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Патент USA US2406917

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Sept. 3, 1946.,
5.. A. STALKER
2,406,917
‘
WING
Filed Jan. "2, 1940
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Sept. '3,
E. A. STALKER
v
WING
.
‘
2,406,917
_
_ Filed Jan. 2, 19.40 H
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2 Sheets-Sheet?
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Patented Sept. 3, 1946
2,406,917
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE A
2,406,917
.
A
~> WING L
’ Edward AfStalker, Ann Arbor, Mich.
7
Application January 2, 1940, Serial-No. 312,175
'6 Claims.
‘1
(01. 244-42)
2
'My invention relates to means of ‘controlling
the boundary layer on wings and 'has for its
,Referring more particularly to :the ‘drawings,
I is the wing of the preferred form and 2 is the
fuselage in Figure 1. As shown in this ?gure and
Figures 3 and 4, the flap ‘3 has been rotated .so
that the trailing end points toward thegnose-of
the section. Figure 2' shows the ?ap pointing
object ?rst, to ‘provide amea'ns-of obtaining high
lifting capacity‘; second, to provide a means of
converting a :tapered wing section to a- blunt
ended one while ‘preserving a .large chordwise
expanse; third, to providea means‘of varying
rearward as .f or high-speed ?ight.
‘ The flap is supported on the forward ‘portion
the mean camber line of the wing while con
verting ‘it to’one o‘f'blunt end; other objects will
appear from the description and drawings.
y the brackets 4, Figure 2, stationed along the
character as application Serial No. 262,801 ?led
span. It is rotated by the toothed sector 5 at
Mating
tached to
with
thethe
flapsector
wall isas the
shown
worm
in .6Figure
?xed to
March 18, .1939.‘
This application discloses a different means to
which is activated from the fuselage by the'chain
This application contains material of. the same
convertthe wing to a blunt one and also has a
different slot arrangement;
7
the shaft 1 which is turned by the sprocket ‘8
159
,The flap contains the induction slots ‘Ill and
I ‘obtain these objects ‘byjthe means illus
the discharge slots ll.
trated ‘in the accompanying drawings‘in which:
‘ Figure l 'is a ‘fragmentary plan View of the air
‘I4. It has an opening in which is positioned the
craft when ‘the. ‘?ap is in its downward rotated
position;
blower IE to induct air at the induction slots
and blow it out the discharge slots. The blower
is supported rotatably in the bracket 16 and .‘is
driven from the shafts l1 and I8. The latter
‘
Figure 1a is a fragmentary section along the‘
line la—lain Figure -1;
_
Figure "2 is a cross-sectiodat the station 72-2
in Figure 1, with the ‘nap extended rearward;
' Figure Za'is a section along the line 200-211 in’
Figure 1;
.
Figure B'is a ‘cross-section along the line 3-3
in'Figure l;
‘
‘
Figure '4 is va ‘cross-section along the line ‘4—4
in Figure 1;
‘
3
Figure '5‘ is a section along line '5-"5 in‘Figure 4,;
Figure 6 is "a fragmentary plan view of an
alternate'form of ‘the invention;
‘
Figure 7 is ‘a section along line'1-‘-1.in Figure 6;
Figure ‘8 is a section at the s'tation'8-8 in Fig
ur‘e‘6 with the ‘flap ‘trailing edge pointingrear
ward;
.A partition ' l-2 ‘divides
the .?ap interior into two compartments l3 and
gear meshes with the idler bevel gear “I9. ‘The
25 gear on‘ the blower meshes with the idler which
is supported by‘ bracket ‘20. It will now be clean
that the ?ap can ‘be rotated about the axis .of
gear 19 while power is applied to the blower from
the shaft I8 through the idler gear [9.
‘The flap has proper chordwise slots to accom
modate the bracket 4 which is attached to the
fr'ont‘portion of the wing, and the shaft 18.
A sealing flap ‘2| (Figure '2') .is used to seal the
gap between the flap and the front portion of
35 the wing. .‘Since the mechanism to operate such
?aps'is well-known it is not further described.
Byplacing the center of rotation closer to the
lower surface than ‘the top "of theflap the ?ap
Figure 9 is a‘sectio‘n along line 9-—9 in Figure 8.
