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Патент USA US2406860

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- SeptQìB, 1946.
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H. G. sPEéHT
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` 2,406,860
CE‘NTRIFUGAL CASTING
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Filed June 18,-1943 `
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ATTORNEY
Sept. 3, 1946.
H. G. sPx-:cH-r
2,406,860
CENTRIFUGAL CASTING
Filedv June is, 1945
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` INVENTOR
» HMBQYRY E1. àîìífï.
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Sept 3, 1946.
' H. G; sPEcH'r
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2,406,850
`CENÍI‘RIFUGAL CASTING
Filed June 18, 1943
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ATTORNEY
Patented ,Sept 3, 1946
2,406,860
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,406,860
CENTRIFUGAL CASTING
Harry G. Specht, Montclair, N. J.
Application June 18, 1943, Serial No. 491,305
11 Claims. (Cl. 22-65)
1
2
The present invention relates to centrifugal
casting, and particularly a, casting machine for
ing distortion or cracking forces upon the individ
ual or associated moulds.
It is further proposed to provide an individual
mould structure having a Wall of substantially
uniform thickness, so that there is a substantially
uniform transfer of heat, and furthermore to pro
vide an exposed surface, subject to the cooling
effect of air during the rotation of the moulds,
which is substantially proportiona1 to the mould
the production by centrifugal casting of ingots,
bars, and specially shaped metal bodies, such
as may be used for a particular purpose, as for
instance, for producing gun barrels. Centrifugal
casting produces a metal structure having many
advantages, such as iine grain, uniformity, dense
ness, freedom from voids, and purity. This
last advantage is characteristic of centrifugal
casting, due to the fact that the pure metal may
cavity surface, the external shape `oi the mould
being shaped te correspond substantially to the
be directed outwardly in the moulds through '
internal cavity shape.
centrifugal force, while the dross or impure metal,
foreign matter, and scum, collects at the inner
A further Objectis to provide a moulding ma
chine wherein the moulds may be conveniently
assembled or disassembled, either entirely or in
periphery of the centrifugally cast metal, so that
'
this segregated impure material in the form of a
thin layer may be readily removed from the body
dividually, the arrangement permitting removal
of the metal with a minimum waste. Difficulty
has been experienced'in the past in providing a
sired.
Another object is to facilitate the removal of
the moulded pieces, the arrangement permitting
individual pieces to be removed if desired with
centrifugal casting machine wherein the moulds e
and replacement of any individual mould de»
will eiiectually withstand the expansion and con
out removal of the mould from the machine. ,
traction, resulting from the introduction into the
Another object is to provide a centrifugal castmoulds of the hotr molten metal, without perma
‘ing machine wherein the individual moulds are
nent distortion or cracking. Another difficulty
has been experienced in the cooling of the moulds 25 such that _an adequate chilling ratio may be main
tained between the molten metal to be poured
to prevent retention of heat transferred to the
into the moulds and the moulds themselves, it
moulds from the molten metal that would be in
being pointed Iout that from a practical stand
excess oi the critical temperature of the metal.
point this ratio should be approximately from
Attempts to meet this cooling problem have con
sisted in the use of cooling iiuids, air, fins and 30 3 to 1, 5 to 1.
A further object is to provide a centrifugal
other such means, but these have been unsuc
casting machine of relatively large capacity,
cessful for the most part, due to complication
wherein the mould units are so arranged with
oi structure and increased tendency of the moulds
respect to the axis of rotation that dynamic bal
to distort and crack.
It is an object of the present invention to pro 35 ance may be maintained during the operation
of the mould, and whereby relatively high speed
vide a centrifugal' casting machine wherein the
may be attained both from the standpoint of
moulds are free to expand from a cold tempera
centrifugal force upon the metal and cooling ac-‘
ture to a hot temperature, without permanent
tion upon the moulds, it being pointed out that
distortion or cracking, and wherein the moulds
will be eiîectually cooled during the centrifugal 40 inpractice the surface speed of the moulds, ac
cording to the invention, may be about 4000 R.
casting process. It is pointed out by way of
P. M.
example, that in pouring certain metals above
It is a further object to provide a centrifugal
2000 degrees, it is neccessary to cool the moulds
casting
machine which will permit the effective
down to approximately 600 degrees, so that the 45
removal of gases that collect during the pouring
net temperature of the moulds after the metal
operation, and to this end it is proposed to pro~
is poured into them will not be greater than the
vide a centrifugal casting machine wherein the
critical temperature of the metal or approxi
moulds revolve around a horizontal axis, and
mately 1400 degrees.
