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Патент USA US2406835

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Sept’; 3; 1946.
J.:-.A. HERBST
2,406,835
METHOD AND MEANS FOR TRANSMITTING INTELLIGENCE
'
Filed Aug. 20, 1943
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INVENTOR.
JOHN )4. HERB-$7‘
ATTORNEY
Sept. 3, 1946.
' ‘
J. A. HERBST
'
2,406,835
METHOD AND MEANS FOR TRANSMITTING INTELLIGENCE
Filed Aug. 20, 1945
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4 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTOR.
JOHN A; f/[R?ST
' A TTOIPNEY
Sept» 3, 1946~
Jr A. HER-BST
'
2,406,835
METHOD AND MEANS FOR TRANSMITTING INTELLIGENCE
, Filed Aug. V20, 1943
.
4 Sheets-Sheet?
i
vINVENTOR.
SePt- 3, 1946..
J. A. HERBST _
1'
'
2,406,835
METHOD AND MEANS FOR TRANSMITTING INTELLIGENCE _
Filed Aug. 20,1943‘ '
,
I
4=She'ets-Sheet 4
IN VEN TOR.
JOHN‘ 4
BY _
I'll-‘F857
ATTORIIVL’/
Patented Sept. 3, 1946
2,406,835
UNITED STATES PATENT ()FFICE
2,406,835
METHOD AND MEANS FOR TRANSMITTING
INTELLIGENCE
John A. Herbst, Oradell, N. J ., assignor to Federal
Telephone and Radio Corporation, Newark,
N. J ., a corporation of Delaware
Application August 20, 1943, Serial No. 499,341
22 Claims.
(Cl. 178—32)
1
2
This invention relates to improvements in
methods and means for transmitting intelligence,
and more'particularly to a system in which intel
Fig. 2 “is a circuit diagram of the transmitting
ligence is transmitted as coded frequency com
apparatus according to the present invention, il
lustrating additionally ‘some of the mechanical
binations which are reconverted and reproduced
structure used in connection with the circuit;
Fig. 3 is a circuit diagram of the receiving ap
at the receiver.
paratus according to the present invention, also
,
‘
An object of this invention is to provide a novel
illustrating diagrammatically some of the ‘me
intelligence transmission system in which various
chanical features of the apparatus used in con
characters are coded by predetermined frequency‘
nection therewith;
’
‘
.
combination.
Fig. 4 diagrammatically illustrates further me
10
Another object of this invention is to provide
chanical details of the receiving apparatus;
a receiver unit for such a transmission system, in
Fig. 5 is a side elevation of the details of the
printing apparatus used in the receiver; and
and a type wheel rotating therewith can be con
‘Fig. 6 is a front view of a preferred form of type
trolled by the particular frequency combination 15 wheel and ink roller shown in Fig. 5.
transmitted and received.
‘
As indicated above, the present invention con
A further object of this invention is to provide
templates a system for the transmission and re
a novel transmission system in which characters
ception of intelligence in‘which the characters to
to be transmitted are coded by di?erent pairs of
be transmitted and reproduced are coded as dif
frequencies derived from individual different fre 20 ferent frequency combinations. The number of
quency sources, (for example nine, producing a
characters which can be formed in such a system
possible total of thirty-six different characters),
depends, of course, upon the number of individ
and in which the characters are automatically
ual frequency sources and secondly upon the
reproduced in a receiver upon the reception of
manner in which they are combined. While it is
the di?erent frequency pairs.
25 not intended that the system should be limited
A subsidiary object oflthis invention is directed
thereto, as a practical example of such a system
I contemplate one using nine different frequency
toward a ‘frequency-responsive selector system, in
which the rotary position‘ of a selector switch is
sources which will provide thirty-six different fre
determined in accordance with ‘the application
quency pairs, thus permitting the transmission
thereto of currents derived from particular com 30 and reception‘ of thirty-six different characters.
binations of different frequencies.
‘
This covers all of the letters of the alphabet, and
Other objects will be in part obvious from the
all of the numerals (using‘T’ and “O” as “one”
annexed drawings and in part indicated in con
and "zero”) , with two additional characters which
nection therewith by the following analysis. of
may be a space and a dash’(-~). This will be
this invention:
'
‘
35 sufficient for ordinary transmission requirements
This invention accordingly consists in the fea
but it‘is to be understood that more or less char
tures of construction, combination of parts and
acters can be utilized, as desired, in which case
the system will become relatively more compli
in the unique relations of the members and in
the relative proportioning and disposition there
cated vor less complicated as the case may be.
40
of, all as more completely outlined herein.
While in the detail description of the invention
To enable others skilled in the art so fully to
to‘ follow, the transmitting and receiving appara
comprehend the underlying features thereof that
tus has been, for the sake of clarity, described as
they may embody the same by the numerous mod~
two individual units, it is contemplated that each
i?cations in structure and relation contemplated
‘station. in the system may be in the form of a
by this invention, drawings depicting a preferred 45 combined transmitter-receiver unit, of the type
form have been annexed as a part of this disclo
generally indicated in Fig. 1. As therein shown,
sure, and in such drawings:
such a unit would contain a transmitter 50 and
which the angular ‘ position of a selector switch
Fig. 1 is a block circuit diagram of a combined
receiving and transmitting unit formed in ac
cordance with the present invention;
a receiver 52 respectively connected to antennas
54 and 56. although, as is well-known in this art,
a single antenna may, with proper precautions
2,406,835
3
4
be used for both transmitter and the receiver.
The output from receiver 52 will preferably be
supplied to a unit 58 containing the entire electric
switch 82A; 983, I003 and H123 for the switch
82B; and 98C, I000 and I020 for the switch 82C.