'In converting a wing with sharp trailing edge 40
to ‘one having a blunt ‘end ‘it is desirable to make
the conversion by rotating a ?ap, since this pre
is ‘made to .move so that the chord is altered to
only ‘a small degree. Then the area of the wing
retains a high value. Also ‘the wing with the
blunt end stakes upon itself a cambered form
sents a‘simple mechanical arrangement. In gen
whichis conducive to high lift attainments.
eral this ‘form of conversion results in too vgreat
A ‘lower surface .s'lot directing the 'flow forward
a reduction in the chord of thewing so that its 45 and acting alone will have a negligible effect
areais ‘reduced. I have invented a type of wing
on shifting ‘the front stagnation point rearward
and ‘flap whereinthe chord‘length is maintained
because the trailing edge imposes a rigidity on
at a ‘high value and the vmean camber of the
th‘e‘location of the rearstagnation point ?xingf‘it
wing ‘is increased. 'It requires less energy to con
for large. angles of attackof the wing at a point
trol the ‘boundary layer ‘on ya highly cambered 50 on the upper surface near the trailing edge.
surface and hence it is desirable to move the
However, if the flap is rotated downward .a large
rear ‘end of ‘the ‘wing ‘so that ‘the camber‘is in
amount it becomes possible for the lower surface
creased simultaneously with the conversion to a '
slot to accomplish what had ‘previously been ruled
bluntj end. This is accomplished by off-setting
out. A large shift rearward of the front stag
the aids of rotation ofthe ?ap.
‘
55 nation point is made and can even reach the
2,406,917
3
locality of the trailing edge. Then the effect of
the lower surface slot will be to double the lift.
The lower slot alone would increase the lift by
possibly 10 per cent for the same power expendi
ture of the blower.
The flap is a necessary feature and gives with
the lower surface slot a shift of the front stagna
tion point wholly out of proportion to what would
be attained by simply adding the effects. The
maximum shift occurs when the ?ap has been
4
reverse the ?ow on this portion of the wing,
causing a local burbling which decreases the
lift. By placing a discharge slot aft of the suc
tion slot the flow is made to proceed rearward
in spite of the suction.
To control the airplane a portion of the ?ap
3 is made movable. This is the vane 24 which
is hinged at 25. See Figure 111. It is rotated
about the axes of 25 by the rod 26 suitably ar
10 ticulated to it and to the bell crank 21. The
latter is actuated by the grooved block 28 ?xed
to the rod 29 slidable spanwise in the guides 30.
This rod extends to the control in the fuselage.
positidns give very large shifts also.
Another form of the invention is sh‘own in ' -‘ It will be readily appreciated that sliding the rod
Figures 7 to 9. It is suited to very thick wings, 15‘ in the guides will rotate the bell crank and the
vane 24.
and does not require a ?ap 2|. The means of
rotated to give the wing a blunt rear end with
a broad rearward facing surface but intervening
rotating it and driving its blower is the same as '
The vane can be rotated so as to close the
slots at its ends for any position of the flap.
in Figures 1 and 4.
Stopping the flow through the slots will alter the
The flap 22 carries the lip 23 which seals the
gap between the flap proper and the forward 20 lift for any attitude of the flap.
While I have illustrated speci?c forms of the
part of the wing as illustrated in Figures 7 and
invention it is to be understood that I do not
8.
'
limit myself to these precise forms but intend
' In the rearward directed position the blowing
to claim it broadly as indicated by the claims.
slots direct their discharge rearward and aid in
propelling the aircraft.
