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Патент USA US2406884

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‘Sept’. 3, 1946.
w. N. MANN ETAL ,_
Filed May 2, 1-944
,2 Sheets-Sheet '1
._ 425
415'’, A _,
' WALTER N. MANN a? [Rnzsr Lnwneusou
Sept. 3, 1946. '
< 2,406,884
Filed May 2, 1944' _
' 2 Sheets-Sheet 2
8/81 1] ‘6 2a
a? '
In éentors
M! hue- '
Patented Sept. 3, 1946
Walter Noah Mann, Sutton Cold?eld, and Ernest
Lawrenson, Prescot, England, assignors to
British Insulated Cables Limited, Prescot, Eng
land, a British company
Application May _2, 1944, Serial No. 533,700
In Great Britain June 7, 1943
2 Claims. (Cl. 219-—19)
This invention relates to heating systems for
buildings of the type in which heat is diffused
by radiation at a comparatively low temperature
from the surfaces of walls, ceilings or ?oors and
to which the heat is supplied by electric heating
elements in the form of long continuously insu
as a front elevation, illustrating one form of con
struction, a part of the panel being shown broken
away to indicate the interior construction.
Figure 2 is an end view in elevation of Figure
1 looking in the direction of the arrows shown
in Figure 1.
lated wires distributed over the area from which
radiation is to take place, with appropriate spac
Figure 3 is an enlarged view of the upper end
nal members are arranged at the rear. The cross
members are attached to the front faces of the
numeral 2, by means of a series of appropriately
arranged metal clips 3 ?xed to a number of par
allel cross-members 4. As will be seen from Fig
ure 1, the heating element I is bent in such a
of Figure 2.
ing and enclosed within the structure (wall, ceil
Figure 4 is a similar view to Figure 1, but
ing or ?oor) beneath the radiating surface there 10 showing another ‘form of construction, parts of
of. In accordance with the invention an im
the panel being shown broken away.
proved arrangement of such heating means is
Figure 5 is a sectional fragmentary plan taken
provided which is simple to construct and is
on the line V-V of Figure 4.
adaptable to different positions and to different
Figure 6 is a similar view to Figure 5, but with
forms of structure without interference with ar 15 the protecting cover shown in Figure 5, removed,
chitectural or decorative features.
In accordance with the invention the heating
Figure 7 is a plan view of the protecting cover
means is built up on a frame comprising two
before assembly.
sets of bars (usually of metal) arranged at right
Referring first of all to Figures 1-3 the electric
angles. These will be spoken of as the longi 20 heating element l is supported in place upon a
tudinal and the crOss members. The longitudi
framework, indicated generally by the reference
longitudinal members and these cross members
bear on their front faces clips attached (e. g. by
spot welding) at intervals. In these clips a heat
ing element is engaged, being run over the frame
in an appropriate con?guration so as to give
substantially uniform distribution of the heating
manner as to form a number of parallel runs
5 joined at their ends by curved portions 6, the
clips 3 surrounding the parallel portions of the
heating element and being attached to the cross
The clips 30 members 4 by spot welding.
are open at the front so that the element can
The cross-members may consist of angles, ?ats
readily be slipped into them, either by springing
or channels and in Figure 1 the end cross-mem
in if the clips are of hard metal, or by opening
bers ‘l, 8 are shown as angles with a number of
and then folding over the metal of the clips if
intermediate cross-members consisting of flat
they are of ductile metal. There is no threading
strips 9 and a single intermediate cross-member
of the element through apertures. The Whole of
consisting of an angle 10. Other arrangements
the heating element is embedded in plaster or
of cross-members, however, may be employed, al
equivalent material so as to provide for the dif
though a convenient arrangement is one in which
fusion of the heat ‘from the element to the
the end members are angles as these may then
radiating surface and the giving to the latter a
assist in locating the heating element and in giv
substantially uniform temperature. The frame
ing a certain amount of stiffness to the heating
thus ?lled may be covered with a sheet of metal
panel as a whole to facilitate its handling.
