Патент USA US2406884код для вставки
‘Sept’. 3, 1946. 2,406,884 w. N. MANN ETAL ,_ ELEGTRIG‘HEATING SYSTEM ‘FOR BUILDINGS > Filed May 2, 1-944 v ‘ ,2 Sheets-Sheet '1 F161. 25' ._ 425 24 -- > 'l - 415'’, A _, - ' '~ \ .’ Inventon ' WALTER N. MANN a? [Rnzsr Lnwneusou , 7 Mg‘, By- ‘ - WWALIo-HQQQ ‘ Sept. 3, 1946. ' l W. N. MAN-N EI'AL < 2,406,884 f- ELECTRIC HEATING SYSTEM FOR_ BUILDINGS Filed May 2, 1944' _ I ' 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 , 8/81 1] ‘6 2a WALTER _ a? ' In éentors MANN 4' ERNEST LawBENSON By M! hue- ' Attorney: 0 Patented Sept. 3, 1946 Z,406,884 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,406,884 ELECTRIC HEATING SYSTEM FOR BUILDINGS Walter Noah Mann, Sutton Cold?eld, and Ernest Lawrenson, Prescot, England, assignors to British Insulated Cables Limited, Prescot, Eng land, a British company Application May _2, 1944, Serial No. 533,700 In Great Britain June 7, 1943 2 Claims. (Cl. 219-—19) 2 This invention relates to heating systems for buildings of the type in which heat is diffused by radiation at a comparatively low temperature from the surfaces of walls, ceilings or ?oors and to which the heat is supplied by electric heating elements in the form of long continuously insu as a front elevation, illustrating one form of con struction, a part of the panel being shown broken away to indicate the interior construction. Figure 2 is an end view in elevation of Figure 1 looking in the direction of the arrows shown in Figure 1. lated wires distributed over the area from which radiation is to take place, with appropriate spac Figure 3 is an enlarged view of the upper end nal members are arranged at the rear. The cross members are attached to the front faces of the numeral 2, by means of a series of appropriately arranged metal clips 3 ?xed to a number of par allel cross-members 4. As will be seen from Fig ure 1, the heating element I is bent in such a of Figure 2. ing and enclosed within the structure (wall, ceil Figure 4 is a similar view to Figure 1, but ing or ?oor) beneath the radiating surface there 10 showing another ‘form of construction, parts of of. In accordance with the invention an im the panel being shown broken away. proved arrangement of such heating means is Figure 5 is a sectional fragmentary plan taken provided which is simple to construct and is on the line V-V of Figure 4. adaptable to different positions and to different Figure 6 is a similar view to Figure 5, but with forms of structure without interference with ar 15 the protecting cover shown in Figure 5, removed, chitectural or decorative features. and In accordance with the invention the heating Figure 7 is a plan view of the protecting cover means is built up on a frame comprising two before assembly. sets of bars (usually of metal) arranged at right Referring first of all to Figures 1-3 the electric angles. These will be spoken of as the longi 20 heating element l is supported in place upon a tudinal and the crOss members. The longitudi framework, indicated generally by the reference longitudinal members and these cross members bear on their front faces clips attached (e. g. by spot welding) at intervals. In these clips a heat ing element is engaged, being run over the frame in an appropriate con?guration so as to give substantially uniform distribution of the heating manner as to form a number of parallel runs 5 joined at their ends by curved portions 6, the clips 3 surrounding the parallel portions of the heating element and being attached to the cross The clips 30 members 4 by spot welding. are open at the front so that the element can The cross-members may consist of angles, ?ats readily be slipped into them, either by springing or channels and in Figure 1 the end cross-mem in if the clips are of hard metal, or by opening bers ‘l, 8 are shown as angles with a number of and then folding over the metal of the clips if intermediate cross-members consisting of flat they are of ductile metal. There is no threading strips 9 and a single intermediate cross-member of the element through apertures. The Whole of consisting of an angle 10. Other arrangements the heating element is embedded in plaster or of cross-members, however, may be employed, al equivalent material so as to provide for the dif though a convenient arrangement is one in which fusion of the heat ‘from the element to the the end members are angles as these may then radiating surface and the giving to the latter a assist in locating the heating element and in giv substantially uniform temperature. The frame ing a certain amount of stiffness to the heating thus ?lled may be covered with a sheet of metal panel as a whole to facilitate its handling. or other material to provide a, surface ?nish The clips 3 conveniently are attached to their and/or protection for the heating elements. cross-members by spot welding so as to avoid any 45 Alternatively, each run of an element may be projections between the heating element l and protected by an arched or angular strip of metal the clips which would interfere with the proper mounted on the cross members of the frame and seating of the element in the clips or adequate so formed and placed aS to be capable of de gripping of the element by the clips. The latter ?ecting nails which may be driven into the plas ter in which the heating element is embedded. 