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Патент USA US2406856

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Sept, 3» 1946‘
H. A. SATTERLEE _
2,406,856
‘APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING ROTATION
Filed Feb. 11, 1957
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTOR
HOWARD A. SATTERLEE
BY
a/m/ W7
ATTORNEY.
‘
sept- 3, 1946,
H. A. sAT'TERLEE
2,406,856
APPARATUS FOR [CONTROLLING ROTATION
Filed Feb. 11, 1937
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
52M
H
> ,
lNDlCATOR
79
AC .
Moron
Com-R01.
DC.
80
F/g
INVENTOR.
HOWARD A. ‘SATTERLEE
'
ATTORNEY.
Patented Sept. 3, 1946
2,406,856
UNITED s'rrss
T‘
2,406,856
APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING ROTATION
Howard Avery Satterlee, Needham, Mass, as
signor, by mesne assignments, to Submarine
Signal Company, Boston, Mass, a corporation
of Delaware
‘ Application February 11, 1937, Serial No. 125,280
5 Claims.
, (Cl. 181-05)
1
2
The present invention relates to a system for
controlling rotation. More particularly the pres
ent invention relates to a system for moving by
thence by conductor [6 to the cathode IQ of the
tube 5. The grids 2n and 2| of the two tubes
are connected through current-limiting resistors
22 and 23, respectively, to the extremities of a
center tapped resistor 24. The motor armature 2
is shunted by center tapped resistor [3, the center
point of which is connected through a biasing
battery 25 to the center point of the resistor 24.
Potential is supplied to the resistor 24 from the
means of a motor a certain device into a desired
position at any desired speed.
In my copending application Serial No. 108,853,
?led November 2, 1936, now Patent 2,163,632,
granted June 27, 1939, I have disclosed a variable
speed motor operating system which is also
adapted to control the rotation or movement of a 10 armature 21 of a direct current generator 26.
device into a desired position from. a remote point.
The grid circuit of tube 4 may thus be traced
Brie?y stated, that system employs a motor hav
ing an armature immersed in a continuous mag
netic ?eld and adapted to generate a back E‘. M. F.
when in motion, the armature being in series
from the grid 25 through the resistor 22, the
upper half of the resistor 24, the biasing battery
25 and the upper half of resistor 13 to the cathode
I 4. The grid circuit of tube 5 may be traced from
and with a uni-directional grid potential variable
the grid 2| through the resistor 23, the lower
half of resistor 24, the biasing battery 25 and
the lower half of the resistor l3 to the cathode [9.
in accordance with the desired motion of the r..
‘The generator 26 may be provided with a per
with the anode circuit of a grid-controlled recti
?er supplied with an alternating anode potential
mote body and opposed by the motor back E. M. F. 20 manent magnet ?eld or with an electromagnetic
?eld having a winding 28 supplied with direct
whereby the speed of operation of the motor is
current as shown. The armature 21 is mechani
dependent upon the magnitude of the desired
cally connected to the handwheel 29 through suit
degree of motion of the said body.
able gearing if desired. Rotation of the hand
The present invention provides an improved
25 wheel 29 and consequently of the armature 21
system of the type referred to above.
applies a direct current potential across the re
The invention will best be understood from the
sistor 24 of a value dependent upon the speed
following description taken in connection with
and of a polarity dependent upon the direction of
the accompanying drawings in which Fig. 1 is a
rotation of the handwheel.
circuit diagram of the present invention and Fig. 2
Under certain conditions, as will appear later,
is a modi?cation of the arrangement shown in
it may be desirable to provide a full wave recti?er
Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a further modi?cation of the
31 having cathode 38 connected through a switch
arrangement shown in Fig. 1; and Fig. 4 shows
39 to the center point of resistor 24. The anodes
schematically the complete system with a sub
4!] and 4| of tube 31 are connected to resistors
marine signaling head the horizontal orienta
. 42 and 43, respectively, which are comparable in
tion of which is controlled by the system.