It is to be noted that in accordance with the
control equipment, being speci?cally all connect
example given, the switch 82C for the character
ed to that part of the control equipment needed GI “C” is supplied with current to two of its con
tact pairs from the tone wheels )‘1 and f4. Such
for the reproduction of the incoming signals.
circuit may be traced, for example, from the tone
The unit 58, in turn, is connected to a second
wheel f1 through conductors I04, I06 and H4 to
unit 00 which may house the mechanical sending
the contact pair 980, and from the tone wheel of
and reproducing equipment; more speci?cally,
f4 through conductors I24 and I26 to the con
the incoming signals will operate a suitable print
tact pair IO0C. Thus the coded signal for the
ing device indicated at 64 equipped to reproduce
letter “C” is formed by a combination of fre
the incoming intelligence upon means such as a
quencies f1 and f4. The letter “B” on the other
tape 66. The transmitting equipment will con
hand is formed by a combination of frequencies
sist of a keyboard 62 and other mechanical de
f1 and Is. This can be ascertained from the fact
vices to be explained in more detail hereinafter
that frequency h is connected to switch pair 933
which control and are controlled by further elec
through conductors I06, I90, H4 and H6, while
trical devices contained within the unit 58, from
tone wheel is is connected to switch pair IO0B
whence the output is directed to the transmitter
through conductors I I8 and I20. The letter “A”
50. It is to be understood, however, that the
particular arrangement and division of parts as 20 is formed by a combination of frequencies f1 and
f2, this being ascertainable by the fact that tone
shown in Fig. 1 is given only by way of example
wheel fl is connected to contact pair 98A through
to illustrate the general application of my inven
conductors I04, IIJS and I08, while tone wheel I2
tion and that other separation or integration of
is connected to contact pair IO0A through con
the equipment can be used, as desired.
ductors H0 and H2. Switches 98A, IIIIlA, 98B,
The details of a preferred form of transmitting
I 00B, 5130, INC, and all other comparable key
apparatus are more particularly shown in Fig. 2.
controlled contact pairs lead to a common con
This shows the transmitter and carrier source
ductor I28 and thence to the modulating trans
08 which is supplied with modulating current
former ‘I0.
through the modulating transformer ‘I0. The
transmitter and carrier source may be connected
to an antenna 54, or to any other transmitting
medium. In accordance with the combinations
of frequency determined by the keyboard 62,
modulation is effected from a plural frequency
source ‘I2 which may consist, for example, of
nine commonly driven tone wheels f1, f2, f3, f4, is,
The third contact pairs I 02A, I 02B, I020, etc.,
for each switch are connected in parallel between
conductor I30 leading to actuating coil I32 of
control relay I34, and the grounded conductor
I35. Thus the closure of any character-control
ling switch will complete the circuit for the relay
coil I32 and its source of power I33, thus ener
gizing this coil and raising the contacts I36 and
I38 of the relay I36. The closure of this relay
establishes a circuit for the key lock magnet 94
f6, f7, fs, and f9, each producing current at a dif
ferent frequency. This frequency di?erence be
tween them is not critical, but may for example,
for the sake of simplicity be 30 cycles. These 40 so that after a key has been depressed the re
tone wheels are ‘driven by means such as an elec
trical motor ‘I4 through gearing ‘I6, and their
speed can be controlled by any suitable speed con
trol device for the motor, indicated at ‘I0.
A keyboard which may be of any we1l~known '
type will be provided, in the particular system
described. with thirty-six keys, three of which
80A, 80B, and 800 are illustrated in Fig. 2.
These three. keys control normally open switches
82A, 82B, and 020 respectively. In order to pre- '
vent the depression of more than one key at a
time, means are also provided for locking the
remaining keys after one key is depressed.
Such
locking means may take the form of a latch bar
or plate 84 acting in conjunction with collars or
stops 86A, 86B, and 860 on the respective keys.
The latch bar is attached to one end of a control
rod 88 upon which is mounted an armature 90.
The latch bar 84 is normally biased to locking
position by means such as a spring 92, but the
eiTect of this bias can be overcome by the de
pression of any key and the reaction of its at
tached collar with an opening‘ in the latch bar
itself. When it is desired to lock the keys in
position, a locking magnet 94 is energized which
attracts the armature 90 in one direction, where
as if it is desired to release the latch bar, the elec
tromagnet 96 attracting the armature 90 in the
other direction is energized.
Springs 91A, 91B,
and 97C are used respectively to urge the keys
into their normal position in which the switches
controlled by these keys‘ are open.
maining keys are locked in place. The circuit
for the key lock 94 may be traced from the source
of power M6, the magnet itself, conductor I41,
relay contacts I30, conductor I40 and thence
alternatively either through the normally closed
contacts I42 of cam-operated switch‘ I44 to
ground, or through conductor I 40 and normally
closed contacts I 48 of relay I50 to ground. The
purpose of this alternative circuit will be ex
plained in more detail thereinafter.
Closure of the lower contacts I38 of the relay
I34 also prepares an energizing circuit for the
actuating coil I06 of relay I50. This circuit may
be traced from ground through conductor I54,
contacts I38, conductor I52 and conductor I56 to
the normally open cam-operated contact switch
I58. The circuit may then be continued through
conductors I60 and I62 to the relay coil I64 and
thence to a source of power such‘ as battery I66.
If the switch I58 is closed and the relay I50 is
moved to its closed position by energization of
the coil I56, further control circuits are then
completed. In the ?rst place, a holding circuit
irrespective of the position of the cam-operated
switch I58 is ?rst established. This circuit may
be traced from the battery I06 through actuating
coil I04, and thence through conductors I62 and
I 68 to the closed contactor I'III of the relay I59;
from thence the circuit continues through con
ductors I12 and IE2, the closed contactor I38 and
conductor I54 to ground. The upward move
ment of contactor I48 closing a second pair of
Each switch 82A, 82B; and 82C preferably in
contacts completes, through the cam-operated
cludes three normally open contact pairs, desig
switch I16, the connection of the tone wheels to
nated respectively as 98A, “NBA and I02A for the 75 the transmitting apparatus. It will be noted that
2,406,835
5
v6
‘the output of all of the‘ tone wheels has one com
mon lead I18 which through switch I16 and con
‘the circuit from common lead I18 of the ton_e
ductor I14 is grounded when the contactor I48 is
raised. When this happens the circuit to the
portions of the cams I88 and I 82 are so angu
transmitter‘through the transformer 18 is com- ‘
when the switch I58 is closed.
pleted and the particular frequency pair deter
mined by the operation of one of the keys is
applied to the transmitter.
