Патент USA US2406919код для вставки
Sept. 3, 1946. ' E. A.4 STALKER v2,406,919 CONTROL‘ OF AIRCRAFT Filed Aug. 22, 1940 Wwu.m w m,w.m" 2 ASheets--Sheei'i 1 E. A. v'sTALKl-:RA 4 l 2,406,919 CONTROL oF ' >AIRCRAFT ' Filed Aug. 22 ,1 1940. 21 sheets-sheet 2 20 2.? " INVENTOR Patented Sept. 3, 1946 2,406,919 .d ‘ "UNITED " > STATES ' ` PATENT 2,406,919 ` OFFICEY Y » CONTROL oF AIRCRAFT Edward A. Stalker, Ann Arbor, Mich. ’ Application August 22, 1940, Serial No. 353,712 ` 1o claims." (o1. 24A-f90) My'invention` relates to aircraft and particu larlyto the aerodynamic control. It has for its objects, ñrst'to provide la means capable of pro ducing powerful rolling moments, second to pro vide a means of Áproducing «a powerful y-awing moment, Ithird to provide a lateral control means in which the adverse yawing moment is reduced or >converted to .a favorable moment, fourth .to 2 be effected on such a wing with very low energy expended in the jet which is blown outward along the surface. ‘_ The jetV energizes «the boundary layer and pro vides a .thrust from the mass reaction which çounteracts the adverse yawing moment from the aileron. ' ` y „ Referring particularly to .the drawings, the provide a simple and effective means of lcontrol wing is I, the fuselage is 2 and the tail group is 3. ling ‘a flow through a slot, ñiïth to provide ‘a 10 The wing has ,the aileron 4 near the tip. It properly proportioned »aileron for Iaction with a has a normal upper surface contour so as to pro slot flow, sixth to provide a wing with a jet dis duce a reversal of curvature in ythe chordwise charge for boundary layer control. Other objects will appear from the appended specification and drawings. . - V:I accomplish >the above objects by the means illustrated in the accompanying :drawings in section of .the wing, but when the aileron is de pressed the wing upper contour is changed to a 15 curvature free of reversals and of ‘large radius. Seegdottedportionpof aileron in> Figure 5; With such -a curvature the energy required for energia-> ing‘the‘boundary layer is small. If the radius vFigure 1 is a plan View of the aircraft; of curvature Aissinall the power necessary to com Figure 2 is a fragmentary plan view of Ia wing; 20 pel the iîlowgto` follow .the flap is huge-_too large which- ` ‘ Figure 3 is a section along .the line 3-.3 in Figure 2; for practical purposes. ~ Figure 4 isa section along line 4*-4 in Figurel 2; and ' ` . 1 d , Hence one of ,the main features of this inven tion embraces the discovery that a large radius is necessary at the ñap juncture with the main Figure 5 is Ia section along line 5_5 in Figure 2. 25 portion of the wing. Figure 6 is a fragmentary plan view of a tail .The contour of the wing also can be described plane; , ` in terms of the depression of the concavity below Figure 7 is a, fragmentary elevation of the a chordwise tangent .to-the opposite sides of the planes in Figure 6; y concavity or in terms of the radius of curvature Figure 8 is a section along the line 8_8 in Fig 30 of the 4extradoses. The average radius of curva ture of a iìap extrados should be less than that Figure 9 is Ithe same section as Figure 8 with of the rear portion of the fore or main wing body ure 6; , , l n . ‘ n 1 \ A the naps displaced; Figure 10 isa section through the surface flap to show the T-lug; and ' so as to produce the concavity and so as to pro duce a smooth curvature when the flap is de pressed. By average radius of curvature is meant Figure 11 is a spanwise section through lthe 35 the average radius of a group of small segments upper surfaces of flaps 20 and 2| lto show the of the extrados. T-lug in the T-slot. The aileron is carried on the flap 5 which has In banking an airplane for a turn the ordinary the induction slot 8 leading into the wing interior aileron produces a large yawing moment in oppo 40 in `communication with the blower 9. It dis sition to the turn. This is undesirable since the charges its air through the slots l0 and l I. The rudder must be used to produce a, large counter former is in the flap 5 and the latter is formed moment. It is desirable that the yawing moment between the flap and the upper'wall of the aileron from the ailerons be quite near zero or slightly to facilitate rotation of the aileron and to control favorable to the turn. _ 45 the slot flow with the minimum of mechanism. This invention describes a means of producing The blower is driven from the engine by means very powerful rolling moments by boundary layer of the propeller in the manner described in my control using small amounts of energy and .accom U. S. Patent No'. 