hetwo switches are
in the lead 28. The primary winding 68 of the
connected together as shown, contact 3'! being
transformer is connected to the ‘output of an
connected to 143, contact 38 to 46, contact 39 to 46
oscillator ‘22, which may be of ‘conventional de~
and contact 450 to 45. The movable contacts of
sign, whose frequency is equal to the desired
switch 33 are connected together and’ to con
rate of frequency ?uctuation which will usually
ductor 28-. The movable contact-4| of switch
34 is connected by the lead 4'! to the movable 60 be within the audiofrequency range. This oscil
lator is arranged so that it can be started by
contact 48 of potentiometer 3! and contact £52 is
short-circuiting the terminals ‘H and stopped by
connected to the movable contact 49 of poten
open-circuiting these vterminals. The oscillator
tiometer 32. Finally, the conductor 21 is con
12 maybe turnedon and off at either of the two
nected to the negative terminals of both of the
stations 29 or 30 by providing at each station
potentiometers 3| and 32.
a single-pole, double-throw switch, for example,
With this arrangement it is possible for an
69 and ‘F8, respectively. The vmovable elements
operator at either station to control the fre
of the switches 89 and it are each. respectively
quency .of the oscillator 3 and therefore of the
connected to one of the ‘on-off terminals ‘H of the
compressional waves produced by the transmit
oscillator ‘l2 while the stationary contacts of the
ter 1 by varying the position of the potentiom- "
switch 69 are connected to thecorresponding con
eter at his station. Assuming that the switches
tacts of switch ‘Hi. In‘the switch positions shown
33 and-34 at the two stations are both thrown
l the audio oscillator is turned off. To
to'the left position, as shown, the operator at sta
either switch "may be "thrown to the ‘left
tion 29 has control ‘and the operator at station
30 has not. This can be seen by following con .75 position. This arrangement introduces ‘an audio
frequency.potential'into the grid circuit of tube
I 3, this potential being superimposed upon the
potential provided by the potentiometers 3| or
32. Adjustment of these potentiometers in this
condenser potential is superimposed upon the
bias provided by battery 54 it will be evident
that the polarity of the condenser potential will
determine whether the anode current of tube l3
shall increase or decrease, thereby determining
of the oscillator 3 above and below which the
whether the frequency of oscillator 3 shall in
frequency ?uctuations take place at a rate cor
crease or decrease. The reversing switch 64
responding to the frequency of the oscillator 12.
makes it possible to obtain either an increase or
This mean frequency will be indicated by the
decrease of frequency as may be desired.
meters 5| and 52.
The above frequency sweep circuit has a num
It will be understood that a compressional wave
ber of advantages over circuits for the same pur
case controls the mean value of the frequency
signal is emitted by the transmitter i only when
pose previously proposed.
The circuit permits
the key 22 is depressed. This key may be oper
very ?exible control not only of the direction of
ated automatically as by the time interval meas
frequency sweep, but also of the amount of fre
uring apparatus in echo ranging systems, or it
quency sweep. It also permits the obtaining of
may be operated by hand. In either case the 15 the necessary degree of frequency sweep without
key may be placed at any desired point or sep
the use of high voltages, a voltage swing at the
arate keys may be supplied at the various control
grid of tube 13 of about 5 volts'being'adequate
stations. For the arrangements so far described,
in most cases.
the lower part of key 22 is not used.
While the frequency sweep circuit just de
The reactor-tube-oscillator circuit may also be 20 scribed has been shown for only one station, it
employed to produce a signal whose frequency
will be evident that two or more frequency sweep
varies automatically between speci?ed limits.
control stations can readily be provided in the
For this purpose the relay 25 is caused to take
manner previously described with reference to
its lower position so that the terminals 23 and
the single frequency control arrangement. For
24 are connected to the conductors 52 and
most echo ranging purposes, however, it will usu
53, respectively. These conductors are connected
ally be unnecessary to provide for the control of
across grid return resistor 55 and a condenser 55
the length and rate of frequency sweep at more
which is normally short-circuited through the
than one station. It may, however, be desirable
upper contact 51 of the lower element 58 of key
to be able at each control station to shift from
22 and conductors 59 and 60. Conductor 52 in
automatic frequency sweep to simple single fre
cludes in series a battery 54 which, through re
quency transmission. This is accomplished by
sistor 55, places a negative bias ‘on the grid l5
means of the relay 25 previously referred to.