‘
wheels to the transmitter, since the‘ actuating
larly related that theswitch I16 will be closed
Moreover, the
cam I84 is so related‘to the cam I88 that the
contacts I88 of the switch I44 will remain open
'for a predetermined time after the switch I16 is
closed. Accordingly, the circuit for the release
The switches I44, I58and, I16 are illustrated as
being operated respectively by cams I84, I82 and I IO magnet 96 is not completed until the transmitter
I88 mounted upon a common shaft which may
has been modulated by the particular tone wheel
also be driven by the motor 14 through the gear
combination of frequencies fora certain prede- I
box 16. The three cams are so angularly posi
tioned upon the shaft that they operate their re
termined period of time. However, at the expira
spective switches‘sequentially.‘ In the position of
the cams as illustrated in Fig. 1, the normally
closed switch I16 is open, the normally open
switch I58 is open while the switch I44, is in its
normal position for closure of the lower contact
tion of’ this period the switch I44 will be oper
ated to break the contact pair I42 and close the
contact pair I86. This operation energizes the
release magnet 86 through the closed relay I58,
and at the same time breaks the circuit for the
key lock‘magnet 94, since in this case its alterna
pair I42. When the cam I84 rotates so as to 20 tive energizing circuit has been broken by the
break‘the contact pair I42 and close the contact
raising of the contactor I48. De-energization of
pair I86, and assuming that the relay I58 is in I the coil 94 and energization of the coil 96 permits
its last position, a circuit will then be completed
the key 880 to move upwardly to its normal posi
for the release magnet 96. This circuit may be
tion breaking the circuit to the actuating coil of
traced from the source of power such as battery
relay I34 which, in turn, breaks the circuit to
I9I, the release magnet itself, conductor ‘I92,
closed contactor I88, conductor I88 and closed
switch I86 to ground.
The manner in which‘ the foregoing transmit- '
the actuating coil‘of the relay I58, and the parts
are now in position to go through another sequen
tial operation upon the depression of the same
or another key.
‘
a
‘
ting system will operate for the transmission of 30
While in Fig. 2 I have only illustrated the cir
cuit connections between three keys and the nine
of example. If, for instance, it is desired to
transmit a coded signal corresponding to the let
ter “C” and the relays and cams are in the posi
tion shown in Fig. 2, the key 880 will be de 35
tone wheels, it will be understood that the re
a character will now be followed through by way
pressed, operating‘ the switch 82C to close con
tacts 980, I 88C and I82C‘. Immediately, output
maining circuits for the remaining thirty-three
keys will besimilar, each key in each case com
pleting a circuit for the relay I34 and also con
necting one lead from a pair of tone wheels to
one side of the modulating transformer"), the
leads I84 from the tone wheel 11 and I24 from
particular frequency pair combination which is
the tone wheel f4 will be electrically commonly
connected for-each character being dependent
connected to one end of the’ transformer 18, in 40 upon the coded system in use.
the manner previously traced, but the circuit to
The, receiving apparatus shown by way of ex
the transmitter will not be completed since the
ample in Fig. 3'provides a system for combining
common output lead- I18 from all of the tone
the coded frequency pairs transmitted from ap
wheels is still broken. Closure of the switch I82C
paratus such as shown in Fig. 2, into characters
will energize the relay I34 and, through con 45 corresponding to those chosen by the operator in
tactor I36 completes an energizing circuit for
his operation of the keyboard. This receiving
the key lock magnet 94 holding the armature 98
apparatus will, of course, embody a suitable an~
‘to the right. This holds the remaining keys in
tenna 56 feeding to a detector and receiver 52
their raised position, as through stops such as
which may also include suitable amplifying appa- ‘
86A and 86B, but holds the key 880 in its de 50 ratus, the output of‘the receiver 52 being fed to
pressed position since it is prevented from rising
a suitable high “Q” storage ?lter apparatus 288
because the collar 85C>is now below the latch
designed'to pick out from the received frequency
bar.’ The reason forthe alternative key lock
pairs, the individual frequencies ii to 1'9 corre
circuit may now become apparent to those skilled
.sponding to those generated by the tone wheels
in this art. For example, while the cam I84 is 55 of the transmitter. Connections are made from
shown in such a position that the contact pair I42
the nine sections of the ?lter 288 through a nor
is closed, thusrcompleting the key lock circuit to
‘mally closed switch 282 to the respective grids of
ground, there is no synchronization or coordi
nine gaseous discharge tubes 284a. 284b, ‘ 2840,
nation between the time the operator may de
284d. 284e, 284)‘, 2840, 284k and 28470.
I
press the key and the position of this rotating
The receiving apparatus also includes a seeker
cam. Accordingly, it is possible that the cam
assembly which will include a circular disk 288,
I84 might be in such a position that the switch
equally spaced about whose circumference are a
pair I42 were open when a key was depressed.
plurality of contacts I to 36 inclusive, the number
However, in this case the key lock circuit would
of contacts depending upon the number of fre
still operate through the alternative circuit 65 quency pairs obtainable from the original num
formed by conductor I46 and the contactor I48
ber of frequency sources. In this case, since nine
in its lowered position.
‘
Assuming now that the key 88Cv is locked in its
depressed condition and the relay I34 is ener
gized, a circuit previously traced in connection
with the general description of the invention is
prepared for the actuating coil I64 of relay I58,
and this coil ‘will be energized when the cam I82
rotates suf?ciently to close the switch ‘contacts 1‘
I58. The closure of relay ‘I58 will then complete
different frequency sources were originally chosen
for the transmitter, there will be thirty~six equal
ly spaced contacts. The seeker assembly also in
cludes a rotatable mounted seeker arm 288 hav
ing two substantially oppositely directed extene
sions 2I8 and 2I2. The one extension 2I8 is
adapted when in its “normal” position to actu
ate a pair of contacts 2I4 to closed position. Clo
sure of these contacts maintains the switch 282
2,406,835
8
7
in its “normally closed” position by completing
the energization circuit for its actuating coil 2 I6
to its source of power 2I8 through conductor 220.