I claim:
25
1. A wing structure comprising a wing fore
In this application I use the term wing to
body having an upper and a lower airfoil surface
apply to the lifting surfaces on one side of the
and an inwardly curved recessed end portion, a
plane of symmetry of the aircraft. The span
lift increasing device having a curved surface
of the wing is the lateral extent of this surface.
of a radius comparable with the Semi-thickness
In order to control the boundary layer the
of said end of the fore body and having an end
wing must have such a form that a layer tends
tapering to a relatively thin edge, means for
to form rather than a region of relatively large
mounting said device at the rear of said fore
depth ?lled with large scale eddies. For in
body providing for adjustment in the relative
stance. if the wing has square edges at the nose
instead of the usual streamline nose the flow 35 position thereof, means for adjusting said device
from a high speed position in which said curved
will leave the wing surface and the region be
surface is received Within said recessed end and
tween the wing and the main ?ow will be ?lled
said thin edge is extended rearwardly to a high
with eddying air. Boundary layer control is then
lift position in which said curved surface is
not applicable.
exposed at the rear of said wing forming a
It is also desirable that the wing section have
smooth continuous curve extending from the up
no reverse curvature on the suction surfaces, or
per wing surface around the end and to the
abrupt projections which amount to the same
lower wing surface, said thin edge being moved
thing.
.
against said fore body in said high lift position,
One of the features of this invention is the
means forming a slot on the upper exposed sur
large radius of curvature of the wing section con
face of said device in the high speedposition
tourin the vicinity of the juncture of main wing
thereof, and means within said wing for dis
body and the flap as well as for the whole rear
charging a flow of air through said slot in a gen
end. Preferably the flap is composed of span
erally rearward direction in the high speed posi
wise extensive segments forming the slots be
tween them and each having such a curvature 50 tion of said device, said slot in the high lift
position of said device being located on the lower
that the rear end contour is smooth. It is pos
sideof said wing and acting to direct a ?ow of
sible however to achieve good results with seg
air outwardly thereof and with a forward com
ments which individually have curvatures not
ponent of velocity for causing closer approach
conforming to the envelope curve of the rear con
tour. Although not as good as the type which 55 of the front and rear stagnation points.
2. A wing structure comprising a wing fore
conforms to the envelope they will however give
body having an upper and a lower airfoil sur
results. successively rearward segments should
face and an inwardly curved recessed end por
make successively greater angles with the main
tion, a lift increasing device having a thin edge
wing body. The average radius of curvature
Should be 1a1‘ge—that is comparable to the maxi 60 at one end and a curved surface of a radius
comparable with the semi-thickness of said end
mum semi-thickness of the wing.
of the forebody and adapted to be received with
The wing should have at least the conventional
in said recessed portion, means for mounting said
aspect ratio because a boundary layer controlled
device at the rear of said fore body providing
wing produces a very high lift and as is well
for adjustment in the relative position thereof,
known the lift is accompanied by an induced drag
means for adjusting said device from a high speed
which is inversely proportional to the aspect
position in which said curved surface is received
ratio, speaking in terms of the lift and drag
within said recessed end and said thin edge is
coefficients. Preferably the aspect ratio con
extended rearwardly to a high lift position in
sidering both right and left wings in toto should
70 which said curved surface is exposed at the rear
be greater than 6.
of said wing forming a smooth continuous curve
The action at the suction slot induces a high
extending from the upper wing surface around
velocity ?ow rearward from the nose of the wing.
the end and to the lower wing surface, said thin
This is favorable. It tends however to retard
edge being moved into closed relation with said
the ?ow on the trailing edge side of the suc
fore body in said high lift position, means form
tion slot and if the suction is high it can actually
2,406,917
6
ing a plurality of slots on the exposed surface
of said device in the high lift position thereof,
means within said wing for inducing an inward
to direct a flow of air outwardly thereof and with
a forward component of velocity for causing
closer approach of the front and rear stagnation
?ow through an upper one of said slots and for
points, and adjustable control means for varying
directing an outward flow through a lower one 5 the opening through said slot to alter the lift
of said slots with a forward component of
characteristics thereof by control of the discharge
velocity for causing closer approach of the front
of air therethrough.
and rear stagnation points in the high lift posi
5. A wing structure comprising a wing fore body
tion of said device, said lower slot in the high
having an upper and a lower airfoil surface and
speed position of said device being located on 10 an inwardly curved recessed end portion, a lift
the upper side of the wing and acting to direct
increasing device having a curved surface of a
a flow of air outwardly thereof in a rearward
radius
comparable with the maximum semi
direction.