’ value to the halves of resistor 24. The other ends
In Fig. 1 the motor I which is to be controlled
of resistors 42 and 43 are connected across the
is arranged to drive any desired mechanism (not
resistor 24, i. e. to the conductors 44 and 45, re
shown). The motor is preferably of the direct
spectively.
current type comprising a commutator type arma
The operation of the system is as follows: Con
ture 2 and a ?eld winding 3 separately excited 40
from the source of direct current.
Two grid
controlled recti?ers 4 and 5, which are preferably
of the gaseous electron discharge type, provide
the motor operating current. Anode potential
for the two tubes is provided by transformer 5
‘ sidering, ?rst, the tube 4, it will be noted that
the anode circuit of the tube contains a source
of alternating current and the armature 2 of the
motor I. It will also be noted that the grid cir
‘ cuit of the tube 4 contains three sources of po
having a primary winding 1 connected to a source
tential in series, namely the drop across the upper
of alternating current and two secondary wind
ings 8 and 9. The secondary winding 8 is con
half of the resistor 24, the biasing battery 25
nected by one end to the anode ll of tube 4 and
by the other end through conductors l2 and I6
to the armature 2 and from the latter by con
ductor I‘! to the cathode l4 of tube 4. The sec
and the drop across the upper half of resistor
IS. The drop across the resistor 24 is due to
the current ?owing through it, occasioned by the
potential provided by the generator 28, and varies
with the speed of rotation of the handwheel 29.
The potential of the biasing battery 25 is ?xed at
a value sufficient to inhibit conduction through
ondary winding 9 is connected by one end to the
anode l5 of the tube 5 and by the other end by
conductors l8 and I‘! to the armature 2 and 55 - the tube when maximum anode voltage is applied‘
2,406,856
a
4
when the system is at rest. With some types
trolled simply by rotating the hand'wheel 29 in
a
of recti?er a biasing battery may be unnecessary.
the desired direction and the motor’s speed can
The drop‘ across the resistor l3 is occasioned by
be controlled by varying the speed of rotation of
the current ?owing through it due to the back
the handwheel.
E. M. F. generated in the motor armature 2 by 01
A further feature of the above system makes it
possible abruptly to stop the motor I merely by
its rotation.
abruptly stopping the handwheel 2'9 and also rap
If, now, it be assumed that the hand‘wheel 29
idly to reverse the direction of rotation of the
be rotated in such a direction as to generate a
motor I merely by rapidly reversing the direction
positive
potentialand
of the
suchpoint
polarity
3| is that
negative,
the point
the grid
321 253
will become positive thereby permitting anode
of rotation of the handwheel. Let it be assumed
that the handwheel is being operated in such a
direction as to make the point 3!! positive with
current to ?ow through the tube 4 and the arma
respect to the point 3|. The motor armature 2
will consequently be in rotation at a correspond
ture 2 during the half cycles of anode potential
in which the anode I! is positive with respect to
its cathode. The armature 2, being immersed in
the continuous magnetic ?eld provided by the
winding 3, will, therefore, commence to rotate
ing speed due to current impulses supplied ‘by the
tube 4. If, now, the hand'wheel 279 be abruptly
stopped, the generator potential will be reduced
under the in?uence of the recti?ed current im
to zero and consequently the drop across the re
pulses ?owing through it. As the armature in—
sistor 21! will abruptly become zero. The grid 29
is then supplied by potential from the biasing bat
creases its speed, its back E. M. F. will build up
in a direction to oppose that of the applied
tery 25 plus the drop across the upper_ half of
E. M. F. This back E. M. F. being applied across
resistor [3‘. Since both of these are negative, cur
the resistor 13 causes a current to flow through
rent through the tube 4 abruptly ceases. On the
this resistor which thereby introduces a potential
other hand, the back E. M. F‘. due to the motors
into the grid circuit of tube 4 which opposes the 25 rotation is in such a direction as to make the drop
potential due to the drop across the upper half
across the lower half of resistor l3 overcome the
of resistor 26. With a given speed of rotation
potential of the biasing battery 25 and to make
of the handwheel the motor armature 2 will even
the grid 2! of the tube 5 highly positive. Current,
tually reach such a speed that its back E. M. F.