50 may be made of hard metal with sides which can be readily opened to permit the entry of the heat Some forms of construction in accordance with ing element and then spring together again to the invention will now be described, as examples, embrace the element fairly tightly. On the other with the aid of the accompanying drawings, wherein: hand the clips 3 may be made of ductile metal Figure 1 is what may be conveniently regarded 65 having sides which can be opened and then folded effect within the area of the frame. encased. 4 example, and be ?xed to the angle members 1, 8 at the end of the panel by screws 25 entering tapped holes in the angles. This plate will serve to protect the element against damage, for ex ample, due to the driving of nails into the wall, amount only sui?cient for them to engage the ceiling or floor after the heating panel has been heating element I. By arranging the. clips 3 installed. to form lines or rows, the element can be readily placed in position by running it longitudinally An alternative means for protecting the heat ing element I against damage is illustrated in through a line of clips, bending it round at the end of the line and then carrying it back through 10 the remaining ?gures of the drawings to which reference will now be made. Each of the straight an adjacent line of clips and so on until the runs 5 of the heating element is provided with whole frame has been covered with parallel runs of heating element spaced a few'inchesiapart. a metal covering member 25 which, as will be seen from Figure '7, consists of a curved or arched By the use of clips the necessity for threading the element through apertures is avoided. 15 strip. The covering members are held in posi tion by inserting the edges of the strips into Where intermediate angles are used for the. slots or notches 2B (Figure 6) provided in the cross-members or for some of them, the clips 3 edge I2 of the intermediate angle I0. As will be are attached to one of the sides of the angle and seen from Figures 5, 6 and 7, the longitudinal the other side is provided with appropriately, placed slots or notches through which the paral 20 axes of the notches are inclined outwardly and back again over the heating element so as to surround or partially surround the latter. The clips are made to stand out from the cross members to which they are attached by an the width of the covering member 25 before assembly is somewhat greater than the distance between the notches 26. Each covering member lel runs of the heating element I can freely pass. In Figure 1 the angle In is shown with the clips 3 attached to the side II of the angle and the side I2 is provided with open slots I3 adja cent the clips. The end angle member 8 also has a slot I4 in its side I5 for the entry of an thus ‘requires to be compressed inwards towards its longitudinal axis before it can be sprung into the notches 26. Each covering member may be held in place by one or more pairs of notches insulated conductor I6 whichmay be connected to a source of supply of heating current or be andthe ends of the covering members may be connected to the heating-element of an adjacent panel or may form part of that element. The reference numeral I‘I indicates the joint between the element I and the insulated conductor I6. In order to hold the cross-members together and to provide a supporting framework, they are tapered off in the manner shown in Figure 4. The curved portions 6 of the heating element i 30 are protected by short metal plates 21 which attached to longitudinal members I8 which are 85 disposed at right angles to the cross-members and extend beyond them for a short distance, the portions thus extended forming lugs for their attachment to similar longitudinal memberspro vided on adjacent heating panels. _ _ The cross-members 4 may be ?xed directly to the longitudinal members I8, in which case they may be ?xed conveniently by spot welding. In the construction illustrated, however, a back board l9 made of heat-insulating material is 45 interposed between the cross-members and the longitudinal members and the cross-members and the backboard are ?xed ?rmly together by bolts 20 and nuts 2I (see Figure 3), the bolts being disposed between the clips 3 and passing 60 freely through holes in the cross-members in the backboard l9 and in the longitudinal members I8. The holes