The disk 205, in addition to the spaced contacts
I to 36 inclusive, also supports a pair of oppositely
pass sufficient current to its plate circuit to ener
gize the electromagnet 238, releasing the latch
arm‘ 242‘.
The seeker arm 208 then begins to ro
tate and will apply through the contact bridges
226 and 228 to the respective slip rings 222 and
224Jthe normal anode potential of 200 volts across
the resistors 262 and 264 connected together at
their midpoint at one end and at their other
spectively bear spring contact bridges 226 and
ends to slip rings 222 and 224 respectively. How
228, whose contacts are so spaced that one wipes
the individual spaced contacts and the other ‘al 10 ever, when one of the gaseous discharge tubes is
?red, as in this case the tubes 284a and 284d, the
ternatively wipes the slip rings 222 and 224. It
anode potential will drop to 70 volts and when
will thus be seen that as the seeker arm 288 ro
ever one of the bridge contacts wipes an individ
tates, contacts I to I8 are sequentially intercon
ual spaced contactor connected to either of these
nected with the slip ring 224, and contacts I8 to
tubes, a voltage of '70 volts will‘ be placed across
3'6 inclusive, are sequentially connected to the
the corresponding resistors 262 and 264 instead of
slip ring 222 by the contact bridge 228. Contact
200 volts. The common connection 265 from
bridge. 226 on the other hand, is formed with its
these two resistors will apply the mean potential
outer arm of greater length than the correspond—
across the two resistors to the grid of a vacuum
ing outer arm of contact bridge 228 causing such
an overlapping that it ?rst interconnects contacts 20 tube 265 which is biased to be normally conduc
tive for a mean grid potential above 135 volts,
I1 to 34 inclusive with the slip ring 222, and con
but will become non-conductive if this mean
tacts 35, 36 and I to I 6 inclusive with the slip ring
grid potential drops to 70 volts. Now as the
224. The anodes of the gaseous discharge tubes
seeker arm 288 rotates, various combinations of
204a to 204k inclusive are then interconnected
with the contacts I to 38 inclusive in such a man 25 these potentials will be impressed across the two
resistors 252 and 284 depending upon the differ
ner and in such a sequence that in connection
ent pairs of contacts simultaneously contacted by
with the contact bridges 226 and 228 there ap
the two bridges 226 and 228. For example, in
pears on the slip rings 222 and 224, potentials de
the initial (starting) position of the seeker arm
rived from all possible pairs of tube combina
tions, in this case thirty-six different combina 30 the slip ring 224 is connected to contact I, while
the slip ring 222 is connected to contact I1.
tions.
'
Contact I is connected to the anode of conductor
The cathodes of tubes 284a to 284k inclusive
of tube 284a to conductor 252 while contact I1 is
are, on the other hand, connected through a com
connected to the anode of tube 20422 through
mon conductor 229 to the grid of a vacuum tube
238, and to ground through two serially connect 35 conductor 253. This will produce across resistors
262 and'264 the mean potential of 200 and '70
ed' cathode resistors 232 and 234. The anode of
volts, or 135 volts, which is too high to render
the tube 238 is connected through the electro
the tube 266 non-conductive. In the next posi
magnet 238 of a latch 248 to its suitable high volt
tion of the seeker arm 288 the contact 2 will be
age supply line. The latch 248, in addition to the
electromagnet 238, also includes a latch arm 242 40 connected with slip ring 224 and contact I8 will
be connected with slip ring 222. The contact 2
normally urged into such a position as to inter
is likewise connected to the anode of tube 204a.
cept and hold the extension 2I2 of the seeker
by conductor 252, while contact I8 is connected
arm 288 in the previously referred to “normal po
to the anode of tube 2820. Again a mean poten
sition.” Energization of the electromagnet 238
tial of 135 volts is impressed on the grid of tube
in a manner to be described in more detail here
266 and the same remains conductive. In the
inafter will, however, release the latch arm 24?.
next position, however, contact 3 is connected
and permit operation of the seeker arm.
with slip ring 224 and contact I9 with slip ring
The anodes of the gas discharge devices ‘284a
222. Contact 3 is connected with the anode of
to 28470, in addition to being interconnected with
the various contacts I to 38 inclusive are also sup 50 tube 284a through conductors 254 and 252, while
contact I9 is connected with the anode of tube
plied with a suitable operating voltage through
28811 through conductors 255, 253 and 258. Since
conductors 248 and 249 and normally closed con
both tubes 264a and 284d are conducting, being
tacts 248 of a printing arm 245. From the print
energized in response to frequencies f1 and f4, the
ing arm a conductor 258 leads directly to thehigh
anode potential on both has dropped to '70 volts
‘voltage supply which, for example, may be 200
and the mean potential on the grid 268 therefore
volts.
drops to this value and the tube becomes non
Before describing any of the other receiving
conductive.
apparatus in detail, it is believed that the inven
When the tube v26b‘ becomes non-conductive,
tion may be best understood if an actual example
of‘ the operation of the same is traced. If it is 60 the vacuum tube 212 whose grid is biased there
from through controllable resistors 214 now be
assumed that the transmitter has been operated
comes conductive and energizes electromagnet
to transmit a pair of frequencies, in this case fre
216. The electromagnet 216 forms part of a stop
quencies f1 and f4 which are coded'to indicate the
mechanism 218 and the energization of the elec
letter “C,” these frequencies will appear in their
respective storage ?lter sections of ?lter 288, 65 tromagnet operates a normally inoperative de
tent 230 to engage a stop wheel 282 provided with
while the remaining ?lter sections will produce
indentations corresponding to the various con
no output current. If the seeker arm 288 is in
tacting portions of the seeker arm 288. Thus,
its “normal” position and the switch 282 is then
when the seeker arm 208 reaches a position in
closed, and after su?icient energy has been stored
which the anode potential from tubes 254a and
in the energized ?lter sections this will cause en
284d, corresponding to the reception of frequen
ergization of the grids of gaseous discharge tubes
cies f1' and f4 causes cessation of the operation
284a, and 28401. As these tubes discharge, cath
of tube 286, the stopping mechanism 213 oper
ode current through the conductor 229 will flow
ates to hold the seeker arm in this position. The
through cathode resistors 232 and 234 raising the
grid potential of vacuum tube 230 causing it to 75 actuation of the stop'mechanism 218 addition
spaced separate slip rings 222 and 224 while the
extensions 2 I8 and 2 I2 of the seeker arm 288 re
2,406,835
ally closes a pair of contacts 284 completing
through conductor 286 the energization of a sec
ond electromagnet 288 to its source of power 290.