thickness of said fore body and having an end
3. A wing structure comprising a wing fore body
tapering to a relatively thin edge, means for
having an upper and a lower airfoil surface and 15 pivotally mounting said device for rotation about
an inwardly curved recessed end portion, a lift
an axis which is closer to the bottom contour of
increasing device having a curved surface of a
the wing than to the top, means for adjusting
radius comparable with the semi-thickness of said
said device from a high speed position in which
end of the fore body and having an end tapering
said curved surface is received within said re
to a relatively thin edge, means for mounting said
cessed end and said thin edge is extended rear
device at the rear of said fore body providing for‘
wardly to a high lift position in which said curved
adjustment in the relative position thereof, means
surface is exposed at the rear of said wing form
for adjusting said device from a high speed posi
ing a smooth continuous curve extending from
tion in which said curved surface is received
the upper wing surface around the end and to
within said recessed end and said thin edge is
the lower wing surface, said thin edge being
extended rearwardly to a high lift position in
moved against said fore body in said high lift
which said curved surface is exposed at the rear
position, means forming a slot on the upper ex
of said wing forming a smooth continuous curve
posed surface of said device in the high speed
extending from the upper wing surface around
position thereof, and means within said wing for
the end and to the lower wing surface, said thin 30 discharging a flow of air through said slot in a
edge being moved against said fore body in said
generally rearward direction in the high speed
high lift position, means forming a slot on the
position of said device, said slot in the high lift
upper exposed surface of said device in the high
position of said device being located on the lower
speed position thereof, and means within said
side of said wing and acting to direct a ?ow of
wing for discharging a ?ow of air through said 35 air outwardly thereof and with a forward com
slot in a generally rearward direction in the high
ponent of velocity for causing closer approach of
speed position of said device, said slot in the high
the front and rear stagnation points.
lift position of said device being located on the
6. A wing structure comprising a wing fore
lower side of said wing and acting to direct a
body having an upper and a lower airfoil sur
?ow of air outwardly thereof and with a forward
face and an inwardly curved recessed end por
component of velocity for causing closer approach
tion, a lift increasing device‘having a curved
of the front and rear stagnation points, the walls
surface of a radius comparable with the semi
of said slot being formed to direct said outward
thickness of said end of the fore body and hav
flow of air in a substantialiy tangential direction
ing an end tapering to a relatively thin edge,
along the surface of said device.
45 means for mounting said device at the rear of
4. A wing structure comprising a wing fore body
said fore body providing for adjustment in the
having an upper and a lower airfoil surface and
relative position thereof, means for adjusting said
an inwardly curved recessed end portion, a lift
device from a high speed position in which said
increasing device having a curved surface of a
curved surface is received within said recessed end
radius comparable with the semi-thickness of said 50 and said thin edge is extended rearwardly to a
end of the fore body and having an end tapering
high lift position in which said curved surface is
to a relatively thin edge, means for mounting
exposed at the rear of said wing forming a smooth
said device at the rear of said fore body providing
continuous curve extending from the upper Wing
for adjustment in the relative position thereof,
surface around the end and to the lower wing
means for *adjusting said device from a high 55 surface, said thin edge being moved against said
speed position in which said curved surface is
fore body in said high lift position, means form
received within said recessed end and said thin
ing a slot on the upper exposed surface of said
edge is extended rearwardly to a high lift posi
device in the high speed position thereof, means
tion in which said curved surface is exposed at
within said device for discharging a flow of air
the rear of said wing forming a smooth con
through said slot in a generally rearward direc
tinuous curve extending from the upper wing
tion in the high speed position of said device, said
surface around the end and to the lower wing
slot in the high lift position of said device being
surface, said thin edge being moved against said
located on the lower side of said wing and acting
fore body in said high lift position, means form
to direct a flow of air outwardly thereof and with
ing a slot on the upper exposed surface of said
a forward component of velocity for causing
device in the high ‘speed position thereof, means
closer approach of the front and rear stagnation
within said wing for discharging a flow of air
points, and means operable from within the wing
through said slot in a generally rearward direction
for operating said discharge means in both the
in the high speed position of said device, said slot
high lift and high speed positions of said device.
in the high lift position of said device being 70
located on the lower side of said wing and acting
EDWARD A. STALKER.
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