" ‘
wherein the pouring space is disposed longitudi
it is proposed in the present invention to pro 50 nally of the axis and centrally of the mould units
vide a centrifugal casting machine having sec
disposed circumferentially about the axis.
tional moulds, one mould being provided for each
With the above and other objects in View, an
ingot, bar, or the like, and wherein expansion
embodiment of the invention is shown in the ac
and contraction may take place within the in
companying drawings, and this embodiment will
dividual moulds in all directions Without impos ya be hereinafter more fully described with refer»
2,406,860
ô
ence thereto, and the invention will be finally
pointed out in the claims.
In the drawings
ing machine, according to the exemplary illus
respectively upon the ends of the shafts Ill-l5.
Idler pulleys 24 engage the track rings IO at
their upper sides, these pulleys being mounted
upon shafts 25-25 journaled in slide bearings
26 disposed in slideways 2l provided at the up
trated embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 2 is an end elevation.
Fig. 3 is a side elevation of the mould mount
ing cage member, removed from the machine.
per corners of the frames these slideways being
disposed in planes radial to the axis of the cage
and disposed at angles of substantially 90° to
each other and to the radial planes of the shafts
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of a centrifugal cast
Fig. Il is an end elevation thereof.
_
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|5--|5. Support screws 28 carried by the frame
the machine, this view being taken along the
engage the lower ends of the bearing blocks 28
and are normally adjusted inwardly so that the
pulleys ride freely upon the tracks lll. By ad
line 5_5 of Fig. 6.
justment of these screwsoutwardly the bearing
Fig. 5 is a longitudinal vertical sectional View
of the cage and mould assembly, removed from
’
Fig. 6 is a transverse vertical sectional View,
taken along the line B-E of Fig. 5.
Fig. 7 is a vertical longitudinal sectional View,
taken along the line 'l--l of Fig. 6.
Fig. 8 is a top plan View of one of the individual
moulds.
Fig. 9 is a bottom plan view.
Fig. 10 is a side elevation thereof.
Fig. l1 is a plan view of the two parts of the
mould shown in open position, and with the
cast piece in one of the parts.
Fig. 12 is a side elevation of the cast piece
removed from the mould.
Fig. 13 is an end view thereof.
Fig. i4.- is a side elevation of the cast piece
blocks 26 may be moved outwardly in the slide
ways 2ï, to raise the idler pulleys to disengage
them from the tracks lil, and also to provide sufli
cient clearance for the tracks to be disengaged
'from the drive pulleys lë by raising the cage
vertically, for the purpose of convenient engage
ment and disengagement of the cage with respect
to the drive unit. The operation may be conven
iently carried out by overhead crane, or by a
suitable elevating dolly wheeled beneath the cage.
The mould units are of segmental form and
correspond in number to the supporting bars Il
of the cage, one unit being disposed between each
bar, and each bar providing an outwardly dis
posed support for the adjacent marginal edges
after removal of the longitudinal rib containing 30 of two of the adjacent mould units. Each mould
impurities.
unit comprises a pair of complementary mould
Fig. l5 is an end view thereof.
parts 29 having a longitudinally extending mould
Fig. 16 is a transverse vertical -sectional view
cavity et shaped to form half of the moulded
of a mould assembly according to the invention
piece. In the illustrated embodiment the mould
wherein the individual moulds are of different
ed piece is shown by way of example as a circular
forms, to produce a variety of cross sectional
cross-section tapered bar, such as might be used
shapes.
in forming a gun barrel. In this case the cavi
ties 3i] are tapered and this taper preferably cor
sponding parts throughout the several figures of
responds to the taper of the surfaces l2 of the
the drawings.