therefore, will ?ow through the tube 5 causing a
will produce across the upper half of resistor is 30 current to ?ow through the armature 2 in a direc
a potential substantially equal to the potential
tion tending to reverse its direction of rotation.
drop across the upper half of resistor 24, whereby
However, as soon as the motor armature reaches
the potential of the grid 20 will be reduced to the
nearly‘ zero speed, the back
M. F. will be in
point where no discharge will take place in the
su?icient to overcome the bias provided by the
tube is. This condition may last for one or more
battery 25 and tube 5 will consequently cease
cycles of anode voltage until the motor armature
supplying further current impulses to the‘ arma
2 slows down suiiiciently to make the difference
between the voltage drop across the upper half
of resistor 24 slightly greater than that across the
ture 2 which therefore abruptly comes to rest. It
upper half of resistor E3. The result is that the
motor, will be supplied ‘with current impulses just
su?icient in number to maintain its speed at a
value corresponding to the speed of the generator
its direction of rotation, the motor armature 2
would not only have abruptly come to rest, but
would have commenced to ‘rotate in the reverse
direction.
It sometimes happens that when one of the rec
ti?ers 4 or 5 discharges, a'discharge will also take
place in the other recti?er. It" is believed that
will be obvious that if instead of stopping the
handwheel 29, the operator had merely changed
26. If the generator 26 be driven'at a lower
speed, the motor need rotate only at a lower speed
to produce su?icient back E. M. F. to overcome the
positive potential provided by the generator. So;
this is due‘ tosome' transient potentials developed
likewise, if the generator be rotated at a higher
in the motor armature. However, I have discov~
speed, the motor must run at a higher speed be
ere'd that this effect can be eliminated by pro
fore its supply of current impulses through the 50 viding unidirectional current‘ paths in shunt‘ to
tube 4 will be cut oil.
the halves of resistor‘ 24» This arrangement
It will now be noted that while the handwheel
comprises'the full wave recti?er‘ 3'! and the re
is being turned in such a direction as to make the
sistors 42 and 43‘ connected as above described
point 36 positive with respect to the point 3i as
and as shown in Fig. 1. By closing switch 39, this
above discussed, the tube 5 will be inoperative 55 arrangement‘ is connected to the circuit and si
since its grid 2! is maintained negative by the
multaneous operation of both tubes 4' and 5 is
biasing battery 25‘. The potential drop across the
lower half of resist/ch24‘ likewise tends to make
the grid 2| negative but this is opposed by the
thereby prevented. I therefore prefer to operate
my system with this arrangement connected in
the circuit, although it will operate vwithout it.
drop across the lower half of resistor l3 due to
While this arrangement is not shown in Figs. 2
60
the current therein produced by the motor back
and 3, it‘ will be understood, of course, that it also
E. M. F. Thus, for one direction of rotation of
may be and preferably is used with the modi?ca~
the handwheel 29 the motor armature 2' is caused
tions therein shown‘.
to rotate in one direction by current supplied to
Instead of supplying? the controlling grid po
it by the tube 6. If, now, the handwheel 23 be 65 tential by means of a generator as shown in Fig. 1,
the grid potential may be supplied by some other
turned in the opposite direction, the polarity of
source, for example, by the potentiometer shown
the potential generated by the armature 21 will be
in: Fig, 2‘. In general, the arrangement of the
reversed so that'the point 3| will be positive and
circuit shown in this figure is the same as that of
the point 38 negative. Under these circum
stances it will be evident that the grid 2i of tube 70 Fig. 1, but the potential applied across the re
5 will now be positive, permitting current to flow
in this tube and through the armature but in the
sistance 24 is supplied by the center-tapped po- '
reverse direction so that the motor armature 2
of direct current. Its center terminal 34 is con
nected to one end of the resistance 24 while a
will rotate in the reverse direction. Thus, the di
rection of rotation of the motor I can be con
tentiometer 36'. This is connected across a source
75
sliding contact 35 is connected to the other‘ end
2,406,856
6
of the resistance 24. It will be evident that when
trol mechanism includes all of the rest‘ of the
the slider 35 is at the point 34, no voltage will
apparatus indicated in either of the ?gures with
be applied across the resistance 24 and conse
the exception of the hand-operated generator
quently the motor I will remain at rest.