in the cross-members for the bolts are indicated at 22 in Figure 1. The whole of the heating element I is embedded 65 in plaster or equivalent material so as to pro overlap the tapering portions of the covering members 25 and are secured to the end angles "I, 8 and to the adjacent cross-members by screws 28 entering tapped holes in the end angles and adjacent cross-members. The covering mem bers 25 may be of angular shape in cross-section. In Figure 1 the frame will be ?lled up with plaster or other heat-diffusing material after the heating element has been placed in position, the element being itself embedded in the plaster. Similarly, in the construction shown in Figure 4, the heating element will be embedded in the plaster and in addition, the spaces between the element and the covering members 25 will be ?lled up with plaster and the covering members will themselves be covered with plaster. The covering of the heating element, the ?lling up of the spaces between the element and the cover ing members and the covering of the latter with the plaster may be carried out as part of the manufacture of the complete panel or during in stallation of the panel. A portion of the plaster is shown at 23 in Figure 4. The heating element I may be of the kind de scribed in the speci?cation of British Letters Patent No. 543,272. A heating panel normally will be made for a ?at surface, but can be readily adapted for a vide for the diffusion of the heat from the ele ment to the radiating surface and. the giving to the latter a substantially uniform temperature. A portion of this plaster is indicated at 23 in 60 curved or angular surface. For instance, a cir Figure 1. For the sake of clearness it has been cular pillar may be enclosed in one or more heat omitted from Figures 2 and 3. The plaster or ing panels by bending the cross-members through other material may form the radiating surface circular arcs of appropriate size and similarly of the completed panel and may be applied in shaping the covering plates 24 and 21. Again, if the course of manufacture of the panel. In gen 65 a panel is to occupy parts of two adjacent walls, eral, however, it will be more convenient to either longitudinal or cross-members of the frame mount the frame in position in the wall, ceiling can be bent so that the frame ?ts into a corner or floor and then place the heating element I of the room. The building up of the panel can in position and then apply the plaster or other, then be proceeded with in the way described. In heat-diffusing means over the element. 70 most casesa covering of plaster, tiles or other After. the frame has been ?lled in with plaster surfacing ?nish will be applied over the ?lled or other heat-diffusing material, a cover plate panels. 24 may be placed over the frame to give a sur What we claim as our invention is: face ?nish and/or protection for the heating element I , This plate may be made of metal, for 75 1. An electric heating panel suitable for in stalling in the floor, wall or ceiling of a building, 2,406,884 5 6 comprising in combination, a plurality of spaced metal longitudinal members, a plurality of spaced cross-members disposed in front of the longitudi nal members and substantially at right angles thereto and Welded to the longitudinal members on the front side thereof for opening on that side of the panel and forming a series of spaced sub to form a frame, the cross-members having ?at ' faces of appropriate Width directed towards the front of the panel, metal clips Welded to those ‘faces for opening on the front side of the panel, an electric heating element comprising a con stantially parallel straight rows, an electric heat ing element comprising a continuously insulated electric Wire attached to the frame by the clips and forming a series of straight runs joined by curved portions, the cross—members at the ends of the frame and at least one of the intermediate 10 members being angles, at least-one of said inter mediate members having notches, metal strips tinuously insulated electric wire attached to the disposed in front of the straight runs of the heat frame by being held in the clips, and a heat ing element held in position by the notches, short diffusing material in Which the whole of the ele metal cover plates attached to the adjacent angles ment is embedded. at the ends of the frame and disposed in front 2. An electric heating panel suitable for in 15 of the curved portions of the heating element, stalling in the floor, wall or ceiling of a building, and heat-di?using material in which the heating comprising in combination, metal longitudinal element, metal strips and cover plates are em and cross-members disposed substantially at right bedded. angles to each other and ?xed together to form a frame, metal clips welded to the cross-members 20 WALTER NOAH MANN. ERNEST LAWRENSON.