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Sept. 3, 1946>. ` ` 2,406,880 ` N_. H. YOUNG, JR» INTELLIGENCE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM Filed Aug. 29, 1942 . 6 Sheets-Sheet l .16) 915’ zo, AMPLIFIER HOP/ZUNML WAVE FÜRM GENERATOR AMPLIFIER - f2@ _ AMPl /F/EA? WA VE «di l l EA NVENTOR /vo/PM H you/va, ./R. ATTO, EY Sept. 3, 1946. N. H. YOUNG, JR 2,406,880 INTELLIGENCE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM Filed Aug. 29, 1942_ 6 sheets-sheet 5 // UNITS TIME /66 NPA Msn/rre@ .mwa, _ Ama. .nA„n PZENSETE w mmm. m u.u.m @rMena n V _ _ . 2 M ,2 œ www um”mm WWUTNUMCEMwww „Awww„m„mMDYRE y E. E E RECEIVER INVENTOR _ ../5 NORMA/v f1. You/vs, JR. \ BY ' Sept. 3, 1946.: N; H. YOUNG, Já 2,406,880 ' INTELLIGENCE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM Filed Aug'. 29, 1942 j e shee'ts~sheet e Hanze/vm muffa/PM ¿iE/VERA mi’ “ .50 V51 ` INVENTOR NORMA/v H. you/ye, JR. . ì B î ATTOR Y Patented Sept. 3, 1946 ` 2,406,880 UNITED STATI-:s PAT ENT OFFICE 2,406,880 INTELLIGENCE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM « Norman H. Young, Jr., Jackson Heights, N. Y., as signor to Federal Telephone and Radio Corpo ration, a corporation of vDelaware Appiication August 29, 1942, Serial No. 456,651 1 2 This invention relates to intelligence transmis. sion systems and more particularly to systems for Figs. 4a, 4b, 4c and 4d show examples of let ters and their corresponding scanning disk aper-> tures to be used with the present invention; Fig. 5 illustrates further examples of letters and transmitting and receiving intelligence in the form of a sequence of individual characters, such as letters of the alphabet, numerals, and the like. , scanning disk apertures; Fig. 6 is a further example of a letter made An object of this invention is to provide a method and means for transmitting intelligence over conductors or through spaces, which permits with modified horizontal waveforms; Fig. 7 is a block diagram illustrating a still further modification of the transmission system L of the present invention. the use of a plurality of relatively simple receiv ing and reproducing apparatuses. Fig. 8 is a partial front elevation of a scanning Another object of this invention is to provide an ` disk to be used in connection with the system shown in Fig. 7. Fig. 9 is a partial vertical cross-sectional view improved intelligence transmission system in which a predetermined wave-form corresponding to a selected character is transmitted and con u. of a Wave form generator, taken along the line verted at the receiverto a corresponding legible character. ‘ 9-9._of Fig. 8; ‘ Fig. 10 shows a letter and vertical Wave form Still another object of this invention is to pro vide an improved method and means for break ing up selected characters into vertical and hori zontal wave-forms, and reconverting such wave forms into corresponding legible characters. A further object of this invention is to provide a method and means for breaking up selected diagram produced by the transmission system illustrated in Fig. 8; and 2,0 Fig.‘11 is a block circuit diagram illustrating I' principles of the present invention as applied to Wireless transmission. The relatively simple block circuit diagram il lustrated in Fig. l shows the basic principles of characters into two wave-forms, one of which is 25 the present invention. As there illustrated, a key the same for all characters and the other of which board I0, provided with a plurality of keys each varies with the individual character to be trans corresponding to a character which it is desired mitted, and reconverting‘said wave-forms into to transmit, is connected by suitable means, such legible characters at a receiving station. as a multiple cable I2, to a vertical wave form An additional object of this invention is to pro generator I4, to be described in more detail here vide an improved secret intelligence transmission ' inafter. The generator I4 is shown as preferably system. I connectedthrough an ampliiier I E to a transmis A more specific object of this invention is to sion `line I8. A suitable receiving station will provide a method and means for breaking up se include an amplifier 20 connected to the trans lected characters into horizontal and vertical mission line I 8, the ampliñer 20 being in turn con waveforms, one waveform being common to all l nected to the vertically spaced electrodes 22 of characters and the other varying with each indi a cathode ray tube 24, of the usual type provided' vidual character, transmitting the variable wave with a fluorescent screen. The transmitting sta-> form, and combining this variable waveform with tion ¿also includes a horizontal wave form gener the common waveform at a receiver for couvern ator 2B connected through an ampliñer 28 to sion into corresponding legible characters. line 30, while the receiving station, Other objects and advantages of the present ‘ transmission in turn, will also include an amplifier 32 connect invention will appear yfrom a study of the follow ed to the transmission line 3U and supplying volt ing description of a preferred embodiment and age to the horizontal electrodes 34 of thecathode modifications thereof, taken in connection with 45 ray tube 24. the attached drawings, in which: Fig. 1 is a block circuit diagram illustratingV a preferred embodiment of the present invention;A Fig. 2 is a fragmentary front elevation of a scanning disk forming part of the present inven In the preferred embodiment of the invention just described above, it is contemplated that the vertical Waveform generator I4 is designed to generate individual vertical waves depending up on the character to be transmitted, the generator 50. tion; ' I 4 being controlled for this purpose by the de» Fig. 3 is a vertical cross-sectional view taken pressing of a suitable key (A) of the` keyboard along the line 3-3 of Fig. 2 illustrating the re-` I'Il.