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Sept. 3, 1946>. `
`
2,406,880
` N_. H. YOUNG, JR»
INTELLIGENCE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
Filed Aug. 29, 1942
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Sept. 3, 1946.
N. H. YOUNG, JR
2,406,880
INTELLIGENCE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
Filed Aug. 29, 1942_
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BY
' Sept. 3, 1946.:
N; H. YOUNG, Já
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INTELLIGENCE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
Filed Aug'. 29, 1942
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Patented Sept. 3, 1946
` 2,406,880
UNITED STATI-:s PAT ENT OFFICE
2,406,880
INTELLIGENCE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
« Norman H. Young, Jr., Jackson Heights, N. Y., as
signor to Federal Telephone and Radio Corpo
ration, a corporation of vDelaware
Appiication August 29, 1942, Serial No. 456,651
1
2
This invention relates to intelligence transmis.
sion systems and more particularly to systems for
Figs. 4a, 4b, 4c and 4d show examples of let
ters and their corresponding scanning disk aper->
tures to be used with the present invention;
Fig. 5 illustrates further examples of letters and
transmitting and receiving intelligence in the
form of a sequence of individual characters, such
as letters of the alphabet, numerals, and the
like.
, scanning disk apertures;
Fig. 6 is a further example of a letter made
An object of this invention is to provide a
method and means for transmitting intelligence
over conductors or through spaces, which permits
with modified horizontal waveforms;
Fig. 7 is a block diagram illustrating a still
further modification of the transmission system
L of the present invention.
the use of a plurality of relatively simple receiv
ing and reproducing apparatuses.
Fig. 8 is a partial front elevation of a scanning
Another object of this invention is to provide an `
disk to be used in connection with the system
shown in Fig. 7.
Fig. 9 is a partial vertical cross-sectional view
improved intelligence transmission system in
which a predetermined wave-form corresponding
to a selected character is transmitted and con
u. of a Wave form generator, taken along the line
verted at the receiverto a corresponding legible
character.
‘
9-9._of Fig. 8;
‘
Fig. 10 shows a letter and vertical Wave form
Still another object of this invention is to pro
vide an improved method and means for break
ing up selected characters into vertical and hori
zontal wave-forms, and reconverting such wave
forms into corresponding legible characters.
A further object of this invention is to provide
a method and means for breaking up selected
diagram produced by the transmission system
illustrated in Fig. 8; and
2,0
Fig.‘11 is a block circuit diagram illustrating
I' principles of the present invention as applied to
Wireless transmission.
The relatively simple block circuit diagram il
lustrated in Fig. l shows the basic principles of
characters into two wave-forms, one of which is 25 the present invention. As there illustrated, a key
the same for all characters and the other of which
board I0, provided with a plurality of keys each
varies with the individual character to be trans
corresponding to a character which it is desired
mitted, and reconverting‘said wave-forms into
to
transmit, is connected by suitable means, such
legible characters at a receiving station.
as a multiple cable I2, to a vertical wave form
An additional object of this invention is to pro
generator I4, to be described in more detail here
vide an improved secret intelligence transmission '
inafter. The generator I4 is shown as preferably
system.
I
connectedthrough an ampliiier I E to a transmis
A more specific object of this invention is to
sion `line I8. A suitable receiving station will
provide a method and means for breaking up se
include an amplifier 20 connected to the trans
lected characters into horizontal and vertical
mission line I 8, the ampliñer 20 being in turn con
waveforms, one waveform being common to all l
nected to the vertically spaced electrodes 22 of
characters and the other varying with each indi
a cathode ray tube 24, of the usual type provided'
vidual character, transmitting the variable wave
with a fluorescent screen. The transmitting sta->
form, and combining this variable waveform with
tion ¿also includes a horizontal wave form gener
the common waveform at a receiver for couvern
ator 2B connected through an ampliñer 28 to
sion into corresponding legible characters.
line 30, while the receiving station,
Other objects and advantages of the present ‘ transmission
in turn, will also include an amplifier 32 connect
invention will appear yfrom a study of the follow
ed to the transmission line 3U and supplying volt
ing description of a preferred embodiment and
age to the horizontal electrodes 34 of thecathode
modifications thereof, taken in connection with 45 ray tube 24.