1,913,644. panied by a yawing moment of any .desired mag It is important that Ithe lateral control mo nirtude, even of zero value if desired. 50 ments available be at their maximum when the The great rolling moment is obtained with an airplane is landing without power. For this rea aileron having a unique upper curvature so that son I have provided' a windmill to drive the blower when it is depressed the upper surface of the 9. In this case the windmill is the propeller 9a wing as a whole has a smooth curvature of gen on the engine 96. The windmill is free to drive crous» radius.- Y Boundary layer control can then 55 the> blower relieved >of the engine torque be '2,406,919 , 3 4 power and so a power driven blower is employed cause of an automatic clutch between the pro peller and the engine. ' in the aircraft. Figures 6 to 1l exhibit the application to tail planes. The horizontal tail is I9 iof which parts The blower communicates with the slots I0 and I I through the passage I2. are the ñaps 20 ‘and elevator 2l. Since the aileron 4 is »carried .on the flap 5 it is 'I'he tail is carried by flap 5 and is rotated coincidentally hollow and is supplied from the fuselage 22 with air or other gases, as shown 4particularly in Figure 6. The air flows out the slots 23 and 24 to some with 5 by a suitable mechanism not shown. extent at all times. moved with 5 and is rotatable up and down rela tive rto 5 for any position of 5. Flap 6 is also Y s. _ l When control is to befexperienrcedïthe elevator The aileron‘is moved by means 'ofthe meclia'~ v2I -is rotated by‘means »of vthe 'control'rod 25, Fig nism shown in Figure 5. The sprocket I3 is actuated from the fuselage by a. chain I3a. `It turns the shaft I4 supported in the bearings I5 fixed to flap 5 and moving with it about the-.hinge I8. This shaft is connected to shaft I6 by the universal joint I'I. The shaft I6`is"threadedin"-v ternally and accommodates ¿the "externally threaded shaft Ilia articulated to the aileron at ure 9. The flap 2G is also rotated and together with the elevator provides a smooth curved con tour ‘on lone side of the tail plane. Also, the rela tion of the flap to the elevator changes so as to `open up the `slot on the convex side. The jet issuing controls -the boundary layer so that a large control force is provided on the tail Iplane. The flap 20 is hinged to the main part of the wing at 26 and connected to the elevator at its Iûb. A rotation of I6 moves Ißa axially'and so rotates the aileron‘relative to the ñap 5. Ailerons on opposite sides of the iplan'e’of syin'metry Aof ‘the airplane are 'operated differentially in the 'con trailing edge by the lug y2‘I formed -at 4one 'end into a `cylinder '2’I`a which 'slides ‘in a ‘-T=slot -'28 Aformed in 'the wall'of 'theelevator‘lï'L The -"l‘ßsl'ot ventional manner. That is, one goe's up while has a varying’depth so 'a'sto'vaiiy’the'slots`23‘and the other -goes down. The -ípilot’s'sti‘ck is 13b and rotates the torque tube fand sprocket I3c 25 v24 between the two parts. Thus in "theiposition shown -`in Figuïre ‘8 vthens'l'ot’s'are S'm'a-ll while lin which carries the chain i3d connected to >clia'ir'i the position of Figure 9 the fslotfi‘s large. I3a. The iin and rudder'mayîb'e constructed fin sim' At the time of landing the Äflaps 5 and ’6 are -ilar'rnannen ' . depressed to give »a high arching 'of ¿the 'wing For claim purposes Ilrefer ‘to ‘flaps lsuchfas 20, section, as vshown dotted'in Figur’eiâ. 