` "The horizontal wave form generator 26, on lationship of the scanning disk with other parts of a Waveform generator; ` ’ ’ ` ` ` the'other hand, is designed to produce one type of wave `which will be used for all of the charac 2,406,880 3 ters. At the receiving station the combination of the chosen vertical wave with the common hor izontal wave will produce the desired character on the iiuorescent screen of the cathode ray tube 24. In the form of invention now contemplated it is preferred that the horizontal wave form gen erator produce a triangular wave, and means for producing such a shaped wave are well known 4 mum height of not more than three-eighths cf an inch, it is possible to place a suitable series of radially spaced apertures to correspond to the entire alphabet on a relatively small disk. In order that the vertical waves produced by the disk 3i! may be properly synchronized with the horizontal wave-form pro-duced by the genera tor. 26, it will, ofcourse, be necessary that the apertures corresponding to the beginning of each to the art; the details of such a triangular wave form generator need therefore not be discussed. 10 character start and end along common radii, the difference in scanningf speed between the The vertical wave form produced by the generator outer part of the disk and the inner part of the I4, which wave form diiîers for each character disk being properly compensated by the size of to be transmitted, may be produced in the novel the aperture. The number of repetitions of the manner described below. vertical Wave for each revolution of the disk is In accordance with a preferred arrangement unimportant, it being only important that there illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3, the vertical wave `bea whole number of apertures for each revo form corresponding to each character to be translution. mitted is produced by means such as a disk 36 It will be obvious to those skilled in this art having a plurality of radially spaced annular apertures 38, each of these apertures having a 20 that the basic principle of the present invention, namely'the reproduction of characters by means special predetermined cross-section. As indicat of vertical and horizontal waves can be effected ed in Fig. 3, this disk is adapted to rotate between by means other than those just described which, sources of light £55! and light-sensitive devices'llû, in both the mechanical and electrical sense, are there being preferably provided one light source and one light-sensitive device for use in con 25 to be considered as equivalents. For example, the waveforming aperture 38 may be produced nection with each aperture. It will be obvious to upon the periphery of a drum as well as upon those skilled in this art that if a light source is the face of a disk and, likewise, can be produced energized, excitation of the corresponding light upon a continuous tape for each letter. The ex sensitive device will depend upon the cross-sec' tion of the interposed aperture, and as the disk 30 citation of the individual light-sensitive devices under the control of the keyboard l@ can be ac~ 36 containing the aperture rotates between the compiished either by the energization or deen energized light source and the light-sensitive de ergization or" the individual light sources ¿lli ory vice, the excitation of the light-sensitiveidevice on the other hand, by proper construction, a wil1 vary in accordance with a predetermined pat tern, corresponding to the cross-section of the 35 single'large light source could be used, the pas sage of light to the individual photo-electric cells aperture, resulting in a voltage wavel which is in such a case being controlled by shutters oper transmitted to the ampliiier l5, and thence to ated either mechanically or electrically by the the receiver, as shown in Fig. 1. The energiza individual character keys or by a direct switching tion of the various light sources »40 may be con trolled by the keyboard l0 in such a manner, for 40 of the individual photo-electric cell circuits. It is further to be understood that in connection example, that when the key “A” is depressed the With'the physical form of invention illustrated upper lamp ¿lil in Fig. 3 will be energized andthe in Figs. 2 and 3, such has been given merely by light-sensitive device 45 will, in turn, be then ex way of example. cited in accordance with the pattern of the aper The manner in which the individual letters are ture 38 on the disk 3S, which has previously