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Патент USA US2406919

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Sept. 3, 1946.
' E. A.4 STALKER
v2,406,919
CONTROL‘ OF AIRCRAFT
Filed Aug. 22, 1940
Wwu.m w m,w.m"
2 ASheets--Sheei'i 1
E. A. v'sTALKl-:RA 4 l
2,406,919
CONTROL oF ' >AIRCRAFT '
Filed Aug. 22 ,1 1940.
21 sheets-sheet 2
20
2.?
" INVENTOR
Patented Sept. 3, 1946
2,406,919
.d ‘ "UNITED
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>
STATES
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PATENT
2,406,919
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OFFICEY
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CONTROL oF AIRCRAFT
Edward A. Stalker, Ann Arbor, Mich.
’ Application August 22, 1940, Serial No. 353,712
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1o claims." (o1. 24A-f90)
My'invention` relates to aircraft and particu
larlyto the aerodynamic control. It has for its
objects, ñrst'to provide la means capable of pro
ducing powerful rolling moments, second to pro
vide a means of Áproducing «a powerful y-awing
moment, Ithird to provide a lateral control means
in which the adverse yawing moment is reduced
or >converted to .a favorable moment, fourth .to
2
be effected on such a wing with very low energy
expended in the jet which is blown outward along
the surface.
‘_
The jetV energizes «the boundary layer and pro
vides a .thrust from the mass reaction which
çounteracts the adverse yawing moment from the
aileron.
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y
„ Referring particularly to .the drawings, the
provide a simple and effective means of lcontrol
wing is I, the fuselage is 2 and the tail group is 3.
ling ‘a flow through a slot, ñiïth to provide ‘a 10
The wing has ,the aileron 4 near the tip. It
properly proportioned »aileron for Iaction with a
has a normal upper surface contour so as to pro
slot flow, sixth to provide a wing with a jet dis
duce a reversal of curvature in ythe chordwise
charge for boundary layer control. Other objects
will appear from the appended specification and
drawings.
.
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V:I accomplish >the above objects by the means
illustrated in the accompanying :drawings in
section of .the wing, but when the aileron is de
pressed the wing upper contour is changed to a
15 curvature free of reversals and of ‘large radius.
Seegdottedportionpof aileron in> Figure 5; With
such -a curvature the energy required for energia->
ing‘the‘boundary layer is small. If the radius
vFigure 1 is a plan View of the aircraft;
of curvature Aissinall the power necessary to com
Figure 2 is a fragmentary plan view of Ia wing; 20 pel the iîlowgto` follow .the flap is huge-_too large
which-
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‘
Figure 3 is a section along .the line 3-.3 in
Figure 2;
for practical purposes.
~
Figure 4 isa section along line 4*-4 in Figurel
2; and
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d
,
Hence one of ,the main features of this inven
tion embraces the discovery that a large radius
is necessary at the ñap juncture with the main
Figure 5 is Ia section along line 5_5 in Figure 2. 25 portion of the wing.
Figure 6 is a fragmentary plan view of a tail
.The contour of the wing also can be described
plane;
,
`
in terms of the depression of the concavity below
Figure 7 is a, fragmentary elevation of the
a chordwise tangent .to-the opposite sides of the
planes in Figure 6;
y
concavity or in terms of the radius of curvature
Figure 8 is a section along the line 8_8 in Fig 30 of the 4extradoses. The average radius of curva
ture of a iìap extrados should be less than that
Figure 9 is Ithe same section as Figure 8 with
of the rear portion of the fore or main wing body
ure
6;
,
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n
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\
A
the naps displaced;
Figure 10 isa section through the surface flap
to show the T-lug; and
'
so as to produce the concavity and so as to pro
duce a smooth curvature when the flap is de
pressed. By average radius of curvature is meant
Figure 11 is a spanwise section through lthe 35 the average radius of a group of small segments
upper surfaces of flaps 20 and 2| lto show the
of the extrados.
T-lug in the T-slot.