which is shown in Fig. 4 by ‘I8.
When the slider 35 is moved upward along the 01
The hand generator ‘I8 is operated by means
resistance 33, the point 3| will be made positive
of the handwheel ‘I9 which is provided with a
with respect to the point 30. Tube 5 will conse
grip 80 as indicated in Fig. 1. The motor control
quently pass current to operate the motor in
is supplied with alternating current and direct
one direction at a speed corresponding to the
current power as indicated in the other ?gures
position of slider 35. On the other hand, if 10 also. Attached to the shaft ‘I4 carrying the ro
slider 35 be moved downwards along resistance
tating head _‘is the gear 8| driving the indicating
32, the point 30 will be made positive with re
system including the two self-synchronous motors
spect to the point 3| and the tube 4 will supply
82 and 83, the pair of gears 84 and 85 operated
current to the motor to operate it in a reverse
thereby, the gear 85 driving the indicator shaft
15 86 upon which is mounted the indicator 81. The
direction.
'
‘ Fig. 3 shows a modi?cation of my invention in”
, gear system, and the self-synchronous motors are
which the grid control potential is alternating.
‘so chosen that the indicator 8‘! indicates the ex
act orientation of the head ‘I2. This indicator is
from the source of anode potential by means of
usually placed in a position near the operator
the two self-synchronous motors 50 and 5|. The 20 controlling the hand generator, who thereby
device 50 has a single phase winding 52 con
can watch the orientation of the indicator and
nected to the alternating current source which
know the orientation of the ranging head.
supplies the anode potential. The three phase
The sound-ranging head ‘I2 is preferably of the
winding 53, which is rotatable relatively to 52
type that is capable of transmitting a directive
is connected in parallel with the corresponding
beam of compressional wave energy and may be
winding 54 of the device 5|. The single phase
operated either continuously as the head is being
winding 55 of the latter is connected across the
rotated to produce a beam of compressional waves
resistor 24.
or it may be operated intermittently, automati_
cally or manually to produce -a short signal, in
If 53 be the rotor element, this may be locked
in position and rotor 54 rotated in accordance 30 which case the device often is kept stationary so
with the desired speed and direction of rota
that the echo, if any, may be observed. Under
tion of motor I. The voltage induced in winding
these conditions it is often desirable to move the
55 will be in phase with the supply potential and
signaling head fast or slowly, depending upon the
variable in magnitude for one direction of dis
orientation desired for the observations to be
placement of 54, but out of phase with the sup 35 made. For this purpose it is distinctly advanta
ply potential and variable in magnitude for the
geous to have an arrangement which is ?exible so
opposite direction of displacement. Thus, a po
that the head can be quickly controlled both in
tential variable in magnitude and in polarity with
starting and in stopping and its position always
respect to the instantaneous polarity of the anode
observed. The system shown in Fig. 4 is distinct
potential will be applied to resistor 24 as in the
ly useful for this purpose and offers a remarkable
degree of freedom inasmuch as even if the rotat
other modi?cations.