or other material to provide a, surface ?nish
The clips 3 conveniently are attached to their
and/or protection for the heating elements.
cross-members by spot welding so as to avoid any
Alternatively, each run of an element may be
projections between the heating element l and
protected by an arched or angular strip of metal
the clips which would interfere with the proper
mounted on the cross members of the frame and
seating of the element in the clips or adequate
so formed and placed aS to be capable of de
gripping of the element by the clips. The latter
?ecting nails which may be driven into the plas
ter in which the heating element is embedded. 50 may be made of hard metal with sides which can
be readily opened to permit the entry of the heat
Some forms of construction in accordance with
ing element and then spring together again to
the invention will now be described, as examples,
embrace the element fairly tightly. On the other
with the aid of the accompanying drawings,
hand the clips 3 may be made of ductile metal
Figure 1 is what may be conveniently regarded 65 having sides which can be opened and then folded
effect within the area of the frame.
example, and be ?xed to the angle members 1, 8
at the end of the panel by screws 25 entering
tapped holes in the angles. This plate will serve
to protect the element against damage, for ex
ample, due to the driving of nails into the wall,
amount only sui?cient for them to engage the
ceiling or floor after the heating panel has been
heating element I. By arranging the. clips 3
to form lines or rows, the element can be readily
placed in position by running it longitudinally
An alternative means for protecting the heat
ing element I against damage is illustrated in
through a line of clips, bending it round at the
end of the line and then carrying it back through 10 the remaining ?gures of the drawings to which
reference will now be made. Each of the straight
an adjacent line of clips and so on until the
runs 5 of the heating element is provided with
whole frame has been covered with parallel runs
of heating element spaced a few'inchesiapart.
a metal covering member 25 which, as will be
seen from Figure '7, consists of a curved or arched
By the use of clips the necessity for threading
the element through apertures is avoided.
15 strip. The covering members are held in posi
tion by inserting the edges of the strips into
Where intermediate angles are used for the.
slots or notches 2B (Figure 6) provided in the
cross-members or for some of them, the clips 3
edge I2 of the intermediate angle I0. As will be
are attached to one of the sides of the angle and
seen from Figures 5, 6 and 7, the longitudinal
the other side is provided with appropriately,
placed slots or notches through which the paral 20 axes of the notches are inclined outwardly and
back again over the heating element so as to
surround or partially surround the latter.
The clips are made to stand out from the cross
members to which they are attached by an
the width of the covering member 25 before
assembly is somewhat greater than the distance
between the notches 26. Each covering member
lel runs of the heating element I can freely
pass. In Figure 1 the angle In is shown with the
clips 3 attached to the side II of the angle and
the side I2 is provided with open slots I3 adja
cent the clips. The end angle member 8 also
has a slot I4 in its side I5 for the entry of an
thus ‘requires to be compressed inwards towards
its longitudinal axis before it can be sprung into
the notches 26. Each covering member may be
held in place by one or more pairs of notches
insulated conductor I6 whichmay be connected
to a source of supply of heating current or be
andthe ends of the covering members may be
connected to the heating-element of an adjacent
panel or may form part of that element. The
reference numeral I‘I indicates the joint between
the element I and the insulated conductor I6.
In order to hold the cross-members together
and to provide a supporting framework, they are
tapered off in the manner shown in Figure 4.
The curved portions 6 of the heating element i
30 are protected by short metal plates 21 which
attached to longitudinal members I8 which are 85
disposed at right angles to the cross-members
and extend beyond them for a short distance, the
portions thus extended forming lugs for their
attachment to similar longitudinal memberspro
vided on adjacent heating panels.
_ _
The cross-members 4 may be ?xed directly to
the longitudinal members I8, in which case they
may be ?xed conveniently by spot welding. In
the construction illustrated, however, a back
board l9 made of heat-insulating material is 45
interposed between the cross-members and the
longitudinal members and the cross-members
and the backboard are ?xed ?rmly together by
bolts 20 and nuts 2I (see Figure 3), the bolts
being disposed between the clips 3 and passing 60
freely through holes in the cross-members in the
backboard l9 and in the longitudinal members
I8. The holes in the cross-members for the
bolts are indicated at 22 in Figure 1.