been built up on the screen of the cathode ray tube predetermined for the letter “A.” Of course,` dur 24 from the transmitted horizontal and vertical ing this time the remaining lamps‘will not be en wave is more clearly illustrated by the examples ergized and, as is well known in the manual key shown in Figs. 4a, 4h, llc, 4d and 5. In accordance board art, means may be provided on the' key withl the present invention the cathode ray screen 50 board for preventing depression of more than'oneV is preferably provided with a shield 5e having an key at a time; in this manner one is assured thatY aperture 5i of predetermined dimensions cor only one lamp will be energized and the pattern responding to the size of the character to be for one letter only transmitted at any particular formed but, in any event, smaller than the sur moment. In the structural arrangement illustrat face of the screen itself. In Fig. 4a there is ed in Fig. 3 the lamps 4i! are shown as mounted shown, by Way of example, the manner in which in individual compartments in a suitable housing the letter “A” is formed from a single triangular G2, such housing being substantially open along wave 53 in combination with a vertical wave 55 its side adjacent the disk 36. The light passing of predetermined shape. The cathode ray tube through the apertures 38 is transmitted through narrow slits "55 to the light-sensitive devices 46 60 is normally biased so that the light spo-t will be positioned at a point a which is behind the which may be mounted in a suitable supporting shield 50. By following the coordinates of the structure 48. In order to prevent false excita horizontal wave 53 in combination with the co tion of the light-sensitive devices due to unde ordinates of the vertical wave 55, it will be seen sired spreading of the light, it is presupposedv that the disk 36 be mounted as closely as pos 65 that a tracing of the letter “A” begins at this point a. The point l) will then appear at the lower sible next to the slits 44; left-hand side of the aperture 5l after passage The disk 36 containing the patterns ofthe of the iirst time unit. As the two waves progress light transmitting apertures may be formedv in in synchronism the tracing on the fluorescent any suitable manner. Because such apertures have an extremely variable cross-sectionit' is 70 screen will then follow the points c, d, c, Í, g until the point h has been reached. rI‘he light spot proposed, for the sake of simplicity, that the apertures be photographed on the disk, it being will then momentarily pass behind the screen to the point i, returning in the next time unit to understood that the apertures themselves will be the point i, which is coincident with the point h. transparent while the rest of the disk will be opaque. Since the apertures need have a’ maxi Llo From thence the lower part of the letter‘will be 5 2,408,880 retraced on> the return portion of the triangular wave through the points k, Z, m, u, o and `pto the starting point q, coincident with the point a. While in the tracing of the letter "A,” the shield is not necessary to mask the light beam except for starting purposes, Vsuch masking is necessary for certain characters, as will be more apparent from a study of further examples of traced let ters. Of course, in tracing a letter such as “A” the sequence of the tracing operation is unim portant, as one might trace the lower part of the letter before lthe upper part, as well as in the manner iirst indicated. A change in the se quence of the tracing will, of course, require a slightly diiîerent vertical wave. The correspond ing aperture 38 in the disk 36 which, in effect, 6.. double triangular wave 53’ in connection with the predetermined vertical wave, it will be noted that the ñrst half of the double horizontal wave in connection with the proper vertical wave may «~ be used to trace all of the letter with the ex ception of the horizontal bar. Since in an ordi nary iormed “G” the horizontal bar does not ex tend all the way across the left side of the letter i, and, on the other hand, the trace must return to its starting point in accordance with the shape of the horizontal Wave, the tracing of the hori zontal bar will involve a return tail between the points r and u as appears in the showing cf the letter. However, despite this tail the letter will be entirely legible and recognizable so that this characteristic which only occurs in very few of the characters does not negative the usefulness is an envelope of the wave 55 has also been il» lustrated in connection with the letter “A.” The system is equally capable of producing nu merals as shown in >the example of the tracing of the numeral “7” in Fig. 4b. In the tracing >of the numeral “7” the use of the mask on the cathode ray screen in order to provide suitable invention now under discussion. Fig. 5a also illustrates the form of aperture necessary to pro starting and return points is clearly indicated. Fig. 4b also illustrates the scanning disk aper ture necessary to produce the required vertical with a properly designed vertical wave-producing wave. Examples of lower case letters which may be traced by the apparatus `of the present in of the system as a whole. The