The aileron is carried on the flap 5 which has
In banking an airplane for a turn the ordinary
the induction slot 8 leading into the wing interior
aileron produces a large yawing moment in oppo 40 in `communication with the blower 9. It dis
sition to the turn. This is undesirable since the
charges its air through the slots l0 and l I. The
rudder must be used to produce a, large counter
former is in the flap 5 and the latter is formed
moment. It is desirable that the yawing moment
between the flap and the upper'wall of the aileron
from the ailerons be quite near zero or slightly
to facilitate rotation of the aileron and to control
favorable to the turn.
_
45 the slot flow with the minimum of mechanism.
This invention describes a means of producing
The blower is driven from the engine by means
very powerful rolling moments by boundary layer
of the propeller in the manner described in my
control using small amounts of energy and .accom
U. S. Patent No'. 1,913,644.
panied by a yawing moment of any .desired mag
It is important that Ithe lateral control mo
nirtude, even of zero value if desired.
50 ments available be at their maximum when the
The great rolling moment is obtained with an
airplane is landing without power. For this rea
aileron having a unique upper curvature so that
son I have provided' a windmill to drive the blower
when it is depressed the upper surface of the
9. In this case the windmill is the propeller 9a
wing as a whole has a smooth curvature of gen
on the engine 96. The windmill is free to drive
crous» radius.- Y Boundary layer control can then 55 the> blower relieved >of the engine torque be
'2,406,919
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power and so a power driven blower is employed
cause of an automatic clutch between the pro
peller and the engine.
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in the aircraft.
Figures 6 to 1l exhibit the application to tail
planes. The horizontal tail is I9 iof which parts
The blower communicates with the slots I0 and
I I through the passage I2.
are the ñaps 20 ‘and elevator 2l.
Since the aileron 4 is »carried .on the flap 5 it is
'I'he tail is
carried by flap 5 and is rotated coincidentally
hollow and is supplied from the fuselage 22 with
air or other gases, as shown 4particularly in Figure
6. The air flows out the slots 23 and 24 to some
with 5 by a suitable mechanism not shown.
extent at all times.
moved with 5 and is rotatable up and down rela
tive rto 5 for any position of 5. Flap 6 is also
Y
s.
_
l When control is to befexperienrcedïthe elevator
The aileron‘is moved by means 'ofthe meclia'~
v2I -is rotated by‘means »of vthe 'control'rod 25, Fig
nism shown in Figure 5. The sprocket I3 is
actuated from the fuselage by a. chain I3a. `It
turns the shaft I4 supported in the bearings I5
fixed to flap 5 and moving with it about the-.hinge
I8. This shaft is connected to shaft I6 by the
universal joint I'I. The shaft I6`is"threadedin"-v
ternally and accommodates ¿the "externally
threaded shaft Ilia articulated to the aileron at
ure 9. The flap 2G is also rotated and together
with the elevator provides a smooth curved con
tour ‘on lone side of the tail plane. Also, the rela
tion of the flap to the elevator changes so as to
`open up the `slot on the convex side. The jet
issuing controls -the boundary layer so that a
large control force is provided on the tail Iplane.
The flap 20 is hinged to the main part of the
wing at 26 and connected to the elevator at its
Iûb. A rotation of I6 moves Ißa axially'and so
rotates the aileron‘relative to the ñap 5. Ailerons
on opposite sides of the iplan'e’of syin'metry Aof ‘the
airplane are 'operated differentially in the 'con
trailing edge by the lug y2‘I formed -at 4one 'end
into a `cylinder '2’I`a which 'slides ‘in a ‘-T=slot -'28
Aformed
in 'the wall'of 'theelevator‘lï'L The -"l‘ßsl'ot
ventional manner. That is, one goe's up while
has a varying’depth so 'a'sto'vaiiy’the'slots`23‘and
the other -goes down. The -ípilot’s'sti‘ck is 13b
and rotates the torque tube fand sprocket I3c 25 v24 between the two parts. Thus in "theiposition
shown -`in Figuïre ‘8 vthens'l'ot’s'are S'm'a-ll while lin
which carries the chain i3d connected to >clia'ir'i
the position of Figure 9 the fslotfi‘s large.
I3a.