The whole of the heating element I is embedded 65
in plaster or equivalent material so as to pro
overlap the tapering portions of the covering
members 25 and are secured to the end angles
"I, 8 and to the adjacent cross-members by screws
28 entering tapped holes in the end angles and
adjacent cross-members. The covering mem
bers 25 may be of angular shape in cross-section.
In Figure 1 the frame will be ?lled up with
plaster or other heat-diffusing material after the
heating element has been placed in position, the
element being itself embedded in the plaster.
Similarly, in the construction shown in Figure 4,
the heating element will be embedded in the
plaster and in addition, the spaces between the
element and the covering members 25 will be
?lled up with plaster and the covering members
will themselves be covered with plaster. The
covering of the heating element, the ?lling up
of the spaces between the element and the cover
ing members and the covering of the latter with
the plaster may be carried out as part of the
manufacture of the complete panel or during in
stallation of the panel. A portion of the plaster
is shown at 23 in Figure 4.
The heating element I may be of the kind de
scribed in the speci?cation of British Letters
Patent No. 543,272.
A heating panel normally will be made for a
?at surface, but can be readily adapted for a
vide for the diffusion of the heat from the ele
ment to the radiating surface and. the giving to
the latter a substantially uniform temperature.
A portion of this plaster is indicated at 23 in 60 curved or angular surface. For instance, a cir
Figure 1. For the sake of clearness it has been
cular pillar may be enclosed in one or more heat
omitted from Figures 2 and 3. The plaster or
ing panels by bending the cross-members through
other material may form the radiating surface
circular arcs of appropriate size and similarly
of the completed panel and may be applied in
shaping the covering plates 24 and 21. Again, if
the course of manufacture of the panel. In gen 65 a panel is to occupy parts of two adjacent walls,
eral, however, it will be more convenient to
either longitudinal or cross-members of the frame
mount the frame in position in the wall, ceiling
can be bent so that the frame ?ts into a corner
or floor and then place the heating element I
of the room. The building up of the panel can
in position and then apply the plaster or other,
then be proceeded with in the way described. In
heat-diffusing means over the element.
70 most casesa covering of plaster, tiles or other
After. the frame has been ?lled in with plaster
surfacing ?nish will be applied over the ?lled
or other heat-diffusing material, a cover plate
24 may be placed over the frame to give a sur
What we claim as our invention is:
face ?nish and/or protection for the heating
element I , This plate may be made of metal, for
1. An electric heating panel suitable for in
stalling in the floor, wall or ceiling of a building,
comprising in combination, a plurality of spaced
metal longitudinal members, a plurality of spaced
cross-members disposed in front of the longitudi
nal members and substantially at right angles
thereto and Welded to the longitudinal members
on the front side thereof for opening on that side
of the panel and forming a series of spaced sub
to form a frame, the cross-members having ?at '
faces of appropriate Width directed towards the
front of the panel, metal clips Welded to those
‘faces for opening on the front side of the panel,
an electric heating element comprising a con
stantially parallel straight rows, an electric heat
ing element comprising a continuously insulated
electric Wire attached to the frame by the clips
and forming a series of straight runs joined by
curved portions, the cross—members at the ends
of the frame and at least one of the intermediate
members being angles, at least-one of said inter
mediate members having notches, metal strips
tinuously insulated electric wire attached to the
disposed in front of the straight runs of the heat
frame by being held in the clips, and a heat
ing element held in position by the notches, short
diffusing material in Which the whole of the ele
metal cover plates attached to the adjacent angles
ment is embedded.
at the ends of the frame and disposed in front
2. An electric heating panel suitable for in 15 of the curved portions of the heating element,
stalling in the floor, wall or ceiling of a building,
and heat-di?using material in which the heating
comprising in combination, metal longitudinal
element, metal strips and cover plates are em
and cross-members disposed substantially at right
angles to each other and ?xed together to form
a frame, metal clips welded to the cross-members 20
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