letter “G” has been specifically shown as the worst example of a letter which may be traced lby theform of duce the required vertical wave. Fig. 5b illus trates the formation of a lower case “a” by the use cf a double triangular wave in connection aperture. It will be noted that in Fig. 1 a single hori~ vention are illustrated in Figs. 4c and 4d. In zontal wave form generator has been illustrated Fig. 4c an example of a lower case letter having 30 and described whereas applicant has pointed out a depending tail is shown in the tracing of the that certain designated characters may be formed letter “p.” The corresponding vertical wave and with a . single triangular wave, whereas other disk aperture are also given. characters need a double triangular wave. It Fig. 4d shows an example of a lower caselet ter with a vertical extending portion, such as the letter “h.” This figure also shows the correspond ing vertical wave and required disk aperture. In connection with the numeral “7” and the lower case letters “p” and “h,” it is again pointed out that the sequence of tracing indicated on the diagrams need not be followed, since in any case the reverse order of tracing can be used and ad« ditional variations may be used as may be ap«~ parent to thc-se skilled in this art. If any changes are made,` however, corresponding changes in the does not follow, however, that two horizontal wave form generators are necessary since in all cases the double triangular wave can be used. With those letters which require only a single triangu lar wave and whose Vertical wave forms are co ordinated for a single horizontal wave, the use of a double horizontal wave will only result in a repetition of the letter. ' One of the advantages of thesystem illustrated` in Fig. 1 and which has just been described, lies in the fact that the keyboard need only con shape of the vertical wave and in the aperture 45 trol the vertical wave form generator, the hori zontal wave form being common to all characters, producing that wave will have to be made. with the result that the control of the apparatus Many characters can be properly traced using by the keyboard l0 is relatively simple. one triangular wave for the same unit time as While a triangular horizontal wave has been the corresponding Vertical wave. Some examples of these have been illustrated in Figs. 4a, 4b, 4c 50 illustrated by way of example, it will be ap parent to those skilled in this art that, within and 4d. Other more complicated characters, however, will require two complete triangular waves for each corresponding Vertical wave. Ex limitation, the horizontal wave may have sub stantially any predetermined common form. In Fig.` 6 I have illustrated in solid and dotted lines, amples of such characters have been illustrated in Fig. 5. In general, it may be stated that the 55 respectively, the vertical waveform which would upper case letters, numerals and lower case let be used, for example, in making the letter “A” ters can be grouped in accordance with the fol with either a semi-circular 52 or an inverse sine lowing table: horizontal 51 Waveform. 'I'he important limi Number of triangular waves required for selected characters Waves oneACDFILMNOPUVWXl7cfhlmnopv tw0BEGHJKoRsTYz23456soabdegi Turning to the types of letters which require two complete horizontal Waves for each single ver tical wave, Fig. 5 illustrates two examples, one of which is unusual and the other more or less typical. If a standard predetermined triangular horizontal wave is to be used, those letters which have horizontal components which do not ex f tend entirely across the letter will be formed with a return tail as shown, for example, in the for mation of the letter “G” in Fig. 5a. In tracing the formation of such a character from the tation with regardl to the shape of the common horizontal wave is that it should not contain extremely abrupt changes as would be encoun tered, for example, in a rectangular wave ex» 0 cept in those cases, such as a sawtooth wave, in which the abrupt changes is used as a ily back only.` The ordinary sine wave, it is ’ob vious, is entirely suitable. To take care of char acters requiring a double horizontal wave, it is 75 contemplated that the common horizontal Wave form, no matterl what shape is chosen, `be re 2,496,880 7 heated as explained above in connection with the triangular horizontal wave. The form of invention illustrated in Fig. 1, the horizontal wave form which is common to all characters, readily lends itself to a single transmission line or radio channel system such as illustrated in Fig. 8. In such an arrangement the transmission station need consist only of the keyboard I0, a vertical waveform generator I4’ 8 eluded in the pattern for veach character, in which case no additional light sensitive device is required, but the pattern for such character will take up slightly more room. Any other ysuitable method of obtaining a Syn chronizing pulse can be used. For example, the vertical waveform generator may be provided with suitable means for obtaining a synchronizing .tone frequency which will then be separated at and the necessary amplifier I6. The vertical 10 the receiver and used to trigger the horizontal