Instead of locking the rotor 53, the latter may
ing head is to be moved through only a very small
angle, this can be accomplished very quickly sim
be connected mechanically through suitable gear
ply by the speed with which the hand generator
ing to motor I or to the mechanism driven by
The potential applied across resistor 24 is derived
it. Then a displacement of rotor 54 through a
certain angle and in a certain direction will
cause motor I to rotate the driven body into a
corresponding position as determined by the po
sition of rotor 53; that is the motor I will rotate
until rotor 53 is brought into a position with
respect to its stator winding 52 which corre
sponds to the position of rotor 54 with respect
to its stator winding 5|. Furthermore, the speed
of operation of motor I will be greater for large
displacements of rotor 54 than for small dis
placements.
In the application of the system for controlling
a sound ranging head as indicated in Fig. 4 it will
be noted that the system is applied to the use
is turned. In this case there is no follow-up sys
tem which. tends to reduce the speed as the head
is approaching the desired position. In the pres
ent case a quick stop can be obtained by the con
trol of the handwheei itself which is always under
control of the operator himself.
Having now described my invention, I claim:
1. In an acoustic signaling device means for
controlling the speed and rotation of said device
comprising an electric motor, means connecting
said motor to said device for rotating the same, a
source of electric power connected to said motor
having means electrically operable to control the
speed and rotation ofsaid motor, and a hand gen
erator connected to said electrically operable
of sound ranging with projecting gear project 60 means for controlling the operation of said motor
at speeds corresponding proportionally to the
ing from a vessel. In this ?gure the skin of the
vessel is shown at ‘I0 through which the project
speeds of rotation ofsaid hand generator.
ing shaft ‘II extends. At the lower end of this
2. In an acoustic signaling device, means for
controlling the speed and rotation of said device
shaft is mounted a sound-ranging head ‘I2 which
is driven from within the vessel by means of the
comprising an electric motor, means connecting
driving motor ‘I3 geared to the drive shaft ‘I4 to
said motor to said device for rotating the same, a
which the head ‘I2 is attached.
The gears are
source of electric power connected to said motor
indicated schematically as step-down gears ‘I5
having means electrically operable to control the
and ‘I6 and may in fact be replaced by any type
speed and rotation of said motor, and electric
of reduction gear suitable for driving the sys 70 means manually rotatable connected to said
electrically operable means for controlling the op
tem. The motor ‘I3 corresponds to the motor I
eration of said motor at speeds corresponding
in Figs. 1, 2 and 3. This motor is controlled by
proportionally to the speeds of rotation of said
the motor-control mechanism 1‘! which may be
manually rotatable means.
in accordance with any of the modi?cations
shown in any of the preceding ?gures. This con 75
3. In an acoustic signaling device, means for
2,406,856
7
8
controlling: the speed and rotation of said device
1y operable means and rotatable in either direc
tion for Controlling the operation of said motor
at speeds corresponding proportionally‘ to the
comprising an electric motor, means. connecting
_ said motor to said device for rotating the same, a.
source of electric power connected to said‘ motor
speed of rotation and corresponding to the: direc
having means electrically operable to control the U! tion of rotation of said hand generator.
5. In an acoustic signaling device, means: for
speed and direction of rotation of said motor and
controlling the speed and rotation of said device
electric means manually rotatable in either di
comprising an electric motor, means, connecting
rection connected to said electrically operable
said motor to said device for rotating the same,
means for controlling‘the operation of said motor
at speeds corresponding proportionally to the 10 a source of electric power connected to‘ said motor
having means electrically operable to control the
speed of rotation and corresponding to the direc
starting, varying of the speed, stopping and re
tion. of rotation of said manually rotatable means.
versing of rotation of said motor and a hand gen
4. In: an acoustic signaling device, means for
erator connected to- said electrically operable
controlling the speed and ‘rotation of said device
comprising an electric motor, means connecting 15 means for controlling said operations of said. mo
tor at speeds corresponding proportionally to the
said motor to- said device for rotating the same,
speed of rotation and corresponding to the start
a; source of electric power connected tosaid motor
ing, stopping and reversing of said hand gener
having means; electrically operable to control the
ator.
speed and direction of rotation of said motor
HOWARD AVERY SATTERLEE,
anda hand generator connected to said electrical 20
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