The iin and rudder'mayîb'e constructed fin sim'
At the time of landing the Äflaps 5 and ’6 are
-ilar'rnannen
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depressed to give »a high arching 'of ¿the 'wing
For claim purposes Ilrefer ‘to ‘flaps lsuchfas 20,
section, as vshown dotted'in Figur’eiâ. 'I‘h'e blower kfa
which are Vbathed -on'oiie s'ide“»on1y »by the fm'a'in
9 is driven by the propeller `racting .as `l`a windmill
if the engine is not running.
relative wind‘ stream, 'as surface `flaps.
‘ î
of the invention it ~is‘to `be understood `that If`do
not limit myself to these exactly but intend 'to
claim my invention ybroadly as Vindicated by the
discharged through .the s'lo'ts I0 -'andfI'L ìIt will
be clear that when the'aileron is fully 'depressed r
the slot i'l is wide open `While Wliei'rit 'is 'fully
raised the slot II -is closed._ Hence when' the
claims.
aileron is y'producing `*an- upïforëe, the ¿jet >visìpriîn
duoing a forward thrust which Vwill vi:o_uriter-act
the added ‘drag arising ¿from ‘the 4lift"enge'ridered
by the aileron. It is well known 'that ïanfinërease
in_lift is ~accompanied by an increase Iin induced
drag.
When the aileron îis 'up A'aríd'rtlfie jet
I claim:
"40
‘elim-i'
jet on the vside of 4the -down ‘aileron `-andjh’enc’e
the yawing moment islfa'vorable .to tlie'tur'îiÍ fac
companying the banking :of the "airplane, yThis
_
'It will -now Vbe ‘understoodïthat‘ï ihave `fdisì‘zleísed
adapted to provide the strongest 'discharge‘s'lot
jet on-‘the wingwith vthe'down aileronjs'aidèpower
a control :surface of l*such»'fb?rn :ís to Lrrfallàe prac'
wing section is essential tothisïso las'itïoïprovide
a large radius of curvature upon v"v'vhicl‘i ïto ~`con`trol the boundary layer. This radius :of curva
ture has a critical value below `-`4wlf'iiohf'ithe `jipower
required 'for boundary -layer `>control*"becomes
exorbitant. The> *radiusV of 'curvature ‘should gbe
each-side of "the ‘aircraftvhavingï'a flap and Eslot,
ailerons at the Aouter-e'nds"o‘f'the wings, each îsaid
slot leading into the wing interior lan’d being
located 'in 'the rear half îof `the wing, and fa blower
within the aircraft in communication with 'the
rearmost slot in said wing iand being form‘e‘d‘rto
direct the 'slot `flow rearward -substantially*along
the Wing surface, control means ’operable ‘coin’
cidentally -to vary Athe slo't‘ñows differe?tiallyïänd
to rotate the flaps differentially both with respect
to >opposite wings, said control me’ans being
'the'
tical the use of boundary `ïle'fy'e’r control in lpro
ducing'a powerful-rollingfmbrneirt. The scalloped
»
wing 'interior to discharge -outward power ‘iets
through said slots, said Ldischarge-slot being _the
without ya forward ¿thrust zfrom the fjet.- Thus
is the ‘desiredl situation.
.
1. In Icombination in ’an aircraft, a wving ’on
nated there is produced a down-'force onfth'e wing
there is a turning or yawing :momen-t
,
While - I 'have illustrated îcertain i specific forms
'Air is inducted through the slots -'8 and v'3a land
55
jets serving to produce .a rolling ‘moment accom
panied >by 'a‘favorable -`y'awing ’moment
"2. -In combinationinanîaircraftfa, líollow‘win'g
having an induction slot and afdischarge ïsloti'n
the ' same side surface Y'of‘the `wing f in' communica
60 tion with the Awing interior 'and amova'ble trail
ing edge flap, Vafpowen‘driven blower Iwithin ~->the
greater than tnejthiekness ‘ef the ‘wing’nearfthe
aircraft -in'c'ommun'ication with said interiorità)
juncture of the flap and'mainiportion of'tlieïwing.