waveform generator. Instead of exciting the waveform generator I4' can be of substantially light-sensitive devices 66 and 5S in the opposite the same construction as the generator I4 in sense as has been proposed in 9 and 1€), they dicated in Fig. 1, but must also provide means may be excited in the same sense and then shifted for assuring proper synchronization of the local in phase before ythe two Waves are transmitted horizontal waveform generator 25’ at the re together over the connected line. One manner of ceiver; Synchronization of the horizontal wave causing such phase shift would be to use separate form generator can be accomplished in several amplifiers of diiîerent numbers of stages. For ways which will be recognized as substantial example, four stages for the vertical waveform equivalentsto those skilled in this art. In a preferred form illustrated synchroniza 20 and three stages for the pulse, whereby the pulse Iwould be 180° out of phase with the vertical wave tion is effected by adding a suitable pulse of 0P forni. lStill another way of transmitting the vcr .nosite value from the normally transmitted ver tical waveform. and the `synchronizing pulse over tical wave, this pulse being separated from the the same channel would be to modulate the azn nlitude of the vertical wave and modulate .the ire Quency of the pulse whereby at the receiving end at 54, and the separate pulse being then trans an amplitude modulation receiver would be used mitted to the horizontal waveform generator 25 to supply power through a suitable ampliñer for synchronizing purposes. through the vertical electrodes of the cathode ray One manner of producing the required nega tube and a frequency modulation detector would 30 tive pulse is illustrated in Figs. 9 and 10 in which vertical wave at the receiving station by a sep arating circuit of any well-known type indicated the scanning disk 36’ is provided not only with character-controlling apertures 38 but also with an additional aperture 5B interrupted during the first time unit of each character-aperture by an opaque section 58. An additional light-sensitive device Si) will be used to respond to the light interruption at the beginning of each character aperture, and since the light-sensitive device 60 responds in the opposite manner to the light sensitive device 46, it will produce a pulse in the opposite direction to the wave produced by eX citation. of the light-sensitive device 46. In this be connected so as to control the horizontal wave form generator. The transmission systems previously described have all been proposed for use in connection with the transmission of intelligence over intercon necting transmission lines. It will be clear to those skilled in this art, however, 't1-.iat all forma of the system are equally applicable to the trans mission of ysuch intelligence by radiation in free space. One form which such a system nir-.y tc‘xe has been illustrated, by Way of example in l ll, in which the keyboard lll controls the if ical waveform generator M, the output of which is modulated in amplitude by suitable well-knownL case the slit 44’ adjacent the scanning disk 3:3’ will be extended to permit the entry of light to the additional light-sensitive device> 60. The re sultant vertical wave transmitted has been shown, by Way of example, in connection with the let ter “A” in Fig. 1l. ‘ means indicated at 652, impressed upon the trans mitter 65 and radiated from the antenna GS. The horizontal waveform generator 25 of the type producing the same double triangular waves for It will be noted in this con all characters may be frequency modulated by :i nection that the negative pulse 59 will occur suitable means indicated at @il and likewise con during the time unit both for the vertical and 50 nected to the transmitter 66 and radiated in syn the horizontal wave when the light beam on the chronism with the amplitude modulated vertical screen of the cathode ray tube will be behind the waves. The signals picked up by the antenna '£3 shield 5D so that any change of the horizon and the receiver 'i2 will be separated into the ver tal beam during this period will not adversely tical and horizontal waveform components by the 55 affect the formation of the character desired. respective detectors 'i4 and lli amplified by suit The resulting vertical wave impressed upon the able amplifiers 2€) and 32’ respectively and iin electrodes 22, however, will not differ from that pressed upon the proper electrodes of the cathode of the system illustrated in Fig. 1, since the ray tube 2li. Where a local horizontal waveform negative pulse will have been removed from this generator is used as in the system illustrated in wave by the separating circuits 54. If, however, 60 Fig. 8, the frequency modulation waves transmit the separating circuit is of such a character that ted may be used to control the synchronization ci the negative pulse is not entirely removed, this the local horizontal waveform generator. It will, will be unimportant as the resultant change in therefore. be at once apparent to those skilled in the vertical wave imposed upon the tube will oc 65 this art that the system in accordance with this cur behind the screen 