the attached drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a block circuit diagram illustratingV a
preferred embodiment of the present invention;A
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary front elevation of a
scanning disk forming part of the present inven
In the preferred embodiment of the invention
just described above, it is contemplated that the
vertical Waveform generator I4 is designed to
generate individual vertical waves depending up
on
the character to be transmitted, the generator
50.
tion;
'
I 4 being controlled for this purpose by the de»
Fig. 3 is a vertical cross-sectional view taken
pressing of a suitable key (A) of the` keyboard
along the line 3-3 of Fig. 2 illustrating the re-`
I'Il.` "The horizontal wave form generator 26, on
lationship of the scanning disk with other parts
of a Waveform generator;
`
’ ’
`
` `
the'other hand, is designed to produce one type
of wave `which will be used for all of the charac
2,406,880
3
ters.
At the receiving station the combination
of the chosen vertical wave with the common hor
izontal wave will produce the desired character
on the iiuorescent screen of the cathode ray tube
24. In the form of invention now contemplated
it is preferred that the horizontal wave form gen
erator produce a triangular wave, and means for
producing such a shaped wave are well known
4
mum height of not more than three-eighths cf
an inch, it is possible to place a suitable series of
radially spaced apertures to correspond to the
entire alphabet on a relatively small disk. In
order that the vertical waves produced by the
disk 3i! may be properly synchronized with the
horizontal wave-form pro-duced by the genera
tor. 26, it will, ofcourse, be necessary that the
apertures corresponding to the beginning of each
to the art; the details of such a triangular wave
form generator need therefore not be discussed. 10 character start and end along common radii,
the difference in scanningf speed between the
The vertical wave form produced by the generator
outer part of the disk and the inner part of the
I4, which wave form diiîers for each character
disk being properly compensated by the size of
to be transmitted, may be produced in the novel
the aperture. The number of repetitions of the
manner described below.
vertical Wave for each revolution of the disk is
In accordance with a preferred arrangement
unimportant, it being only important that there
illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3, the vertical wave
`bea whole number of apertures for each revo
form corresponding to each character to be translution.
mitted is produced by means such as a disk 36
It will be obvious to those skilled in this art
having a plurality of radially spaced annular
apertures 38, each of these apertures having a 20 that the basic principle of the present invention,
namely'the reproduction of characters by means
special predetermined cross-section. As indicat
of vertical and horizontal waves can be effected
ed in Fig. 3, this disk is adapted to rotate between
by means other than those just described which,
sources of light £55! and light-sensitive devices'llû,
in both the mechanical and electrical sense, are
there being preferably provided one light source
and one light-sensitive device for use in con 25 to be considered as equivalents. For example,
the waveforming aperture 38 may be produced
nection with each aperture. It will be obvious to
upon the periphery of a drum as well as upon
those skilled in this art that if a light source is
the face of a disk and, likewise, can be produced
energized, excitation of the corresponding light
upon a continuous tape for each letter. The ex
sensitive device will depend upon the cross-sec'
tion of the interposed aperture, and as the disk 30 citation of the individual light-sensitive devices
under the control of the keyboard l@ can be ac~
36 containing the aperture rotates between the
compiished either by the energization or deen
energized light source and the light-sensitive de
ergization or" the individual light sources ¿lli ory
vice, the excitation of the light-sensitiveidevice
on the other hand, by proper construction, a
wil1 vary in accordance with a predetermined pat
tern, corresponding to the cross-section of the 35 single'large light source could be used, the pas
sage of light to the individual photo-electric cells
aperture, resulting in a voltage wavel which is
in such a case being controlled by shutters oper
transmitted to the ampliiier l5, and thence to
ated either mechanically or electrically by the
the receiver, as shown in Fig. 1. The energiza
individual
character keys or by a direct switching
tion of the various light sources »40 may be con
trolled by the keyboard l0 in such a manner, for 40 of the individual photo-electric cell circuits. It
is further to be understood that in connection
example, that when the key “A” is depressed the
With'the physical form of invention illustrated
upper lamp ¿lil in Fig. 3 will be energized andthe
in Figs. 2 and 3, such has been given merely by
light-sensitive device 45 will, in turn, be then ex
way of example.