This second electromagnet operates the printing
arm 245, actuating the printing hammer 246 to
ward the printing'wheel 292 and simultaneously
10
example. While it is not believed necessary to
trace all of the circuits for all of the characters,
since the one example given is believed to be suf
ficient for the purposes of this description, it will
' be found that the circuits illustrated in Fig. 3
will produce the frequency pair and segment pair
opening the contacts 244 which breaks the anode
combinations set forth on this table:
circuit for all of the gaseous discharge tubes 294a
to 204k inclusive, rendering them non-conduc
Order of
,
Frequency
pair
tive. The printing wheel 292 is formed with a 10 Segment No. frequencies Ohaiacter
:plurality of characters about its periphery cor
responding to the characters on the keyboard
1
A
1-2
1
_B
1-3
of the transmitter and these characters are so
1
C
1-4
aligned with respect to the seeker arm 208that
1
D
1-5
2
E
2-6
when the seeker arm is stopped in a particular
2
F
2-7
position in response to a particular combination
2
G
2-8
3
H
3-9
of frequencies; for example, in the instance given
7
I
7-3
the frequencies f1 and f4 for the letter “C,” this
letter will appear on the printing wheel 292 op
posite the hammer 246 and thus, upon operation
of. the hammer, print this character upon a tape
or other reproducing medium which may be
placed intermediate the two. When the anode
circuits of the gaseous discharge tubes were
broken at contacts 244,‘relay 230 was de-ener
gized which in turn de-energized release mag
net 238 allowing the‘latch to resume its normal
position whereby the seeker upon completing its
rotation is stopped. It may, however, proceed
Se ment
gait
8
1
8-4
l-17
2-18
3-19
4-20
5-21
6-22
7-23
8-24
9-25
10-26
9
5
K
L
9-5
5-6
11-27
12-28
6
4
7
6
MI
N
0
P
6-4
4-3
7-8
6-7
13-29
14-30
15-31
16-32
2
Q,
2-9
17-33
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
3
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
3-5
4-9
5-8
6-1
7-1
8-1
9-1
3-2
4-2
18-34
19-35
20-36
21-1
22-2
23-3
24-4
25-5
26-6
4
immediately on another rotation as soon as
6
Space
2
6-3
switching relay, upon the closure of contacts 2“,
is re-energized, providing ?lter sections corre
sponding to a pair of frequencies have in the
4
3
4-7
3
8
7
9
5‘
9
4
5
6
7
8
9
3-8
8-9
7-5
9-6
5-4
9-7
30-10
31-11
32-12
33-13
34-14
35-15
8
—
8-6
36-16
meantime become charged from a new‘ signal
transmission.
'
5
5-2
27-7
28-8
‘
29-9
Since as above stated it is only after su?icient
energy has been stored in the ?lter that the po
tential‘becomes high enough to cause energiza
tion of the grids, it is obvious that this storing
period does not operate to slow down the speed
of receiver action. For the process of storing in
coming energy can take place While the mechan
The system as aforedescribed is fool-proof
against two types of errors which may possibly
occur. For example, if a single frequency rather
than a pair of frequencies is inadvertently trans
mitted, it will be seen that the receiving system
will not operate since the voltage on only one
ical operations for recording the previous signal
of the gaseous discharge tubes will drop to 70
are going on. This feature is of considerable
volts and therefore the mean voltage on the grid
advantage not only in expediting rapid reception 45 of the vacuum tube 266 will not have fallen below
but produces areliable control for its uniformity.
135 volts. Thus, the tube 266 will always remain
As elsewhere explained a receiver and a trans
conductive upon the reception of a single fre
mitter unit are tied together mechanically so that
quency alone and even though the latching
the degree of speed regulation deemed necessary
mechanism 238 may operate to release the seeker
to produce‘ sufficiently stable transmitting fre 50 arm 298 for one rotation, nothing will appear
quencies ‘will at the same time govern both the
upon the printing tape.
timing of the key action at the transmitter as
On the other hand, if more than two frequen
hereinbefore shown and also that of the receiver.
cies, for example, three frequencies are simulta
The’ system is thus inherently free from effects
neously received, the mean voltage on the tube
due to irregularity of the key operator.
55 266 may drop at a point in the rotation of the’
While a particular example in connection with
seeker arm 208 to give a false operation of the
the letter “C” has been given above‘ by way of
stop mechanism and printing hammer and a re-‘
illustration,‘ the system as shown in Fig. 3 has
sulting false printing. However, the reception
been developed so that each position of the seeker
of three different frequencies simultaneously, re
arm, and thus each position of the printer Wheel 60 sulting in the activation of three of the gaseous
292 will respond to a particular character in re
discharge tubes will cause such a great current
sponse to the transmission and reception of a
through the cathode resistors 232 and 234 as to
particular frequency pair, but in each instance
result in the energization of a normally inopera
the operation of the‘\system_will be identical.
tive vacuum tube 294 through the grid connec
The particular frequency pair assigned to a par 65 tion 295. Operation of the vacuum tube 294 will
ticular character, resulting in a particular pair
cause energizationof the electromagnet 298 se
of segments producing the reduced mean voltage
rially connected through the conductor 296 to the
on the grid of the tube 266 may be varied in ac
voltage supply for the. anode of this tube.
cordance with a particular chosen code. In the
The‘ ‘operation of the electromagnet 298 for
following table, however, are indicated the dif 70 preventing the printing of a character in response
ferent frequency pairs for each character, the re
to a false signal is best shown in Figs. 4 and 6.
sulting order of frequencies on the various seg
Fig. 4 illustrates the general mechanical arrange
ments, and the consequentsegment pair corre
ment of ‘the receiver and shows, for example, a
sponding to each frequency pair and character
motor 14 which, if the receiver is built as a unit
of the system which has beenchosen by way of 75 with the transmitter as illustrated in Fig. 1, may
2,406,835
11
12
While, for the sake of making a clear presen
tation of the operation of a multiple frequency
transmitting system according to the present in-'
vention I have disclosed certain speci?c appara
tus which is suitable for carrying out the princi
ples of my invention, it will be obvious to those
skilled in this art that many variations, particu
larly from the mechanical standpoint, but also
electrical changes may be made without depart
arm 208 of the seeker assembly will also cease
rotation, as previously described, because of the 10 ing from the spirit and scope of this invention.