'I‘h'e blower kfa which are Vbathed -on'oiie s'ide“»on1y »by the fm'a'in 9 is driven by the propeller `racting .as `l`a windmill if the engine is not running. relative wind‘ stream, 'as surface `flaps. ‘ î of the invention it ~is‘to `be understood `that If`do not limit myself to these exactly but intend 'to claim my invention ybroadly as Vindicated by the discharged through .the s'lo'ts I0 -'andfI'L ìIt will be clear that when the'aileron is fully 'depressed r the slot i'l is wide open `While Wliei'rit 'is 'fully raised the slot II -is closed._ Hence when' the claims. aileron is y'producing `*an- upïforëe, the ¿jet >visìpriîn duoing a forward thrust which Vwill vi:o_uriter-act the added ‘drag arising ¿from ‘the 4lift"enge'ridered by the aileron. It is well known 'that ïanfinërease in_lift is ~accompanied by an increase Iin induced drag. When the aileron îis 'up A'aríd'rtlfie jet I claim: "40 ‘elim-i' jet on the vside of 4the -down ‘aileron `-andjh’enc’e the yawing moment islfa'vorable .to tlie'tur'îiÍ fac companying the banking :of the "airplane, yThis _ 'It will -now Vbe ‘understoodïthat‘ï ihave `fdisì‘zleísed adapted to provide the strongest 'discharge‘s'lot jet on-‘the wingwith vthe'down aileronjs'aidèpower a control :surface of l*such»'fb?rn :ís to Lrrfallàe prac' wing section is essential tothisïso las'itïoïprovide a large radius of curvature upon v"v'vhicl‘i ïto ~`con`trol the boundary layer. This radius :of curva ture has a critical value below `-`4wlf'iiohf'ithe `jipower required 'for boundary -layer `>control*"becomes exorbitant. The> *radiusV of 'curvature ‘should gbe each-side of "the ‘aircraftvhavingï'a flap and Eslot, ailerons at the Aouter-e'nds"o‘f'the wings, each îsaid slot leading into the wing interior lan’d being located 'in 'the rear half îof `the wing, and fa blower within the aircraft in communication with 'the rearmost slot in said wing iand being form‘e‘d‘rto direct the 'slot `flow rearward -substantially*along the Wing surface, control means ’operable ‘coin’ cidentally -to vary Athe slo't‘ñows differe?tiallyïänd to rotate the flaps differentially both with respect to >opposite wings, said control me’ans being 'the' tical the use of boundary `ïle'fy'e’r control in lpro ducing'a powerful-rollingfmbrneirt. The scalloped » wing 'interior to discharge -outward power ‘iets through said slots, said Ldischarge-slot being _the without ya forward ¿thrust zfrom the fjet.- Thus is the ‘desiredl situation. . 1. In Icombination in ’an aircraft, a wving ’on nated there is produced a down-'force onfth'e wing there is a turning or yawing :momen-t , While - I 'have illustrated îcertain i specific forms 'Air is inducted through the slots -'8 and v'3a land 55 jets serving to produce .a rolling ‘moment accom panied >by 'a‘favorable -`y'awing ’moment "2. -In combinationinanîaircraftfa, líollow‘win'g having an induction slot and afdischarge ïsloti'n the ' same side surface Y'of‘the `wing f in' communica 60 tion with the Awing interior 'and amova'ble trail ing edge flap, Vafpowen‘driven blower Iwithin ~->the greater than tnejthiekness ‘ef the ‘wing’nearfthe aircraft -in'c'ommun'ication with said interiorità) juncture of the flap and'mainiportion of'tlieïwing. Furthermore, Ihave’shown’howto control jets at the wing tips'si’rnplyîso'to'p‘roducea favor able yawing moment to accompany the _roll from an'outflow jet through 'the ¿discharge slotjsai'd the ailerons. To do this effectively'the discharge induce 'an inflow through the I‘induction slot faiíd 565 discharge slot being formed to >direct the ¿slot rearward flow 'more Ealong than "normal to ‘the wing surface, steering vmeans 'to /move the `oppo site flaps differentially yand 'to ’con-trol 'the ¿dis charge slot -flows in opposite wings differentially slots should be in the v‘rear one-half of the wing and preferably in the iiaps themselves. -Any in 70 with thevforce 'of the yjet/on Ithe A4down-_flap ‘wing duction slots should lie `ahead vof >the `discharge being increased »relative 'to that en lthe l»trafen slots since if the vjet is sucked into the wing it wing, >said dischargefslo'ts'l being aftv of :the induc does not furnish a thrust. tion slots in'each'wing'andïbeìn'gthe reari'nost Slots ín the Wings, theïjetfroinïtlîeÍdiscliargeslot In order to exert athrust tofproduce'a favor able yawing moment >the jet must be produced‘by 