cited in accordance with the pattern of the aper
The manner in which the individual letters are
ture 38 on the disk 3S, which has previously been
built
up on the screen of the cathode ray tube
predetermined for the letter “A.” Of course,` dur
24 from the transmitted horizontal and vertical
ing this time the remaining lamps‘will not be en
wave is more clearly illustrated by the examples
ergized and, as is well known in the manual key
shown in Figs. 4a, 4h, llc, 4d and 5. In accordance
board art, means may be provided on the' key
withl
the present invention the cathode ray screen
50
board for preventing depression of more than'oneV
is preferably provided with a shield 5e having an
key at a time; in this manner one is assured thatY
aperture 5i of predetermined dimensions cor
only one lamp will be energized and the pattern
responding to the size of the character to be
for one letter only transmitted at any particular
formed but, in any event, smaller than the sur
moment. In the structural arrangement illustrat
face of the screen itself. In Fig. 4a there is
ed in Fig. 3 the lamps 4i! are shown as mounted
shown, by Way of example, the manner in which
in individual compartments in a suitable housing
the letter “A” is formed from a single triangular
G2, such housing being substantially open along
wave 53 in combination with a vertical wave 55
its side adjacent the disk 36. The light passing
of predetermined shape. The cathode ray tube
through the apertures 38 is transmitted through
narrow slits "55 to the light-sensitive devices 46 60 is normally biased so that the light spo-t will be
positioned at a point a which is behind the
which may be mounted in a suitable supporting
shield 50. By following the coordinates of the
structure 48. In order to prevent false excita
horizontal wave 53 in combination with the co
tion of the light-sensitive devices due to unde
ordinates of the vertical wave 55, it will be seen
sired spreading of the light, it is presupposedv
that the disk 36 be mounted as closely as pos 65 that a tracing of the letter “A” begins at this
point a. The point l) will then appear at the lower
sible next to the slits 44;
left-hand side of the aperture 5l after passage
The disk 36 containing the patterns ofthe
of the iirst time unit. As the two waves progress
light transmitting apertures may be formedv in
in synchronism the tracing on the fluorescent
any suitable manner. Because such apertures
have an extremely variable cross-sectionit' is 70 screen will then follow the points c, d, c, Í, g until
the point h has been reached. rI‘he light spot
proposed, for the sake of simplicity, that the
apertures be photographed on the disk, it being
will then momentarily pass behind the screen to
the point i, returning in the next time unit to
understood that the apertures themselves will be
the point i, which is coincident with the point h.
transparent while the rest of the disk will be
opaque. Since the apertures need have a’ maxi Llo From thence the lower part of the letter‘will be
5
2,408,880
retraced on> the return portion of the triangular
wave through the points k, Z, m, u, o and `pto
the starting point q, coincident with the point a.
While in the tracing of the letter "A,” the shield
is not necessary to mask the light beam except
for starting purposes, Vsuch masking is necessary
for certain characters, as will be more apparent
from a study of further examples of traced let
ters.
Of course, in tracing a letter such as “A”
the sequence of the tracing operation is unim
portant, as one might trace the lower part of
the letter before lthe upper part, as well as in the
manner iirst indicated. A change in the se
quence of the tracing will, of course, require a
slightly diiîerent vertical wave. The correspond
ing aperture 38 in the disk 36 which, in effect,
6..
double triangular wave 53’ in connection with
the predetermined vertical wave, it will be noted
that the ñrst half of the double horizontal wave
in connection with the proper vertical wave may
«~ be used to trace all of the letter with the ex
ception of the horizontal bar. Since in an ordi
nary iormed “G” the horizontal bar does not ex
tend all the way across the left side of the letter
i, and, on the other hand, the trace must return
to its starting point in accordance with the shape
of the horizontal Wave, the tracing of the hori
zontal bar will involve a return tail between the
points r and u as appears in the showing cf the
letter. However, despite this tail the letter will
be entirely legible and recognizable so that this
characteristic which only occurs in very few of
the characters does not negative the usefulness
is an envelope of the wave 55 has also been il»
lustrated in connection with the letter “A.”
The system is equally capable of producing nu
merals as shown in >the example of the tracing
of the numeral “7” in Fig. 4b. In the tracing
>of the numeral “7” the use of the mask on the
cathode ray screen in order to provide suitable
invention now under discussion. Fig. 5a also
illustrates the form of aperture necessary to pro
starting and return points is clearly indicated.
Fig. 4b also illustrates the scanning disk aper
ture necessary to produce the required vertical
with a properly designed vertical wave-producing
wave. Examples of lower case letters which may
be traced by the apparatus `of the present in
of the system as a whole. The letter “G” has
been specifically shown as the worst example of
a letter which may be traced lby theform of
duce the required vertical wave. Fig. 5b illus
trates the formation of a lower case “a” by the
use cf a double triangular wave in connection
aperture.