For example, the particular type of keyboard and
use of the intermediate friction clutch TI. The
be the same motor used for driving the transi‘hit
ter tone wheels. Through gearing 16 the seeker
assembly 206 may be driven through a friction
clutch Tl. On the same shaft with the seeker
assembly 286 is positioned the stop Wheel 2132
and, it will be noted that even though the motor
14 may run continuously, when the stop mech
anism works upon the stop wheel 282 the seeker
printing wheel 292 may be mounted on the same
shaft as the seeker assembly 206 and the stop
wheel 282, but preferably slidably upon a section
of the shaft 364 having a. square or other non
keyboard structure to be used are of no partic
ular importance. 'The speci?c key-control switch
structure shown in Fig. 2 may be varied in detail
and, moreover the switching may be done in
circular cross section. The printing wheel 292
will consist of two sections, one section 30B bear
ing on its periphery suitable raised characters for
directly through relays instead of directly as
shown. Other and equivalent key-latching and
printing operation in response to desired coded
signals, as well as a space lug 391, and a second
system has been designed to utilize nine different
3 frequency sources which, in pairs will produce
portion 382 bearing a plurality of special identical
error-signifying characters shown in Figs. 4 and
that ,more-or-le-ss frequency sources could be
6 as being Maltese crosses.
The two sections of
the printing wheel are separated by an annular
depressed portion 306 serving as a slot for a piv
oted arm 388 held in a normal position by a
release mechanisms may be used.
While the
thirty-six different characters, it will be obvious
used, depending upon the number of characters
it is desired to use in the ?nal system.
Fre
, quency sources other than tone wheels are con
templated and the transmission may be by radio,
as illustrated, or be directly. wired.
spring 309, but movable to a second position upon
As far as the receiver equipment is concerned,
actuation of an electromagnet 298. When the
variations may be made, for instance, in details
electromagnet 254.8 is not actuated, the portion of
the printing wheel 300 bearing the characters to 3 0 of the seeker assembly. For example, instead of
providing one row of spaced contacts circum
be reproduced in response to normal signals will .
ferentially about the seeker base, a smaller base
be positioned in alignment with the print ham
can be used having two rows of such contacts in
mer 246 and the printing tape 66. However,
which case the rotating seeker arm may be only
whenever the electromagnet 298 is energized in
., single ended, bearing on the one end two sets of
response to the simultaneous reception of more
contact bridges cooperating with two radially
than two frequencies, the printing wheel 298 is
spaced, circular slip rings. Where a double
shifted on the shaft .354 so that the portion 302
ended seeker arm is used, the angle covered be
bearing the Maltese crosses will be in alignment
tween the two sets of contact bridges can be var
with the print hammer and tape. Thus, if more
than two frequencies are simultaneously received 4 ied. Particular details of the printing mech
anism are of no signi?cance except insofar as
while the printing operation will take place, a
they permit a general realization of the princi
special character, such as the Maltese cross will
ples of the present invention and, moreover, it
be printed on the tape so that the receiving oper
is not necessary that the received message be
ator will know that an error has occurred. The
printed, but the same may be reproduced in any
printing wheel 292 may, in both cases receive ink
manner, keeping in mind, however, that in ac
from a common ink roller 309 slidableon a shaft
cordance with the present invention the char
34.0 with the sliding of the printing wheel.
acter received in response to any particular fre
The general mechanical set-up of the receiver
quency combination will be determined by the
parts is further illustrated in Fig. 5. As there
relative angular position of the rotating seeker
shown the ink roller 38,9 and its shaft 3| 0 may be
arm and the mechanism rotating therewith.
supported on the end of a spring-drawn lever
While the invention is particularly applicable
arm 3 I 2 pressing the ink roller against the print
to systems in which characters are rotated by
ing wheel. The print hammer 24B is pivotally
different pairs of frequency, ‘it is also possible
mounted upon a lever 245 pivoted at .316, one end
within the broad principle of the present inven
of this lever being controlled by the print mag
tion to make the system responsive to combina
net 288, as previously described, to move the
tions of more than two frequencies.
print hammer 2&5 toward the tape and printing
Accordingly, while I have described above the
wheel. Such movement of the lever 245 also
principles of my invention in connection with
releases normally closed contacts 244 which may
be actuated in any suitable manner by another 60 certain speci?c apparatus. it is to be clearly
understood that this description is made only by
portion of this lever. The tape 66 may come
way of example and not as a limitation on the
from a suitably positioned tape roll 3!‘! and pass
scope of my invention as set forth in the objects
through roller guides 3!!! and 320 between the
and the accompanying claims.
hammer 24.6 and the printing wheel 292. It then
I claim:
passes between a tape feed wheel roller 322 and
1. 'In an intelligence transmission system
a tape fed idler 324 to outside of the conductor
wherein the intelligence is transmitted by a com
where it may be read. Forward movement of
bination of frequencies selected from a number
the tape after each printing operation can be
thereof, a receiving station having a receiver,
effected in any well-known manner, as by the
use of an extension 325 on the end of lever 245, 70 ?lter means connected to said receiver for sepa
operating a ratchet wheel 328 upon its downward
rating the combination of transmitted frequen
movement or upon return of the print hammer to
cies, intelligence reproducing means, variable
energy control means between the ?lter means
its normal position. A pawl 330 acting on the
and the reproducing means and means responsive
ratchet wheel 328 prevents backward movement
of the tape feed wheel.
to the output of said ?lters for controlling said
2,406,835"
131.‘
reproducing means to reproduce the intelligence
transmitted.