Furthermore, Ihave’shown’howto control jets
at the wing tips'si’rnplyîso'to'p‘roducea favor
able yawing moment to accompany the _roll from
an'outflow jet through 'the ¿discharge slotjsai'd
the ailerons. To do this effectively'the discharge
induce 'an inflow through the I‘induction slot faiíd
565 discharge slot being formed to >direct the ¿slot
rearward flow 'more Ealong than "normal to ‘the
wing surface, steering vmeans 'to /move the `oppo
site flaps differentially yand 'to ’con-trol 'the ¿dis
charge slot -flows in opposite wings differentially
slots should be in the v‘rear one-half of the wing
and preferably in the iiaps themselves. -Any in 70 with thevforce 'of the yjet/on Ithe A4down-_flap ‘wing
duction slots should lie `ahead vof >the `discharge
being increased »relative 'to that en lthe l»trafen
slots since if the vjet is sucked into the wing it
wing, >said dischargefslo'ts'l being aftv of :the induc
does not furnish a thrust.
tion slots in'each'wing'andïbeìn'gthe reari'nost
Slots ín the Wings, theïjetfroinïtlîeÍdiscliargeslot
In order to exert athrust tofproduce'a favor
able yawing moment >the jet must be produced‘by 75 on'the‘down 'ñap wing'serving itolprovide -a'tlirü‘s't
¿4065516
.6
to counteract thedrag from theilap whenl down.
said slots,- said discharge 4slots l being the lrear
mostslots in the wing, and means to create a
rolling moment and' aV favorable yawing moment
_3. ‘In combination in- an aircraft, a hollow wing
main body and' a flap supported means-for' 'sup
porting ‘said main' body and-nap in variable re
by coincidentally moving _the flaps'diiferenti‘ally
lation to form a lwing "on opposite sides of the
and "controlling the slotV widths differentially ‘so
aircraft, each said wing having adischarge slot
in its upper surface in communication withlthe
wing interior, said fiaps being rotatablev about
>spanwise axes, a blower within~ the‘aircraft in
communicationwith lthe wing interior to dis
chargea power jet through said slots, ’and‘steer
10
that the slot ofthe wing with the lower flap has
the greater flow and the greater resulting for
ward reaction, each said discharge slot being
succeeded at a vertical spanwise section by a
curved surface of Athe- wing whose minimum ra
dius of curvature ìs‘substantially greater than the
ing means to differentially control the ilaps and
thickness of theflap at this same section.'
the slot flows :both with respectl to opposite wings
'7. In an aircraft a stabilizing wing composed
with the force of the jet on the down-flap wing
of a wing main body and a plurality of movable
being increased relative to that on the up-llap 15 surface elements, means for adjustably securing
wing to produce a rolling moment accompanied
said elements in tandem at the trailing edge of
by a favorable yawing moment, said discharge
said wing, and means to move one of said ele
slot being the rearmost slot in said wing and be
ments to alter the camber of the wing section
ing substantially adjacent the nap so that the jet
and provide a chordwise convex surface, one side
can b-e deflected effectively by the flap.
` 20 of the wing having a radius of curvature at the
4. In combination in an aircraft, wing main
juncture of two said elements substantially
bodies and rear flaps supported in variable re
greater than the thickness of the wing at the
lation to forma hollow wing on each side of
said juncture, said wing having a slot in its sur
the plane of symmetry having a discharge slot
face on the convex side formed to discharge
in its upper surface in communication with the V25 over said convex surface of the rearmost of said
wing interior, said rear flaps being rotatable
elements toward the trailing edge, a blower
about spanwise axes, a blower within the aircraft
within the aircraft in communication with said
in communication with the wing interiors to dis
slot to discharge an outward jet flow there
charge outward jet flows through said slots, said
through, to develop a forward thrust, said dis
discharge slots being the rearmost 'slots in the
charge slot being the rearmost slot in said wing,
wing and being formed to direct the jets rear 30 said jet and surface of large radius of curvature
ward substantially along the wing surface, and
serving to facilitate the production of great‘lift
means coincidentally to move the flaps and con
for a minimum of power expenditure by the
trol the slot flows both differentially with respect
blower.