40 bars Il. The outer wall surface of the mould is
Referring to the drawings the centrifugal
concentric to the mould cavities and terminates
casting machine, according to the illustrated
at each side in a longitudinally extending shoul
exemplary embodiment of the invention, com
der ledge 3| adapted to seat upon the inner sur
prises a rotatable mould carrying cage member
face l2 of the bar Il of the cage, the side cur
Similar reference characters indicate corre
consisting of a plurality of circumferential track Ll5 faces of the mould unit being disposed in radial
planes intersecting the central planes of the bars
illustrated embodiment, and to the inner pe
Il which support it at each side. The cross sec
ripheries of which are secured, by welding or
tional shape of the separate mould units is of
other suitable methods, a series of logitudinally
substantially key-stone form, so that when the
rings le, two such rings being employed in the
extending spaced radially disposed bars Il, the
several units are assembled in concentric rela
inner longitudinal surfaces I2 of which are
tion within the cage each unit is supported by
the adjacent units. Their inner peripheral sur
slightly tapered from end to end, so that these
surfaces diverge toward the entrance end of the
cage to facilitate insertion and removal of the
moulds, as will presently more fully appear.
In the operation of the machine the cage is
horizontally disposed within a supporting power
unit, which rotates the cage and the moulds
carried thereby about a horizontal axis. This
unit comprises a pair of bearing frames l3--|3,
which are of inverted U-form and are each pro
vided upon the horizontal bases of each of the
faces are concavely curved, so that the inner
periphery of the assembled units is cylindrical
and concentric to the axis of the cage. Ex
tending longitudinally of the inner periphery of
each mould unit is a slot 32 formed by comple
mentary recesses in the inner side surfaces of
each of the mould parts, spacer lugs 33 being
60 provided at each end of the slot to maintain the
spaced relation of its side walls and so that the
two parts of the mould will not collapse toward
side legs with bearing standards I4, which con
each other. In each of the side surfaces ci the
stitute bearing supports for drive shafts l5--l5,
moulds there are provided longitudinally ex
in addition to the bearing supports provided for 65 tending grooves 3¢l for receiving tie rods for
these shafts in the side legs. Upon the shafts
maintaining the assembled relation of the moulds
i5, between the side legs and the bearing stand
within the cage, as will presently more fully
ards M, there are provided flanged pulley wheels
appear.
i6 which engage and support the track ringsI lil
The moulds are slightly longer than the bars
of the cage, the axes of the shafts l5 being dis 70 Il of the cage, so that they project at each end
posed in planes radial to the axis of the cage and
for the purpose of mounting thereon the closure
disposed at angles of substantially 90° to each
end plates 35--35, these end plates being in the
other. The shafts I5 are driven from a motor
form of centrally apertured rings having outer
l1 provided with pulleys I8 and I9 connected
and inner peripheral flanges 36 and 31 between
'by -belts 2€! and -2-i to pulleys «22 and ~23 provided 75 which the ends of the mould units are positioned.
2,406,866
5
The two end plates are tied together by a series
posed surface conforming to the cross sectional
of tie rods 38, disposed in the grooves 34 of the
mould units, and engaged at their threaded ends
through suitable holes in the end plates where
they are secured by nuts 39, In the assembled`
relation of the mould units and end plates the
outer peripheral flanges 3E of the end plates are
in opposed relation to the ends of the bars Il,
shape of the mould cavity, assures effective and
uniform cooling, so that the mould walls Will
not retain heat in excess of the critical tem
perature of the metal.
v
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‘The dross or impure metal Will be segregated in
the flange formation disposed in the entrance slot,
and as shown in Figs. 12 to 15 this flange Mi may
be readily removed from the centrifugally cast
against relative longitudinal movement, this op 10 body All, so that the latter is in the form of a
predetermined cross-sectional bar entirely free
posed relation being‘such however that the end
rom impurities, and with a minimum waste of
plates may be tightly secured upon the ends of
metal from the removal of the impure metal.
the mould units without interference'from the
Upon cooling the cast bars may be readily re
bars ll.