.
.
2. A system according to claim 1, wherein the
reproducing means controls the energy control
means.
7.
_
.
3. A system according to claim 1, comprising
means whereby. the reproducing means at the
14..‘
including a' switch interconnecting the output of
each ?lter with one or more of, said contacts in
such a manner that all desired frequency com-.
binations in accordance with the coded signals
may be derived from the contacts on said selector
means, a rotary contactor engaging said contacts
to scan, the possible frequency combinations,
means driving said rotary contactor, means for
stopping the rotation of said contactor responsive
initiation of its operation cuts off incoming sig
nal. energy thereto and at the completion of its
Operation admits further signal energy.
.10 to engagement thereby of contacts energized by
4. A system according to claim 1, wherein
an incoming coded frequency combination, means
means acting through the energy control means
for determining the received intelligence by the
and responsive to sufficient storageof received
angular position of said rotary contactor, and
energy by operating ?lters initiates operation of
means whereby the contactor by its rotation con
the reproducing means and thereby causes the 15 trols said switch.
_
.
V
exclusion of further energy in ?ow from the
10. The combination according to claim 9, in
which said last means includes a type wheel
5. A system according to claim 1, wherein
having characters on its peripherywhose angular.
means controlled by thereproducing means ex- .
position corresponds to the coded frequency com
eludes output energy from ?lter sections in 20 bination as determined by the position of the
storage operation during reproduction of a sig
contacts ,-on the selector means, means driving .
nal, but enables entrythereof immediately upon
said type wheel in angular synchronism with said.
completion of a reproduction of said signal for
rotary contactor,‘ and further means ‘responsive
operation for a succeeding signal.
.
to the incomingfrequency combination for re
6. In an intelligence transmission system 25 producing the character on the type wheel as.
wherein the intelligence is transmitted by acom
determined byitsangular position and the chosen .
bination of frequencies selected from a number
code. , ‘
thereof, a receiver including ?lter means sepa
l 1,1, In an intelligence reproducing system;
rating the received signals into channels corre
adapted to interpret intelligence in the form of.
sponding to the different frequency sources of
coded signals as determined by different received .
?lters.
,
_
.
V
,
.
‘
the-transmitter, selector means having circum
ferentially spaced contacts, means interconnect
ing the output of each ?lter with one Or more of
said contacts in such a manner that all desired
frequency pairs may be derived from said selec-,
frequency pair combinations, the combination. of
?lter means Separating the incoming signals
into individual frequency components, a plural-.
ity of gaseous discharge tubes each having an
‘anode, a grid and a cathode, the number of
tor means, a rotary contactor engaging said con
tubes corresponding to the number of different
tacts to scan,‘ the possible frequency pair com
binations, means driving said rotary contactor,
frequencies used, means connecting the indi
vidual outputs of said ?lter means to the grids
of the respective tubes, a seeker assembly com
means for stopping the rotation of said contactor
whenever it engages contacts energized‘ by an in
coming frequency pair, and means for determin
ing the received intelligence by the angular posi
tion of said rotary contactor.
.
prising a disk provided with a plurality of‘ se-.
quentially spaced contacts of a number corre
sponding to the number of characters reproduce.
able by the number of frequency pairs obtainable,
7. The combination according to claim 6, in
and a pair of slip rings, and a rotatable seeker
which said last means includes a type Wheel
having characters on its periphery, Whose angu
lar position corresponds to the coded frequency
arm carrying two sets of spaced contacts, so
spaced that one contact of each set moves along
the contacts on the disk and the other engages
combination as determined by the position of the
the ‘slip rings, conductors interconnecting the
contacts on the selector means, means driving
anodes of said tubes to the contacts on said disk,
said type wheel in angular synchronism with 50 .the connections between said anodes and said
said rotary contactor, and further means respon- ‘
contacts being so arranged relatively to the sets
sive to incoming frequency pairs for reproducing
of contacts on said seeker arm that the outputs
the ‘character on the type wheel as determined
by its angular position and the chosen code.
8. The combination according to claim 6, in
which the means interconnecting said ?lter means
, from said tubes are paired on said slip rings in
all possible combinations, a vacuum tube having
.an anode, a cathode and a grid, an anode voltage
supply means for said gaseous discharge tubes
and said vacuum tube, means applying the mean
voltage on said slip rings as determined by the
position of said seeker arm to the grid of said
a cathode and a grid, conductors respectively in
terconnecting each frequency channel to the grid 60 t-vacuum tube, means biasing said vacuum tube
to be normally conductive, said biasing means
of one gaseous discharge tube, and other con
being so dimensioned that said tube becomes non
ductors interconnecting the anodes of said gase
conductive if the mean voltage on its grid as
ous discharge tubes to said ‘contacts to form fre
with said selector contacts comprises a plurality
of gaseous discharge tubes each having an anode,
quency-responsive contact pairs, in combination 65 derived from said slip rings falls to a value indica
. tive of the simultaneous appearance on said slip
with means responsive to the flow of current
through said gaseous discharge tubes for con
trolling the operation of said rotary contactor.
rings of a lowered potential on the anode of two
of said gaseous discharge tubes when in conduct
ing condition, means for rotating said seeker
‘ 9. In an intelligence reproducing system
adapted to, interpret intelligence in the form of 70 arm, normally inoperative stop means for stop
ping said seeker arm in any one of its contacting
coded signals in the form of frequency combina
tions transmitted, the combination of ?lter means
adapted to separate the incoming signals into
individual frequency components, selector means
positions, means responsive to the non-conduc
tivity of said vacuum tube for actuating said
stopping means, and means responsive to the
actuation of‘ said stopping means for indicating
having circumferentially spaced contacts, means 75 - the
intelligence determined by the frequency pair
2,406,835
15v
16
combination causing the ?ring of two oi’. the
gaseous discharge tubes and consequent non
latching means, and means responsive to the
?ow of current in two or more of said gaseous dis
conductivity of said vacuum tube.