to wings on opposite sides of said plane whereby 35 8. In combination, a wing main body and a
to create a rolling moment and a favorable yaw
ing moment, each said flap when in neutral hav
ing an upper external chordwise contour whose
average radius of ‘curvature is substantially less
than the average radius of curvature ofthe up 40
trailing edge flap body, means for supporting said
bodies in variable relation to form a wing, leav
ing a discharge slot communicating with the
wing interior and discharging a jet of air above
and below said Itrailing edge flap body, a surface
per aft portion of the chordwise contour of the
ilap hingedly` 'supportedabout a spanwise axis
said main body immediately ahead of its rear end
on said main body and slideably supported on
but greater than the thickness of said aft portion
said trailing edgeV flap body to form part of the
forming an upwardly arched external airfoil
said
wing and to complete the airfoil contour
surface.
45 thereof, means to depressv said trailing edge ñap
5. In combination in an aircraft, a hollow wing
body, one said trailing edge flap having a chord
on each side of the plane of symmetry having a
wise slot therein to accommodate a sliding lug,
discharge slot in its upper surface in communi
and the surface flap having a lug adapted to
cation with the wing interior and a flap movable
slide chordwise in said yslot to govern the rota
about a spanwise axis, a blower within the air 50 tion of the surface ñap about its said hinge axis
craft in'communication with the wing interior
in response to the change in position of said
to discharge jet flows through the‘slots, said dis
trailing edge ñap, and blower means to discharge
charge slots being formed to direct the slot ñow
a jet through said discharge slots. `
rearward more along than normal to the sur
9. In combination, a wing main body and a
face, and means to create a rolling moment and 55 trailing edge flap body, means for supporting said
a favorable yawing moment comprising means
Y bodies in variable relation to form a wing, a sur
to control said slot flows differentially with re
Iface flap hingedly supported about a spanwise
spect to opposite wings with the force of the jet
axis on one of said bodies and slideably support
on the down-nap wing being increased relative
ed
on the other to form part of the said wing and
to that on the up-ñap wing, and means operable
to complete the airfoil contour thereof, means to
coincidentally with said control means to move 60 depress said trailing edge flap body, one of said
the flaps differentially with respect to ópposite
wings, said discharge slots being the rearmost
bodies having a chordwi'seV slot therein to ac- ‘
commodate a sliding lug, and the surface flap
slots in the wing and being in the rear one-half
having a lug adapted to slide chordwise in said
of the wings so that the slot jets can be effectively 65 slot to govern the rotation of the surface flap
deflected by the flaps. i
about its said hinge axis, said chordwise slot hav
6. In combination in an aircraft, a hollow wing
ing a variable depth below the surface of said
on each side of the plane of symmetry having a
body to. provide a variable gap between the said
rearward directed discharge slot in the upper
body and surface flap for different positions of
rear half of its surface in communication with 70 said iiap body, and blower means to discharge a
the wing interior and a flap movable about a
flow of air through said gap.
spanwise axis, said slot extending spanwise -in
10. In combination inan aircraft, a wing main
the direction of the flap axis, and a blower within
body and a trailing edge iiap body, means for
the aircraft in communication with the wing 'in
supporting said bodies in variable relation to form
terior to discharge outward jet flows through 75 a Wing on each side of the vertical plane of sym
2,406,919
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metry of the aircraft, with their upper surfaces
overlapping, the upper chordwise contours of the
main body and flap being convex and forming at
their juncture a concavity having a substantial
depth below a chordwise line .tangent to the up
per contour of the wing on opposite sides of said
concavity, said wing having a slot in its upper
rear half of the surface in communicationvwith
the wing interior, a blower Within the aircraft
in communication with the Wing interior to dis .10
charge a ñow through said slot, said discharge
slot being the rearmost slot in the said upper sur
8
face, and Vmeans to rotate the opposite flaps dif'
ferentially, in the neutral position'of the fiap
the upper chordwise contour of said flap having
a smaller average radius of curvature over the
central half of its chord length than the average
radius of curvature of said main body upper con
tour along its rear one-half of its chord length,
said ñap in the neutral position having its upper
contour above a line through the trailing edge
of the wing and tangent to the rear upper edge
of said main body.
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EDWARD -A. STALKER.
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