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Патент USA US2406922

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" E? A“ $TALKER
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WING
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Filed Jan. 9, 1942
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2,406,922
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INVENTOR
Patented Sept. 3, 1946
2,406,922
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
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2,406,922
WING
Edward A. Stalker, Ann Arbor,_ Mich.
Application January 9, 1942, Serial No. 426,099
8 Claims.
(01. 244-42)
1
My invention relates to Wings equipped for
boundary layer control and it has for its main
object to provide a means of increasing the
maximum lift coefficient for a low expenditure
of power. Other objects will appear from the de
scription and drawing.
I attain the above objects by the means illus
trated in the accompanying drawing in which
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ineffective on a thin wing in increasing the lift
signi?cantly, yet when it is combined with a for
wardly located s'lot it exerts a very great bene?cial
influence.
Turning now to the ?gures, the wing is I come
prised of the main body 2 and the ?aps 3 and 4
which are rotatable about the hinges 5 and 6
respectively.
Figure 1 is a plan view of the aircraft;
The ?rst flap 3 has the induction slot 1 in com
Figure 2 is a fragmentary plan view of the 10 munication with the wing interior while the flap
4 has the induction slot 8 located very close to
Figure 3 is a section along the line 3—3 in Fig
the trailing edge of the wing.
wing;
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ure 1; and
The blower 9 inducts the boundary layer
Figure 4 is the same section as Figure ‘3 with
the flaps depressed.
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I have discovered that a great increase in the
lift of a wing equipped with a suction slot can
- through the slots‘ 1 and 8 and the suction at the
15 rear slot serves to restrain a forward ?ow induced
by the front slot.
An important feature of the Wing is the pro
vision‘of a highly arched mean‘ camber line ac
companied by an upper‘ chordwise contour of
be achieved if a second ‘slot is properly located
with respect to the forward slot or slots.
It is well known that if the boundary layer on
large radius of curvature. The value of this
a Wing is inducted into the wing there is a great
radius should exceed substantially the thickness
increase in the maximum lift coefficient of the
of the wing at the juncture of the wing main‘
wing. It has been found however that on thin
body and the flap.
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wings a great suction is required to achieve rather
The ?aps are given an unusual arching so that
mediocre results. That is a great amount of 25 in the retracted position the .top of the wing
power and high suction must be employed.
section has a scalloped appearance but when the
Furthermore the published experiments on this
naps are depressed the upper arches register to
subject indicate that the best location for the
provide an upper camber of generous radius of
slot is near the point on the wing chord. 52 per
curvature. The ?ap adjacent the main body has
cent of the chord back from the wing nose.
30 a smaller radius of curvature for its upper camber
I have discovered that a large gain can be
than that of the upper camber of the rear part
achieved by eliminating a source of trouble which
of the main body. The main body of course
has not before been recognized. I have found
terminates with some radius at its end so the
thatif a large suction is employed near the
portion of the upper camber referred to is taken
middle of the wing the maximum lift coe?lcient 35 ahead of the rear 10 per cent of the main body
does. increase but at a slow rate beyond a certain
and aft of its mid point.
value because this high suction causes a reverse
A tangent II to the wing across the concavity
flow between the suction slot ‘and the trailing edge
formed between the upper extradoses touches this
of the wing. That is, there occurred a forward‘
surface a substantial distance ahead of the bot
flow from the trailing edge toward the slot.‘ This
tom‘ of the concavity as at 10. See Figure 3. This
caused the main rearward ?ow to leave the wing‘
assures a‘ gradual descent of the contour to the
a short distance back of the suction slot. This
bottom of the concavity for the purpose of elimi
effect is particularly marked with thin wings
nating turbulence and drag. Preferably the point
which have such a small radius of curvature at
their nose that a high suction is necessary at 45 of tangency in of the tangent‘ II should lie ahead
the suction slot.
.
I have found a remedy for the above defect
which has resulted in large gains in maximum
lift coef?cient for a given powerexpenditure of
thepump or blower. This consists in locating a
suction slot as near the trailing edge as is struc
turally practicable and exerting a sufficient suc
tion. through it to counteract the forward slot
whose» suction tends to pull air forward from the
of the bottom of the concavity a distance greater
than twice the depth of the concavity.
I use the term lift ?ap in the claims to refer
to the type which are depressed coincidentally on
opposite sides of the aircraft for increasing the
total lift, in contradistinction to aileron ?aps
which are operated differentially.
While I have described a speci?c form of the
invention it is to be understood that I do not in
trailing edge. A slot at the trailing edge is alone 55 tend to limit myself to precisely this but intend to
2,406,922
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1. An aircraft wing of the character described
induction slot in the upper camber surface of
the wing at a point intermediate the leading and
trailing edges thereof, means forming another
induction slot substantially along the trailing
which comprises a wing main body, a ?ap, means 5
edge of said ?ap, and means within said wing
claim my invention broadly as indicated in the
appended claims.
I claim:
for inducing a flow of air through both said slots
for adjustably supporting said flap from said wing
with the induction through said rearward slot
main body providing for movement thereof from
restraining the tendency to cause forward ?ow
an upper raised position to a lowered position
of the air on the trailing portion of the wing in
effecting an increase in the mean camber height
of the wing, means forming a forward induction 10 duced by said forward slot.