charge tubes for operating said electromagnet,
12. The combination according to claim 11, in
which said stop means comp-rises a toothed wheel
and in which the means for indicating intelli
gence includes a printing wheel rotatable with
said seeker arm and bearing a plurality of differ
ent characters on its periphery, a printing arm
rotatable with said seeker arm, a latch adapted
to engage said wheel, and an electromagnet for
controlling said latch, and in which said actu
cooperating with said wheel, a printing tape in
termediate said printing wheel and printing arm,
ating means comprises a second vacuum tube
having an anode, a cathode and a grid, means
and means responsive to the actuation of said
stopping means for operating said printing arm,
connected between the anode of the ?rst vacuum
tube and the grid of said second vacuum tube for
rendering the latter conductive when the ?rst
vacuum tube is non-conductive and vice versa,
and means energizing said electromagnet from
the anode of said second vacuum tube.
13. The combination according to claim 11, in
combination with normally operative latch means
holding said seeker arm in a predetermined start
in combination with means responsive to the oper
ation of said printing arm for interrupting the
anode voltage supply of said gaseous discharge
tubes and said vacuum tube.
i8. The combination according to claim 11, in
which the means for rotating said seeker arm
comprises a motor and a friction clutch inter
mediate said motor and seeker arm.
ing position, and means responsive to ?ow of 20
current through two of said gaseous discharge
tubes for releasing said latch.
14. The combination according to claim 11, in
combination with normally operative latch means
holding said seeker arm in a predetermined start
ing position, an electromagnet for releasing said
19. A frequency-responsive receiving system
comprising, in combination, a plurality of di?er
ent frequency sources, a corresponding plurality
of gaseous discharge tubes each having an anode,
a cathode and a grid, means respectively connect
25 ing each frequency source to the grid of one of
said gaseous discharge tubes, a seeker assembly
comprising a disk having a plurality of circum
ferentially spaced contacts, the number of con
current to said electromagnet from the anode of
tacts being equal to the number of diil‘erent pairs
said second vacuum tube, common means inter 30 of frequencies possible from the number of fre
connecting the cathodes of said gaseous discharge
quency sources, and a pair of slip rings, and a
rotatable seeker arm carrying two sets of spaced
tubes with the grid of said second vacuum tube,
and means biasing said second vacuum tube to
contacts, so spaced that one contact of each set
render the same conductive only when two or
wipes the contacts on the disk and the other en
more of said gaseous discharge tubes are con 35 gages the slip rings, conductors interconnecting
the anodes of said gaseous discharge tubes with
ductive.
15. The combination according to claim 11, in
the contacts on said disk, the connections between
which said last means comprises a printer wheel
said anodes and said contacts being so arranged
rotatable with said seeker arm bearing a plu
relatively to the sets of contacts on said seeker
rality of characters about its periphery, a printer 40 arm, that the outputs from said tubes are se
arm movable toward said wheel, printing tape
quentially paired on said slip rings in all possible
intermediate said printer arm and the periphery
combinations, a vacuum tube having an anode, a
of said wheel, and means responsive to the actu
cathode and a grid, anodes supply voltage means
ation of said stopping means for operating said
for said gaseous discharge tubes and said vacuum
45 tube, means applying the mean voltage on said
printer arm.
16. The combination according to claim 11, in
slip rings as determined by the position of said
which said last means comprises a printer Wheel
seeker arm to the grid of said vacuum tube, means
rotatable with said seeker arm, said printer wheel
biasing said vacuum tube to be normally conduc
having two sections, one bearing a plurality of
tive, said biasing means being so dimensioned
di?’erent characters about its periphery corre 50 that said tube becomes non-conductive if the
sponding to the intelligence to be reproduced and
mean voltage on its grid as derived from said slip
another section bearing a plurality of like charac
rings falls to a value indicative of the simulta
ters about its periphery, a printer arm normally
neous appearance on said slip rings of a lowered
positioned opposite to the section of the wheel
potential on the anodes of two of said gaseous
latch means, a second vacuum tube having an
anode, a cathode and a grid, means supplying
bearing the different characters, printing tape 55 discharge tubes when in conducting condition,
normally inoperative stop means for stopping said
movable between said printer arm and said printer
wheel, and means responsive to the actuation of
said stopping means for operating said printer
arm, in combination with means responsive to the
activation of more than two of said gaseous dis
seeker arm in any one of its contacting positions,
and means responsive to the non-conductivity of
said vacuum tube for actuating said stopping
60 means, whereby the angular position of said
charge tubes for shifting said printer wheel so
seeker arm is indicative of the particular fre
that the section bearing the like characters is
quency combination applied to said gaseous dis
opposite to the printer arm.
charge tubes.
17. The combination according to claim 11, in
20. In an intelligence transmission system,
combination with normally open switch means 65 wherein the intelligence is transmitted by the
intermediate the individual ?lters and the grids
combination of frequencies selected from a num
of their respective gaseous discharge tubes, a
ber thereof, a signal station comprising trans
closing coil for said switch means, latching means
mitting apparatus including means controlling
normally holding said seeker arm in a predeter
70 the selection of combinations of di?erent fre
mined starting position, .a pair of normally open
quencies corresponding to respective signals,
contacts actuated to closing position by said
means for receiving and reproducing similar in
seeker arm when in its starting position, means
coming signals, and common driving means for
for energizing said closing coil through said con
governing the selection controlling means and
tacts, electromagnetic means for releasing said 75 the receiving and reproducing means.
_
2,406,835
'
17
‘18
21. Apparatus according to claim 20, including
means for generating the di?erent frequencies
control of the reproducing means for governing
successive transfers of stored signal energy to the
under control of'the common driving means.
reproducer and enabling reproduction of a sig
22. Apparatus according to claim 20, wherein
nal during the energy storing for a succeeding
the receiving and reproducing means includes 5 signal.
frequency ?lters for selectively storing and passJOHN A. HERBST.
ing incoming signal energy and. means under
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