moved, either by removing the individual moulds
The bars I l support the assembled mould units
from the cage, or by driving the bars from the
along the shoulder ledges 3l against the outward
moulds while- the latter remain in the cage, the
centrifugal force of the rotating cage, but the
end plates being removed for this purpose and a
arrangement provides for complete expansion and
suitable forcing tool being applied to the small
contraction movement of the mould units radial
ly, circumferentially and longitudinally. VIt will 20 ends of the bars to force them longitudinally from
the divergent ends of the tapered mould cavi
be noted that the open form of the cage and
ties.
the marginal edge support of the units therein
In Fig. 16 there is illustrated a mould assembly
allows unrestricted expansion and contraction
in which the individual moulds are of dilïerent
radially, the slotted form of the units permits cir
cumferential expansion and contraction to take 25 cross sectional shape to produce a variety of
shapes of bars. These are identified by the letters
place entirely within each unit, and the disposi
A to H, the mould A being a circular cross-section
tion vof the closure end plates beyond the ends
mould, similar to those illustrated in Figs. l to 15,
of the cage permits free longitudinal expansion
the mould B being hexagon, mould C Octagon, the
and contraction. The disposition of `the tie rods
within the recesses 34 in the side Walls of the 30 mould D square with chamfered corners, the
mould E square, the mould F pointed square, the
mould units is also a factor in the complete
mould G half hexagon, and the mould H half
freedom of expansion and contraction movement,
round. In the case of the mould units A, IB,
as heat transfer to these tie rods will be sufficient
C and D, which have a contracted entrance slot,
to cause them to expand and contract in sub
the mould units are preferably split to facilitate
stantial conformation with the expansion and
the removal of the moulded pieces, while in the
contraction of the mould units themselves. l
case of the mould units E, F, G and H, which each
In operation, the assembled mould units in the
have slightly divergent side walls and an entrance
rotatable cage are mounted in the power unit,
opening formed by the inner ends of these side
as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, and rotation is im
parted thereto at the desired speed to create 40 walls, the mould units are preferably one-piece
form. In each case the cooperative side surfaces of
necessary centrifugal force. The molten metal
the several mould units and their engaging rela
is introduced into the mould through the cen
tion with the bars Il are identical, so that it is
tral passage therethrough by any suitable feed
possible in one assembly to include any number
means, the centrifugal force causing the metal
to move outwardly in the moulds and to build up 45 of the individual Shapes, or, as in the arrangement
illustrated in Figs. l to 15, to provide a complete
therein under centrifugal force untilthe moulds
assembly of any one of the several shapes.
are completely charged, this point being prede
so as to position the assembled mould units
termined, so that the mould cavities are com
I have illustrated and described a preferred
pletely nlled and the metal extends partially in
wardly in the entrance slots.
and satisfactory embodiment of the invention, but
Due to the horizontalH` arrangement ofthe
50 it will be understood that changes may be made
therein, within the spirit and scope thereof, as
deñned in the appended claims.
mould with its longitudinally extending mould
What is claimed is:
cavities, slots, and central passage glass that
1. In a centrifugal casting machine, a mould
form may readily escape without being trapped.
The complete symmetry 'of the mould, and the 55 carrier adapted for rotation about a longitudinal
axis including a series of circumferentially spaced
equal support afforded by the drive pulleys,
mould support members extending longitudinally
establishes dynamic balance so that relatively
in substantially parallel alignment with said axis,
high rotational speed may be attained, without
there being open spaces between said mould sup
creating excess strain upon any of the parts.
The cross sectional shape of the individual 60 port members extending longitudinally in sub
stantially parallel alignment with said axis, and
mould units, and the manner in which they are
a plurality of longitudinally disposed mould units
supported in the cage along the longitudinal bars
carried within said carrier in concentric relation
Il permits free expansion and contraction dur
about and in parallel alignment with said axis,
ing the heating and cooling stages, the outward
ly divergent side walls of the mould units sup 65 respectively disposed in said longitudinal spaces
of said carrier and each supported along its longi
porting the individual units against »the next ad
jacent units, and the longitudinally extending
tudinal edge portions by said mould supporting
members.