5U. Methods of controlling invention can be adapted for wireless transmis the synchronization of the horizontal Waveform generator by means of the separated pulse are well known in 'the art and a description of the circuits involved is accordingly believed to be unnecessary. sion in all cases. Where a local horizontal wave form generator is used, a synchronizing pulse may be imposed upon the radiated vertical wave 70 form as in the system illustrated in Fig. 7, as Well The additional light sensitive device E0 may be used to give a synchronizing pulse common to all of the characters. However, it will be obvi ous that the necessary variation in light flux to produce a synchronizing pulse may be in 75 as using separate amplitude and frequency mod ulation as shown in Fig. ll. - It is clear that the novel transmission system according to the present invention is especially adaptable to the transmission of secret intelli :2.406.886 gence.> 'ïn‘ the forms of _inventions wherein only first predetermined wave form corresponding to one waveform is transmitted, either over a line or one parameter of a character to be transmitted, means for producing a second predetermined through space, interceptions of this one waveform Iwould be unintelligible unless the interceptor waveform corresponding to another parameter _knew the Waveform of the other component. Ac 5 and common to all of the characters to be trans cordingly, by the use of a local horizontal wave mitted, and means for combining said waveforms into a legible character. . form generator at the receiver, the generated local T2. The `combination according to claim 1, in waveform being maintained secret, secrecy of the entire system can be preserved.` By correlating which the fundamental frequency of said sec a series'of vertical waveform generators with cor» 10 _ond waveform is an integral multiple of that of responding local horizontal waveform generators, said. first> waveform. '3.ïîThe`combination according to claim 1, in changing~ the two from time to time in accordance with a pre-arranged code, will still further in crease the possibilities of secrecy. which said last means comprises a cathode ray tube `havinga fluorescent screen and a pair of « It is to be understood that in all forms of the 15 horizontal and a pair of vertical electrodes, in invention the horizontal waveform generator may combination with means for connecting. one be used to provide the main controlling pattern waveform to one pair of electrodes and the other instead of using the vertical Iwavfcrm generator waveform to the other pair of electrodes. for this purpose, as has been described in the eX 4. The combination according to claim 1, in amples given. Likewise, in all cases involving which said last means includes a cathode ray amplitude modulation of the vertical‘waveform tube having a fluorescent screen, a mask cover generator and 4frequency modulation of the hori ing said screen, said mask being provided with zontal waveform generator or pulse, the reverse a centrally disposed opening adapted to frame operation, namely frequency modulation of `the the character formed, and means for connect vertical Waveform generator and amplitude mod ‘ ing one Waveform to one pair of electrodes and ulation of the horizontal waveform generator or the other waveform to the other pair of elec pulse is equally applicable. trodes. It is >also contemplated that instead of using a single disk or cylinder to form the vertical wave y form pattern, as previously described, separate « 5. A method of conveying intelligence which includes the steps of decomposing each char acter to be conveyed into one Waveform peculiar disks carrying a single character pattern may be lto each character and a second Wave form com used for each character or a group of characters. mon t0 all characters, transmitting the one char Additionally, instead of using a system having a acteristic Wave form of the desired character, rotating disk with a light-interrupted pattern in and combining the transmitted waveform with combination with a light-sensitive device on the 35 the common waveform into a legible desired transmitting end, I may employ a system of elec tronic scanning of a perforated target or a target 6. In an intelligence transmission system, a having variable emissivity. Such scanning may transmitter including a series of patterns, each be single line scanning instead of multi-line scan pattern corresponding to one parameter of a ning. The shape of the perforations in a perfo character to be transmitted, means for generat rated target or of the high emissive portions in ing a waveform in accordance with a chosen pat character. the case of a target having a variable emissivity ' tern, means for generating a second waveform will not correspond to the shape of the characters but are of the shape of the waveform to be used for vertical deflections. . in synchronism with said ñrst Waveform and cor responding to a second parameter common to all of the characters to be transmitted, and a receiver including means for receiving said Wave forms and means for simultaneously converting and combining said waveforms into a legible v It will be noted that in all cases I propose