It will be noted that in Fig. 1 a single hori~
vention are illustrated in Figs. 4c and 4d. In
zontal wave form generator has been illustrated
Fig. 4c an example of a lower case letter having 30 and described whereas applicant has pointed out
a depending tail is shown in the tracing of the that certain designated characters may be formed
letter “p.” The corresponding vertical wave and
with a . single triangular wave, whereas other
disk aperture are also given.
characters need a double triangular wave. It
Fig. 4d shows an example of a lower caselet
ter with a vertical extending portion, such as the
letter “h.” This figure also shows the correspond
ing vertical wave and required disk aperture. In
connection with the numeral “7” and the lower
case letters “p” and “h,” it is again pointed out
that the sequence of tracing indicated on the
diagrams need not be followed, since in any case
the reverse order of tracing can be used and ad«
ditional variations may be used as may be ap«~
parent to thc-se skilled in this art. If any changes
are made,` however, corresponding changes in the
does not follow, however, that two horizontal wave
form generators are necessary since in all cases
the double triangular wave can be used. With
those letters which require only a single triangu
lar wave and whose Vertical wave forms are co
ordinated for a single horizontal wave, the use
of a double horizontal wave will only result in
a repetition of the letter.
'
One of the advantages of thesystem illustrated`
in Fig. 1 and which has just been described,
lies in the fact that the keyboard need only con
shape of the vertical wave and in the aperture 45 trol the vertical wave form generator, the hori
zontal wave form being common to all characters,
producing that wave will have to be made.
with the result that the control of the apparatus
Many characters can be properly traced using
by the keyboard l0 is relatively simple.
one triangular wave for the same unit time as
While a triangular horizontal wave has been
the corresponding Vertical wave. Some examples
of these have been illustrated in Figs. 4a, 4b, 4c 50 illustrated by way of example, it will be ap
parent to those skilled in this art that, within
and 4d. Other more complicated characters,
however, will require two complete triangular
waves for each corresponding Vertical wave. Ex
limitation, the horizontal wave may have sub
stantially any predetermined common form. In
Fig.` 6 I have illustrated in solid and dotted lines,
amples of such characters have been illustrated
in Fig. 5. In general, it may be stated that the 55 respectively, the vertical waveform which would
upper case letters, numerals and lower case let
be used, for example, in making the letter “A”
ters can be grouped in accordance with the fol
with either a semi-circular 52 or an inverse sine
lowing table:
horizontal 51 Waveform. 'I'he important limi
Number of triangular waves required for selected characters
Waves
oneACDFILMNOPUVWXl7cfhlmnopv
tw0BEGHJKoRsTYz23456soabdegi
Turning to the types of letters which require
two complete horizontal Waves for each single ver
tical wave, Fig. 5 illustrates two examples, one
of which is unusual and the other more or less
typical. If a standard predetermined triangular
horizontal wave is to be used, those letters which
have horizontal components which do not ex
f tend entirely across the letter will be formed with
a return tail as shown, for example, in the for
mation of the letter “G” in Fig. 5a. In tracing
the formation of such a character from the
tation with regardl to the shape of the common
horizontal wave is that it should not contain
extremely abrupt changes as would be encoun
tered, for example, in a rectangular wave ex»
0 cept in those cases, such as a sawtooth wave,
in which the abrupt changes is used as a ily
back only.` The ordinary sine wave, it is ’ob
vious, is entirely suitable. To take care of char
acters requiring a double horizontal wave, it is
75 contemplated that the common horizontal Wave
form, no matterl what shape is chosen, `be re
2,496,880
7
heated as explained above in connection with the
triangular horizontal wave.
The form of invention illustrated in Fig. 1,
the horizontal wave form which is common to
all characters, readily lends itself to a single
transmission line or radio channel system such
as illustrated in Fig. 8. In such an arrangement
the transmission station need consist only of the
keyboard I0, a vertical waveform generator I4’
8
eluded in the pattern for veach character, in
which case no additional light sensitive device
is required, but the pattern for such character
will take up slightly more room.