2. In a centrifugal casting machine, a mould
up entirely within-the individual mould unit 70 carrier adapted for rotation about a longitudinal
axis including a series of circumferentially spaced
without any tendency to distort or crack within
mould support members extending longitudinally
itself or to exert distorting or cracking force
entrance slots, permitting the strain of the cir
cumferential expansion movement to be taken
upon the adjacent mould units. The substan
tially uniform thickness of the outer walls of
the mould units, and their relatively large ex
in substantially parallel alignment with said axis
and disposed in planes radial to said axis, there
75 being open spaces between said mould support
A:2,406,360
7
8
members extending longitudinally in substantially
in radial planes of said axis, and a plurality of
longitudinally disposed mould units carried within
said carrier in concentric relation about and in
parallel alignment with said axis, and a plurality
of longitudinally disposed mould units carried
within said carrier in concentric relation about
and in parallel alignment with said axis, respec
tively disposed in said longitudinal spaces of said
parallel alignment with said axis, respectively
carrier and each supported along its longitudinal
edge portions by said mould supporting members.
portions by said mould supporting members.
disposed in said longitudinal spaces of said carrier
and each supported along its longitudinal edge
'7. In a centrifugal casting machine, a mould
carrier adapted for rotation about a longitudinal
axis including a series o1’ circumferentially spaced
3. In a centrifugal casting machine, a mould
carrier adapted for rotation about a longitudinal
axis including a series of circumferentially spaced
mould support members extending longitudinal
ly in substantially parallel alignment with said
axis, there being open spaces between said mould
support members extending longitudinally in
substantially parallel alignment with said axis, a
plurality of longitudinally disposed mould units
mould support members extending longitudinally
in. substantially parallel alignment with said axis
and having longitudinally tapered mould support
inner surfaces, there being open spaces between
said mould support members extending longi
tudinally in substantially parallel alignment with
carried within said carrier in concentric relation
about and in parallel alignment with said axis,
respectively disposed in said longitudinal spaces
of said carrier and each supported along its lon
said axis, and a plurality of longitudinally dis
posed mould units carried within said carrier in
concentric relation about and in parallel align
ment with said axis, respectively disposed in said
longitudinal spaces of said carrier and each hav
ing longitudinally tapered shoulder ledge sur
gitudinal edge portions by said mould support
ing members, each of said mould units having a
mould cavity extending longitudinally in sub
stantially parallel alignment with said axis en
faces along its longitudinal edge portions engaged
with said tapered surfaces of said mould support
ing members.
25 closed at its outer side, and an entrance slot at
its inner side extending longitudinally in sub
stantially parallel alignment with said axis, the
fl. In a centrifugal casting machine, a mould
carrier adapted for rotation about a longitudinal
outer peripheral wall portions of said mould
units substantially conforming to the form of
members concentric to said axis and a series of 30 said mould cavities and being projected outward
ly in said longitudinal spaces.
olrcumferentially spaced mould support members
axis including longitudinally spaced track ring
extending longitudinally in substantially parallel
8. In a centrifugal casting machine, a mould
carrier adapted for rotation about a longitudinal
axis including a series of cireumferentially
alignment with said axis and secured to the inner
peripheries of said ring members, there being open
spaced mould support members extending longi
tudinally in substantially parallel alignment With
spaces between said mould support members ex
tending longitudinally in substantially parallel
alignment with said axis, and a plurality of longi
tudinally disposed mould units carried within said
carrier in concentric relation about and in parallel
alignment with said axis, respectively disposed
40
said axis, there being open spaces between said
mould support members extending longitudinal
ly in substantially parallel alignment with said
axis, a plurality of longitudinally disposed mould
in said longitudinal spaces of said carrier and
units carried within said carrier in concentric re
cach supported along its longitudinal edge por
tions by said mould supporting members.
5. In a centrifugal casting machine, a mould
lation about and in parallel alignment with said
carrier adapted for rotation about a longitudinal L
axis including longitudinally spaced track ring
axis, respectively disposed in said longitudinal
spaces of said carrier and each supported along
its longitudinal edge portions by said mould sup
members concentric to said axis and a series of
porting members, each of said mould units hav
ing an open-ended mould cavity extending lon-
circumferentially spaced mould support members
gitudinally in substantially parallel alignment
extending longitudinally in substantially parallel
with said axis enclosed at its outer side, and an
entrance slot at its inner side extending longitu
alignment with said axis and secured to the inner
peripheries of said ring members, there being open
dinally in substantially parallel alignment with
spaces between said mould support members ex
said axis, and closure end plates secured upon
the ends of said mould units to close the open
ends of the mould cavities.