75 on'the‘down 'ñap wing'serving itolprovide -a'tlirü‘s't ¿4065516 .6 to counteract thedrag from theilap whenl down. said slots,- said discharge 4slots l being the lrear mostslots in the wing, and means to create a rolling moment and' aV favorable yawing moment _3. ‘In combination in- an aircraft, a hollow wing main body and' a flap supported means-for' 'sup porting ‘said main' body and-nap in variable re by coincidentally moving _the flaps'diiferenti‘ally lation to form a lwing "on opposite sides of the and "controlling the slotV widths differentially ‘so aircraft, each said wing having adischarge slot in its upper surface in communication withlthe wing interior, said fiaps being rotatablev about >spanwise axes, a blower within~ the‘aircraft in communicationwith lthe wing interior to dis chargea power jet through said slots, ’and‘steer 10 that the slot ofthe wing with the lower flap has the greater flow and the greater resulting for ward reaction, each said discharge slot being succeeded at a vertical spanwise section by a curved surface of Athe- wing whose minimum ra dius of curvature ìs‘substantially greater than the ing means to differentially control the ilaps and thickness of theflap at this same section.' the slot flows :both with respectl to opposite wings '7. In an aircraft a stabilizing wing composed with the force of the jet on the down-flap wing of a wing main body and a plurality of movable being increased relative to that on the up-llap 15 surface elements, means for adjustably securing wing to produce a rolling moment accompanied said elements in tandem at the trailing edge of by a favorable yawing moment, said discharge said wing, and means to move one of said ele slot being the rearmost slot in said wing and be ments to alter the camber of the wing section ing substantially adjacent the nap so that the jet and provide a chordwise convex surface, one side can b-e deflected effectively by the flap. ` 20 of the wing having a radius of curvature at the 4. In combination in an aircraft, wing main juncture of two said elements substantially bodies and rear flaps supported in variable re greater than the thickness of the wing at the lation to forma hollow wing on each side of said juncture, said wing having a slot in its sur the plane of symmetry having a discharge slot face on the convex side formed to discharge in its upper surface in communication with the V25 over said convex surface of the rearmost of said wing interior, said rear flaps being rotatable elements toward the trailing edge, a blower about spanwise axes, a blower within the aircraft within the aircraft in communication with said in communication with the wing interiors to dis slot to discharge an outward jet flow there charge outward jet flows through said slots, said through, to develop a forward thrust, said dis discharge slots being the rearmost 'slots in the charge slot being the rearmost slot in said wing, wing and being formed to direct the jets rear 30 said jet and surface of large radius of curvature ward substantially along the wing surface, and serving to facilitate the production of great‘lift means coincidentally to move the flaps and con for a minimum of power expenditure by the trol the slot flows both differentially with respect blower. to wings on opposite sides of said plane whereby 35 8. In combination, a wing main body and a to create a rolling moment and a favorable yaw ing moment, each said flap when in neutral hav ing an upper external chordwise contour whose average radius of ‘curvature is substantially less than the average radius of curvature ofthe up 40 trailing edge flap body, means for supporting said bodies in variable relation to form a wing, leav ing a discharge slot communicating with the wing interior and discharging a jet of air above and below said Itrailing edge flap body, a surface per aft portion of the chordwise contour of the ilap hingedly` 'supportedabout a spanwise axis said main body immediately ahead of its rear end on said main body and slideably supported on but greater than the thickness of said aft portion said trailing edgeV flap body to form part of the forming an upwardly arched external airfoil said wing and to complete the airfoil contour surface. 