Any other ysuitable method of obtaining a Syn
chronizing pulse can be used. For example, the
vertical waveform generator may be provided
with suitable means for obtaining a synchronizing
.tone frequency which will then be separated at
and the necessary amplifier I6. The vertical 10 the receiver and used to trigger the horizontal
waveform generator. Instead of exciting the
waveform generator I4' can be of substantially
light-sensitive devices 66 and 5S in the opposite
the same construction as the generator I4 in
sense as has been proposed in
9 and 1€), they
dicated in Fig. 1, but must also provide means
may be excited in the same sense and then shifted
for assuring proper synchronization of the local
in phase before ythe two Waves are transmitted
horizontal waveform generator 25’ at the re
together over the connected line. One manner of
ceiver; Synchronization of the horizontal wave
causing such phase shift would be to use separate
form generator can be accomplished in several
amplifiers of diiîerent numbers of stages. For
ways which will be recognized as substantial
example,
four stages for the vertical waveform
equivalentsto those skilled in this art.
In a preferred form illustrated synchroniza 20 and three stages for the pulse, whereby the pulse
Iwould be 180° out of phase with the vertical wave
tion is effected by adding a suitable pulse of 0P
forni. lStill another way of transmitting the vcr
.nosite value from the normally transmitted ver
tical waveform. and the `synchronizing pulse over
tical wave, this pulse being separated from the
the same channel would be to modulate the azn
nlitude of the vertical wave and modulate .the ire
Quency of the pulse whereby at the receiving end
at 54, and the separate pulse being then trans
an amplitude modulation receiver would be used
mitted to the horizontal waveform generator 25
to supply power through a suitable ampliñer
for synchronizing purposes.
through
the vertical electrodes of the cathode ray
One manner of producing the required nega
tube and a frequency modulation detector would
30
tive pulse is illustrated in Figs. 9 and 10 in which
vertical wave at the receiving station by a sep
arating circuit of any well-known type indicated
the scanning disk 36’ is provided not only with
character-controlling apertures 38 but also with
an additional aperture 5B interrupted during the
first time unit of each character-aperture by an
opaque section 58. An additional light-sensitive
device Si) will be used to respond to the light
interruption at the beginning of each character
aperture, and since the light-sensitive device 60
responds in the opposite manner to the light
sensitive device 46, it will produce a pulse in the
opposite direction to the wave produced by eX
citation. of the light-sensitive device 46. In this
be connected so as to control the horizontal wave
form generator.
The transmission systems previously described
have all been proposed for use in connection with
the transmission of intelligence over intercon
necting transmission lines. It will be clear to
those skilled in this art, however, 't1-.iat all forma
of the system are equally applicable to the trans
mission of ysuch intelligence by radiation in free
space. One form which such a system nir-.y tc‘xe
has been illustrated, by Way of example in l
ll,
in which the keyboard lll controls the if ical
waveform generator M, the output of which is
modulated in amplitude by suitable well-knownL
case the slit 44’ adjacent the scanning disk 3:3’
will be extended to permit the entry of light to
the additional light-sensitive device> 60. The re
sultant vertical wave transmitted has been shown,
by Way of example, in connection with the let
ter “A” in Fig. 1l.
‘ means indicated at 652, impressed upon the trans
mitter 65 and radiated from the antenna GS. The
horizontal waveform generator 25 of the type
producing the same double triangular waves for
It will be noted in this con
all characters may be frequency modulated by :i
nection that the negative pulse 59 will occur
suitable means indicated at @il and likewise con
during the time unit both for the vertical and 50 nected to the transmitter 66 and radiated in syn
the horizontal wave when the light beam on the
chronism with the amplitude modulated vertical
screen of the cathode ray tube will be behind the
waves. The signals picked up by the antenna '£3
shield 5D so that any change of the horizon
and the receiver 'i2 will be separated into the ver
tal beam during this period will not adversely
tical and horizontal waveform components by the
55
affect the formation of the character desired.
respective detectors 'i4 and lli amplified by suit
The resulting vertical wave impressed upon the
able amplifiers 2€) and 32’ respectively and iin
electrodes 22, however, will not differ from that
pressed upon the proper electrodes of the cathode
of the system illustrated in Fig. 1, since the
ray tube 2li. Where a local horizontal waveform
negative pulse will have been removed from this
generator is used as in the system illustrated in
wave by the separating circuits 54. If, however, 60 Fig. 8, the frequency modulation waves transmit
the separating circuit is of such a character that
ted may be used to control the synchronization ci
the negative pulse is not entirely removed, this
the local horizontal waveform generator. It will,
will be unimportant as the resultant change in
therefore. be at once apparent to those skilled in
the vertical wave imposed upon the tube will oc
65 this art that the system in accordance with this
cur behind the screen 5U. Methods of controlling
invention can be adapted for wireless transmis
the synchronization of the horizontal Waveform
generator by means of the separated pulse are
well known in 'the art and a description of the
circuits involved is accordingly believed to be
unnecessary.
sion in all cases.