which is adjusted to give some average value of
The operating coil 80 of this relay has one ter
reactor tube plate current. Between the lower
minal connected to a source of direct current,
contact 6| of the key element 58 and conductor
the other terminal of the source being connected
60 there is connected an adjustable series re
to the movable contact of a three-way switch 8|
sistance 62 in series with an adjustable portion
‘at station 30. A similar three-way switch 82 is
of a potentiometer 63 supplied from a suitable
provided at station 29. The movable member of
direct current source through a double-pole, dou
40 the switch 82 is connected to the second termi
ble-throw switch 64. It will be evident that when
nal of the relay coil 80. The two stationary con
the switch 64 is closed, the condenser 56 will be
tacts of the two switches 8| and 82 are connected
charged through resistance 52 whenever the key
together. By this means the operator at either
22 is depressed. The direct grid potential of
station 29 or station 30 by actuating the respec
tube l3, therefore, then comprises the bias po
' tive switches 82 and 8! can energize or deener
tential supplied by battery 54 plus the charging
gize the relay 25 to select either sweep frequency
potential of condenser 56. The frequency of the
or single frequency control.
oscillator 3 consequently varies so long as the
A modi?cation of the reactor tube oscillator
key is depressed or until the condenser 56 is fully
circuit shown in Fig. 2 may be employed where
It will be observed that when the key is de
pressed, not only is the condenser-charging cir
cuit closed, but also the reactor tube and oscil
lator tube circuits are completed through the
ground connection.
If desired, suitable relays
may be included in the keying circuit as, for ex
ample, in the manner shown in my copending
application Serial No. 231,390, filed September
23, 1938, to insure a continuous change in fre
quency during the time of transmission of the
It will be evident that with this arrangement
the number of cycles of frequency change per
unit time is determined by the capacity of the
condenser 56 and the magnitude of the series re
sistance 62, that is by the time constant of the
condenser charging circuit.
Consequently by
varying the magnitude of resistance 62, the time
constant of the circuit and therefore the rate
of frequency change can be varied. Further, by
varying the impressed potential as by adjust
ment of the movable contact of potentiometer
63 the maximum magnitude of the charge on
condenser 56 can be controlled, thereby con
trolling the range of frequency variation of the
oscillator which can be obtained. Now, since the
a very large range of frequency variation is re
quired. In this modi?cation the reactor tube
and oscillator circuits are substantially the same
as in Fig. 1. The adjustable direct potential for
the grid circuit of the reactor tube I3 is, how
ever, preferably provided by a rotary potentiom
eter ‘l3 and the tuning condenser 9a in the oscil
lator tank circuit is made variable. The shaft
of the potentiometer and the shaft of the tuning
condenser are mechanically coupled together in
60 such a manner that as the grid voltage supplied
by the potentiometer is increased in a positive
direction, thereby tending to increase the fre
quency of the oscillator 3, the capacity of the
condenser So will simultaneously be decreased,
' tending further to increase the frequency of the
oscillator 3, and vice versa. A very large range
of frequency variation, for example, 5 to 1, can
readily be obtained in this manner.
Having now described my invention, I claim:
1. In a submarine signaling system having a
submarine projector and an oscillatory circuit
for operating the same, remote control means for
operating said system from more than one sta
tion including electrical means located and 0p
75 erated at each station for varying the oscillator
frequency at will, switching means located‘ at
each station. for disconnecting the electrical
means located at any other station that happens
to be operating for varying the oscillator fre
quency ‘and connecting the means located at vthe
desired station for varying the oscillator fre
quency, said switching means including at each
station a double pole-pole two-position switch
operating said system from more than one sta
tion including electrical potentiometer control
means located and operated at each station for
varying the oscillator frequency at will, said po
tentiometer control means being connected in
common on one side to a point in said oscilla
tory circuit, a double-pole, two-position switch
at each station with the contacts correspond
with the contacts correspondingly interconnect
ed and the double poles of one switch electrically 10 ingly interconnected, the ‘double poles of one
switch being connected together and to a point
connected together and to the oscillatory circuit
in the oscillatory circuit and the double poles of
and the double poles ‘of the other switch individ
the other switch connected one to each of the
ually connected respectively to the electrical
variable taps ‘on the potentiometer control
means located and operated at each respective
means, whereby at will each station may take
15 control for varying the oscillator frequency at
2. In asubmarine signaling‘ system having a
submarine projector and an oscillatory circuit
‘for operating the same, remote control means for
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