45 thereof, means to depressv said trailing edge ñap 5. In combination in an aircraft, a hollow wing body, one said trailing edge flap having a chord on each side of the plane of symmetry having a wise slot therein to accommodate a sliding lug, discharge slot in its upper surface in communi and the surface flap having a lug adapted to cation with the wing interior and a flap movable slide chordwise in said yslot to govern the rota about a spanwise axis, a blower within the air 50 tion of the surface ñap about its said hinge axis craft in'communication with the wing interior in response to the change in position of said to discharge jet flows through the‘slots, said dis trailing edge ñap, and blower means to discharge charge slots being formed to direct the slot ñow a jet through said discharge slots. ` rearward more along than normal to the sur 9. In combination, a wing main body and a face, and means to create a rolling moment and 55 trailing edge flap body, means for supporting said a favorable yawing moment comprising means Y bodies in variable relation to form a wing, a sur to control said slot flows differentially with re Iface flap hingedly supported about a spanwise spect to opposite wings with the force of the jet axis on one of said bodies and slideably support on the down-nap wing being increased relative ed on the other to form part of the said wing and to that on the up-ñap wing, and means operable to complete the airfoil contour thereof, means to coincidentally with said control means to move 60 depress said trailing edge flap body, one of said the flaps differentially with respect to ópposite wings, said discharge slots being the rearmost bodies having a chordwi'seV slot therein to ac- ‘ commodate a sliding lug, and the surface flap slots in the wing and being in the rear one-half having a lug adapted to slide chordwise in said of the wings so that the slot jets can be effectively 65 slot to govern the rotation of the surface flap deflected by the flaps. i about its said hinge axis, said chordwise slot hav 6. In combination in an aircraft, a hollow wing ing a variable depth below the surface of said on each side of the plane of symmetry having a body to. provide a variable gap between the said rearward directed discharge slot in the upper body and surface flap for different positions of rear half of its surface in communication with 70 said iiap body, and blower means to discharge a the wing interior and a flap movable about a flow of air through said gap. spanwise axis, said slot extending spanwise -in 10. In combination inan aircraft, a wing main the direction of the flap axis, and a blower within body and a trailing edge iiap body, means for the aircraft in communication with the wing 'in supporting said bodies in variable relation to form terior to discharge outward jet flows through 75 a Wing on each side of the vertical plane of sym 2,406,919 -7 metry of the aircraft, with their upper surfaces overlapping, the upper chordwise contours of the main body and flap being convex and forming at their juncture a concavity having a substantial depth below a chordwise line .tangent to the up per contour of the wing on opposite sides of said concavity, said wing having a slot in its upper rear half of the surface in communicationvwith the wing interior, a blower Within the aircraft in communication with the Wing interior to dis .10 charge a ñow through said slot, said discharge slot being the rearmost slot in the said upper sur 8 face, and Vmeans to rotate the opposite flaps dif' ferentially, in the neutral position'of the fiap the upper chordwise contour of said flap having a smaller average radius of curvature over the central half of its chord length than the average radius of curvature of said main body upper con tour along its rear one-half of its chord length, said ñap in the neutral position having its upper contour above a line through the trailing edge of the wing and tangent to the rear upper edge of said main body. l ì Y ì __ _ EDWARD -A. STALKER.