Where a local horizontal wave
form generator is used, a synchronizing pulse
may be imposed upon the radiated vertical wave
70 form as in the system illustrated in Fig. 7, as Well
The additional light sensitive device E0 may
be used to give a synchronizing pulse common to
all of the characters. However, it will be obvi
ous that the necessary variation in light flux
to produce a synchronizing pulse may be in 75
as using separate amplitude and frequency mod
ulation as shown in Fig. ll. -
It is clear that the novel transmission system
according to the present invention is especially
adaptable to the transmission of secret intelli
:2.406.886
gence.> 'ïn‘ the forms of _inventions wherein only
first predetermined wave form corresponding to
one waveform is transmitted, either over a line or
one parameter of a character to be transmitted,
means for producing a second predetermined
through space, interceptions of this one waveform
Iwould be unintelligible unless the interceptor
waveform corresponding to another parameter
_knew the Waveform of the other component. Ac 5 and common to all of the characters to be trans
cordingly, by the use of a local horizontal wave
mitted, and means for combining said waveforms
into a legible character.
.
form generator at the receiver, the generated local
T2. The `combination according to claim 1, in
waveform being maintained secret, secrecy of the
entire system can be preserved.` By correlating
which the fundamental frequency of said sec
a series'of vertical waveform generators with cor» 10 _ond waveform is an integral multiple of that of
responding local horizontal waveform generators,
said. first> waveform.
'3.ïîThe`combination according to claim 1, in
changing~ the two from time to time in accordance
with a pre-arranged code, will still further in
crease the possibilities of secrecy.
which said last means comprises a cathode ray
tube `havinga fluorescent screen and a pair of
«
It is to be understood that in all forms of the 15 horizontal and a pair of vertical electrodes, in
invention the horizontal waveform generator may
combination with means for connecting. one
be used to provide the main controlling pattern
waveform to one pair of electrodes and the other
instead of using the vertical Iwavfcrm generator
waveform to the other pair of electrodes.
for this purpose, as has been described in the eX
4. The combination according to claim 1, in
amples given. Likewise, in all cases involving
which said last means includes a cathode ray
amplitude modulation of the vertical‘waveform
tube having a fluorescent screen, a mask cover
generator and 4frequency modulation of the hori
ing said screen, said mask being provided with
zontal waveform generator or pulse, the reverse
a centrally disposed opening adapted to frame
operation, namely frequency modulation of `the
the character formed, and means for connect
vertical Waveform generator and amplitude mod
‘ ing one Waveform to one pair of electrodes and
ulation of the horizontal waveform generator or
the other waveform to the other pair of elec
pulse is equally applicable.
trodes.
It is >also contemplated that instead of using a
single disk or cylinder to form the vertical wave
y
form pattern, as previously described, separate «
5. A method of conveying intelligence which
includes the steps of decomposing each char
acter to be conveyed into one Waveform peculiar
disks carrying a single character pattern may be
lto each character and a second Wave form com
used for each character or a group of characters.
mon t0 all characters, transmitting the one char
Additionally, instead of using a system having a
acteristic Wave form of the desired character,
rotating disk with a light-interrupted pattern in
and combining the transmitted waveform with
combination with a light-sensitive device on the 35 the common waveform into a legible desired
transmitting end, I may employ a system of elec
tronic scanning of a perforated target or a target
6. In an intelligence transmission system, a
having variable emissivity. Such scanning may
transmitter including a series of patterns, each
be single line scanning instead of multi-line scan
pattern corresponding to one parameter of a
ning. The shape of the perforations in a perfo
character to be transmitted, means for generat
rated target or of the high emissive portions in
ing a waveform in accordance with a chosen pat
character.
the case of a target having a variable emissivity
'
tern, means for generating a second waveform
will not correspond to the shape of the characters
but are of the shape of the waveform to be used
for vertical deflections.