5. An aircraft wing of the character described
slot in the upper camber surface of the wing
which comprises a wing main body, the radius
at a point intermediate the leading and trailing
edges of the wing, means forming another in
of curvature of the rearward portion of the upper
duction slot in predetermined spaced relation
camber surface of said wing main body being
substantially in excess of the thickness of the
with respect to said forward slot and located sub- ~
adjacentportion of the wing, a flap having a
stantially along the trailing edge of said ?ap,
smaller radius of curvature for its upper camber
and power operated means withinsaid wing for
inducing a flow of air through both said slots with
surface than that of the upper camber surface
the induction through said rearward slot re
of said rearward portion of the wing main body,
straining the tendency to cause forward ?ow of ~ means for adjustably supporting said flap at the
the air on the trailing portion of said wing as
end of said wing main body providing for move
ment thereof from an upper raised position to a
a result of said forward slot.
2. An aircraft wing of the character described
lowered position effecting an increase in the
which comprises a relatively thin wing main
mean camber height of the wing, means form
body, a ?ap tapering substantially to a line at
ing a forward induction slot in the upper camber
its trailing edge, means for adjustably support
surface of the wing at a point intermediate the
ing said flap from said wing main body pro
leading and trailing edges thereof, means form
ing another induction slot substantially along
viding for movement thereof from an upper
raised position to a lowered position effecting an
the trailing edge of said flap, and means within
increase in the mean camber height of the wing, 30 said wing for inducing a ?ow of air through both
means forming a forward induction slot in the
said slots with the induction through said rear
upper camber surface of the wing at a point
ward slot restraining the tendency to cause for
intermediate the leading and trailing edges of
ward flow of the air on the trailing portion of
the wing, means forming another induction slot
the wing induced by said forward slot.
in‘predetermined spaced relation with respect to 35 6. An aircraft wing of the character described
said forward slot and located substantially along
which comprises a wing main body, the radius
the trailing edge of said flap on the upper surface
of curvature of the rearward portion of the upper
thereof, and power operated means within said
camber surface of said wing main body being
wing for inducing a flow of air through both
substantially in excess of the thickness of the
said slots with the induction through said rear 40 adjacent portion of the wing, a flap, means for
ward slot restraining thetendency to cause for . __ adjustably supporting said ?ap at the end of said
wing main body providing for movement thereof
ward ?ow of the air on the trailing portion of
from an upper raised position to a lowered posi
said wing as a result of said forward slot.
3. An aircraft wing of the character described
tion effecting an increase in the mean camber
which comprises a relatively thin wing main > height of the wing, the upper surface of said ?ap
body, a ?ap, means for adjustably supporting , - being arched to produce with said wing main
said?ap from said wing main body providing
for movement thereof from an upper raised posi
tion to a lowered position effecting an increase
in the mean camber height of the wing to a ‘
value greater than 12% of the wing chord length,
means forming a forward induction slot in the
upper camber surface of the wing at_ a point aft
of the mid point and forwardly of the trailing
body in the raised position of said ?ap a scalloped
upper surface, the upper surfaces of said wing
main body and of said ?ap registering in the
lowered position thereof to provide a continuous
upper camber surface of a radius of curvature
substantially in excess of the wing thickness,
means forming a forward induction slot in the
end thereof, means forming another induction ~
upper camber surface of the wing at a point in
termediate the leading and trailing edges of the
slot in predetermined spaced relation with respect
wing, means forming a rearward induction slot
to said forward slot and located substantially
along the trailing edge of said flap, and power
operated means within said wing for inducing a
flow of air through both said slots with the in
duction through said rearward slot restraining
substantially along the trailing edge of said flap,
and means within said wing for inducing a ?ow
of air through both said slots with the induction
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through said rearward slot restraining the tend
ency to cause forward ?ow of the air on the
trailing portion of the wing induced by said
forward slot.
of said forward slot.
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7. An aircraft wing of the character described
4. An aircraft wing of the character described 65 which comprises a relatively thin wing main
which comprises a wing main body, the radius of
body, the radius of curvature of the rearward
curvature of the rearward portion of the upper
portion of the upper camber surface thereof being
camber surface of said wing main body being
substantially in excess of the thickness of the
substantially in excess of the thickness of the
adjacent wing, a plurality of ?aps, means for
adjacent portion of the wing, a flap, means for 70 adjustably supporting said ?aps in tandem rela
adjustably supporting said ?ap at the end of said
tion at the trailing edge of the wing main body
wing main body providing for movement there
providing for movement thereof from an upper
of vfrom an upper raised position to a lowered
raised position to a lowered position effecting an
position effecting an increase in the mean camber
increase in the mean camber height of the wing,
height of the wing, means forming a forward 75 means forming a forward induction slot in the
thetendency to cause forward ?ow of the air
on the trailing portion of said wing as a result
{3,406,922
6
upper camber surface of the wing at a point in
adjustably supporting said ?aps in tandem rela
termediate the leading and trailing edges of the
tion at the trailing edge of the wing main body
wing, means forming a rearward induction slot
substantially along the trailing edge of the rear
providing for movement thereof from an upper
raised position to a lowered position effecting an
most flap, and means within said wing for in
increase in the mean camber height of the wing,
ducing a ?ow of air through both said slots with
means forming a forward induction slot in the
the induction through said rearward slot re
upper camber surface of a forward ?ap, means
straining the tendency to cause forward ?ow of 7 forming a rearward induction slot substantially
the air on the trailing portion of the wing in
along the trailing edge of the rearmost flap, and
10 means within said wing for inducing a ?ow of
duced by said forward slot.
air through both said slots with the induction
8. An aircraft wing of the character described
which comprises a relatively thin wing main
through said rearward slot restraining the tend
body, the radius of curvature of the rearward
ency to cause forward ?ow of the
on the
portion of the upper camber surface thereof being
trailing portion of the wing induced by said
substantially in excess of the thickness of the 15 forward slot.
adjacent wing, a plurality of ?aps, means for
EDWARD A-. STALKER.
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