9. In a centrifugal casting machine, a mould
carrier adapted for rotation about a longitudi
nal axis including a series of circumferentially
tending longitudinally in substantially parallel
alignment with said axis, a power unit including
drive pulley wheels engaging and supporting said
track ring members, and a plurality of longi
tudinally disposed mould units carried within said
carrier in concentric relation about and in parallel
alignment with said axis, respectively disposed in
said longitudinal spaces of said carrier and each
supported along its longitudinal edge portions by
said mould supporting members.
6. In a centrifugal casting machine, a mould
carrier adapted for rotation about a longitudinal
axis including longitudinally spaced track ring
members concentric to said axis and a series of
circumferentially spaced mould support members
extending longitudinally in substantially parallel
spaced mould support members extending longi
tudinally in substantially parallel alignment
with said axis, there being open spaces between
said mould support members extending longitudinally in substantially parallel alignment with
said axis, a plurality of longitudinally disposed
mould units carried within said carrier in con
centric relation about and in parallel alignment
with said axis, respectively disposed in said lon
gitudinal spaces of said carrier and each sup
ported along its longitudinal edge portions by
alignment with said axis and secured to the inner
said mould supporting members, each of said
peripheries of said ring members, there being 70 mould units having an open-ended mould cavity
open spaces between said mould support mem
extending longitudinally in substantially paral
bers extending longitudinally in substantially
lel alignment with said axis enclosed at its outer
side, and an entrance slot at its inner side ex
parallel alignment with said axis, a power unit in
cluding a plurality of pulley wheels engaged with
tending longitudinally in substantially parallel
said track rings at equally spaced points disposed 75 alignment with said axis, and closure end plates
2,406,860
10
secured upon the ends of said mould units to
close the open ends of the mould cavities, each
carrier adapted for rotation about a longitudinal
said axis, there being open spaces between said
and eachhaving at its inner side in spaced ra
dially opposed relation to said outer wall a cen
axis, anda plurality of longitudinally disposed
of said end plates being disposed outwardly of
mould units carried within said carrier in con
the ends of said mould supporting members in
centric relation about and in parallel alignment
longitudinally opposed relation thereto.
Ul with said axis, each of said mould units compris
10. In a centrifugal casting machine, a mould
ing a> segment of a substantially cylindrical
carrier adapted for rotation about a longitudinal
mould assembly, and each having within it a
axis including a series of circumferentially
mould cavity defined by its outer wall and its
spaced mould support members extending longi
two side walls and extending longitudinally in
tudinally in substantially parallel alignment with 10 substantially parallel alignment with said axis,
mould support members extending longitudinal
ly in substantially parallel alignment with said
trally disposed entrance slot extending longitu
dinally in substantially parallel alignment with
axis, a plurality of longitudinally disposed
mould units carried within said carrier in con
15 said axis, the external side surfaces of each of
centric relation about and in parallel alignment
with said axis, respectively disposed in said lon
said mould units being in radial planes of said
axis and abutting the external side surfaces of
the adjacent units at the inner periphery of said
cylindrical mould assembly and in circumferen
tial line with said entrance slots, and the outer
wall of each of said units between said external
side surfaces being of substantially uniform
gitudinal spaces of said carrier and each sup
ported along its longitudinal edge portions by
said mould supporting 'members each of said
mould units having an open-ended mould cav
ity extending longitudinally in substantially par
allel alignment with said axis enclosed at its out
thicknesses, and substantially conforming to the
er side, and an entrance slot at its inner side ex
tending longitudinally in substantially parallel
alignment with said axis, and closure end plates
cross-sectional form of its respective mould cav
25
ity, said mould carrier comprising circumferen
tially spaced mould supporting means having
secured upon the ends of said mould units to
spaces between them wherein said outer walls of
close the open ends of the mould cavities, and tie
the mould units are exposed to the surrounding
rods extending between said end plates and ar
air.
ranged between the side walls of said mould units. 30
HARRY Gr. SP‘ECHT.
11. In a centrifugal casting machine, a mould
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