.
in synchronism with said ñrst Waveform and cor
responding to a second parameter common to
all of the characters to be transmitted, and a
receiver including means for receiving said Wave
forms and means for simultaneously converting
and combining said waveforms into a legible
v
It will be noted that in all cases I propose to
make use of a receiver having a cathode ray tube
in which the beam is kept at constant intensity
and its movement is controlled in accordance
character.
~
with the transmitted signal. This is exactly op 50 '7. The combination according to claim 6, in
posite to the method usually followed in the or
which the fundamental'frequency of said sec
dinary facsimile system, since usually the path
ond Waveform is an integral multiple of that of
kof the beam is independent of the transmitted sig;
said ñrst Waveform.
nal and the luminosity is controlled by such
8. The combination according to claim 6, in
transmitted signal.
„
55 which said last means comprises a cathode ray
It will be obvious to those skilled in this art
that photographic» means may well be used for
recording the letters reproduced on the cathode
ray tube screen, and it is accordingly contem
plated that this invention can be equally well 60
used indirect reading or recording systems.
Attention is directed to the fact that the in
telligence transmission system of .the present in
vention is capable of producing intelligible char
acters With a relatively small frequency spec
trum, thus enabling either higher speed trans
mission or the use of lower grade channels.
Additionally, the receiver and transmitter have
been simpliiied as compared with standard elec»
tube having a fluorescent screen, and a pair of
horizontal and a pair of vertical electrodes, in
combinationwith means for connecting one re
ceived wave to one pair of electrodes and the
other received Wave to the other pair of elec
trodes.
9. The method of transmitting intelligence,
which includes lthe steps of decomposing each
character to be transmitted into one waveform
peculiar to each character and a second wave
form common to all characters, transmitting the
one characteristic Waveform of the desired char
acter, simultaneously and synchronously trans
mitting the common waveform, and combining
tronic scanning systems. ,
70 the transmitted Wave forms into a legible char
Having described a preferred embodiment of
acter at a receiver.
my invention together with certain modiñcations
`10. The combination according to claim 6, in
thereof, what I claim is as follows:
-comblnation with separate channels for carrying
1. An intelligence transmission system com
said waveforms from said transmitter to said re
prising, in combination, means for producing a 75 celver.
11
11. The method according to- claim 9, which
includes the step of transmitting the separate
12
waveform to one pair of electrodes and the other
waveform to the other pair of electrodes.
16. The method of ,transmitting intelligence,
waveforms over individual channels.
which includes the steps of decomposing each
12. In an intelligence transmission system, a
transmitter including a series of patterns, each Ul character to be transmitted into one waveform
peculiar to each character and a second Wave
pattern corresponding to one parameter of a
form common to all characters, transmitting the
character to be transmitted, means for generat
one characteristic waveform of the desired char
ing a waveform in accordance with a chosen pat
acter, receiving said characteristic waveform,
tern, and means for generating a synchronizing
puise, and a receiver including means respon' 10 generating the common waveform at the receiver,
sive to said synchronizing pulse for generating
and then combining the received characteris
a second waveform in synchronism with said one
waveform and corresponding to a second para
meter commcn to all of the characters to be
transmitted, and means for simultaneously con'
verting and combining said waveforms into a
tic waveform with the common waveform into a
legible character.
13. rf‘he combination according to claim 12 in
which said synchronizing pulse is impressed upon
and in an opposite direction to the one wave
form at the beginning thereof, and in which said
receiver includes means for separating said syn
chronizing pulse from said one waveform.
14. The combination according to claim 12, in
which the fundamental frequency of said second
waveform is an integral multiple of that of said
iirst waveform.
15. The combination according to claim 12, in
which said last means comprises a cathode ray
tube having a fluorescent screen, and a pair of
horizontal and a pair of vertical electrodes, in
combination with means for connecting one
legible character.
17. The method according to claim 16 which
includes the further step of synchronizing the
generation of the common waveform with the
reception of the characteristic waveform.
18. The combination according to claim 6, in
which said transmitter includes two separately
distinguishable carrier modulating means, in
combination with the means for connecting one
waveform generator to one modulating means
and the other waveform generator to the other
modulating means, and means at said receiver for
reconverting the received signals into the two
transmitted waveforms.
19. The method according to claim 9, which
includes the steps of .transmitting both wave
forms over a single channel by respectively dif
ferent modulations of a carrier, and separating
the modulating waveforms from the carrier at
the receiver.
Y
l
NORMAN H. YOUNG, Ja.
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