to make use of a receiver having a cathode ray tube in which the beam is kept at constant intensity and its movement is controlled in accordance character. ~ with the transmitted signal. This is exactly op 50 '7. The combination according to claim 6, in posite to the method usually followed in the or which the fundamental'frequency of said sec dinary facsimile system, since usually the path ond Waveform is an integral multiple of that of kof the beam is independent of the transmitted sig; said ñrst Waveform. nal and the luminosity is controlled by such 8. The combination according to claim 6, in transmitted signal. „ 55 which said last means comprises a cathode ray It will be obvious to those skilled in this art that photographic» means may well be used for recording the letters reproduced on the cathode ray tube screen, and it is accordingly contem plated that this invention can be equally well 60 used indirect reading or recording systems. Attention is directed to the fact that the in telligence transmission system of .the present in vention is capable of producing intelligible char acters With a relatively small frequency spec trum, thus enabling either higher speed trans mission or the use of lower grade channels. Additionally, the receiver and transmitter have been simpliiied as compared with standard elec» tube having a fluorescent screen, and a pair of horizontal and a pair of vertical electrodes, in combinationwith means for connecting one re ceived wave to one pair of electrodes and the other received Wave to the other pair of elec trodes. 9. The method of transmitting intelligence, which includes lthe steps of decomposing each character to be transmitted into one waveform peculiar to each character and a second wave form common to all characters, transmitting the one characteristic Waveform of the desired char acter, simultaneously and synchronously trans mitting the common waveform, and combining tronic scanning systems. , 70 the transmitted Wave forms into a legible char Having described a preferred embodiment of acter at a receiver. my invention together with certain modiñcations `10. The combination according to claim 6, in thereof, what I claim is as follows: -comblnation with separate channels for carrying 1. An intelligence transmission system com said waveforms from said transmitter to said re prising, in combination, means for producing a 75 celver. 11 11. The method according to- claim 9, which includes the step of transmitting the separate 12 waveform to one pair of electrodes and the other waveform to the other pair of electrodes. 16. The method of ,transmitting intelligence, waveforms over individual channels. which includes the steps of decomposing each 12. In an intelligence transmission system, a transmitter including a series of patterns, each Ul character to be transmitted into one waveform peculiar to each character and a second Wave pattern corresponding to one parameter of a form common to all characters, transmitting the character to be transmitted, means for generat one characteristic waveform of the desired char ing a waveform in accordance with a chosen pat acter, receiving said characteristic waveform, tern, and means for generating a synchronizing puise, and a receiver including means respon' 10 generating the common waveform at the receiver, sive to said synchronizing pulse for generating and then combining the received characteris a second waveform in synchronism with said one waveform and corresponding to a second para meter commcn to all of the characters to be transmitted, and means for simultaneously con' verting and combining said waveforms into a tic waveform with the common waveform into a legible character. 13. rf‘he combination according to claim 12 in which said synchronizing pulse is impressed upon and in an opposite direction to the one wave form at the beginning thereof, and in which said receiver includes means for separating said syn chronizing pulse from said one waveform. 14. The combination according to claim 12, in which the fundamental frequency of said second waveform is an integral multiple of that of said iirst waveform. 15. The combination according to claim 12, in which said last means comprises a cathode ray tube having a fluorescent screen, and a pair of horizontal and a pair of vertical electrodes, in combination with means for connecting one legible character. 17. The method according to claim 16 which includes the further step of synchronizing the generation of the common waveform with the reception of the characteristic waveform. 18. The combination according to claim 6, in which said transmitter includes two separately distinguishable carrier modulating means, in combination with the means for connecting one waveform generator to one modulating means and the other waveform generator to the other modulating means, and means at said receiver for reconverting the received signals into the two transmitted waveforms. 19. The method according to claim 9, which includes the steps of .transmitting both wave forms over a single channel by respectively dif ferent modulations of a carrier, and separating the modulating waveforms from the carrier at the receiver. Y l NORMAN H. YOUNG, Ja.