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Патент USA US2406944

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Sept. 3, `1946.
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A
Rv. E. cHoATE ETAL
'
2,406,944
VEHICLE
@riginal Filed- sepi. 21. 1940
9 sheeis~sneei 1
Sept. 3, .19.46.
R. E. cHoATE ErAL
2,406,944
VEHICLE
Original Filed Sept. 21, 1940
9 Shee‘bS-Shee‘i‘l 2
gmc/www5
Sept 3, -1946.
`
R. E. CHOATE ÈT Al. '
VEHICLE
original Filed sept. 21’, 1940
2,406,944
"
9 sheets-sheet s
s
Sept. 3, 1946.
R. E. cHoATE E'rAL .
VEHICLE
Original Filed Sept, 2l, 1940 ,
‘ 2,405,944
'
9 Sheets-Sheet 4 -
Sept. 3, 1946.
R. E. CHOATE ET .M_v
2,406,944
' VEHICLE
Original Filed Sept. 2l. 1940
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9 Sheets-Sheet 5
SePtl- 3, 1946-
R. E. cHoATE ET Al.
2,406,944
VEHICLE
Original Filed Sept. 2l, 1940
9 Sheets-Sheet 6 ‘
' à. E. cHoATE ETAL
'
2,406,944
VEHICLE
Original Filed Sept. 21, 1940
Fim-5-a
9 Sheets-Sheet '7
Sept. 3, "1946.v
R.
cHoA'rE Ei- AL
'
2,406,944
-V EHICLE
Original Filed sept; 21, 1940
55
9 sheets-)sheet 8 »
l Sep-t3, 1946-
R. E. cHoATE ET_AL
' '
ì 2,406,944
VEHICLE
Original Filed Sept. 2l. 1940
9 Sheets-Sheet 9
Patented Sept. 3„ 1946
2,406,944
UNITED STATES PßsrlazN'r> OFFICE
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VEHICLE
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R03/ E. ohoate‘ana Ellsworth W. Austin, cedar
' Rapids,
assìgnors to >LaPlant-Choate
Iowa,
l Manufacturing Company, Incorporated, Cedar
' _Rapids, Iowa; a. corporation of Delaware
Crigînal application September 21, 1940, Serial
. ¿f No. 357,672, now Patent No. 2,347,882, dated
’ May 2, 1944. Divided and this application Sep
, tomber 13, 1943, Serial No; 502,114
(Cl. ISO-51)
12 Claims.
2
is well distributed over the ground-engaging
Our invention relates to a vehicle particularly
adapted for excavating, transporting;> discharg
ing and leveling earth orz comparablematerial,
Wheels.`
this application being a division of our applica
tionSerial No. 357,672, iiled` SeptemberrZl, 1940,;
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`yet which is >sufliciently flexible 1go-permit ready
for an Excavator which issued as‘ Patent No.
2,347,882.
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Anotherobject of our invention is‘the pro
vision of a vehicle in which ‘the drive from the
power-plant to the Wheels i‘s'generally-` positive
maneuvering.
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Another object of our invention is the pro
`At the present time it is customary in `most
vision of a vehicle- capable of being driven in 'a
commercial operations to provide the excavating
"machine ¿with a -separate' tractor, usuallyof the' 10 reverse direction for maneuvering‘iin cramped
,track-laying type,` arranged at the front of the
excavator, to‘ draw the excavating machine over
the ground during most ofthe operation. Some
quarters.
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A further object of our invention is to provide
an excavator which is largely automatic oper
times, especially during actual digging, if power
ation sothat a single operator _can handle large
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is scant, an additional tractor is brought `up be-- 15 loads at very high speed.`
Another 4object, of our invention is to provide
hind the excavator and acts as a temporary
an excavator in which the amount of excava
pusher or booster. This arrangement is feasible
tion is automatically regulated for maximum
where extra operators and equipment _are avall
performance of the vehicle.
able and where there is a good deal of room for
maneuvering.
There is no satisfactory -revers- A' 20
ing action available, however, and even ifV the
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The foregoing and other objects are attained
in the embodiment of the invention illustrated in
tractor is operated in the very slow speed re
verse, steering is diflicult partly because of the
the drawings, in which
type of draft hitch employed.
form of an excavator embodying the objects `of
` ,
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of a vehicle in the
In ,long haul
operations, this is of little importance, but in?" 25
short haul operations, the time spent turning
around at the end of the digging trip and at the
end of the return trip may amount to ten or'
our
invention;
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Fig. 2 is a plan> of the excavator shown in
Fig. 1;
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Fig. 3 is a cross-section the planes of which
are indicated by the lines 3-3 _of Fig. 2;
' twenty per cent of the total time. ,An excavator
Fig. 4 is a cross-section the planes of which
which can be operated and accurately steered`£` ,30
are indicatedby the line 4-4 of Fig. 3; `
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at high speed in reverse is obviously advanta
Fig. 5 is a cross-section the plane of which is
geous in this type of work.
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indicated by theA line 5,-5 of Fig. _4;
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The power requirements of a vehicle ofthis
Fig. 6 is a cross-section the _plane of which is
type are very severe. On relatively long hauls
a representative size of excavator will carry about?
thirty cubic yards of material about forty miles
indicated b_y the line 6-M6 of_F_ig, 4;
v ,
Fig. 7 is a plan, portions `of the` enclosing cas
ing being removed, of the rear .portion of our
per hour. -This is accomplished with thevehicle
going rapidly with respect to the engine. During
excavator;
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Fig. Bis a side elevation of a motor vehiclepref
excavating, a deep cut in hard material may re
quire the full enginepower at maximumengine
erably for use with `our excavator;
speed yet at a very low vehicle speed. __A number
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Fig. 9 is a diagrammatic plan of the cable `ar
rangement of our excavator;
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of different gear ratios are advisable, but changes «
` , Fig. 10 is a schematic dìagram‘of the controls `
from one ratio to another should be made `almost
instantly to avoid loss of~ momentum.l Hence an 45 of Fig.
our excavator;
11 is a schematic
and
diagram of additional
, _
automatic transmission is highly desirable.
y
One of the objects of’our invention is the pro
visionfof an improved vehicle particularly >adapt
controls of our excavator especially for‘regulat
ing the amount ofA excavation.
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For the purposes of illustration, our vehicle
has been shown in the form of an excavator in
Another object of our invention is the provision y50 cluding a maingframe and main bowl structure,
of a vehicle provided with its owrrbooster` power
the elements of vwhich are articulated for rela
plant.
>
tive motion aboutïa transverse axis and which are
ed for use as an excavator:
Still ’another
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object
of` `our p invention ‘- is >the
provision. of a vehicle in- which `the y‘power-plant
.is arrangedsothat the `weight ofthe-power plant
provided with means ior'controlling such motion.
Each ofthe elements is supported on ground
55. engaging Whee1s,i_the ._rearpair, of _which are
2,406,944
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4
driven by an associated source of power, and the
front pair of which not only are steerable but are
rear wheels. This permits very abrupt turning
and sharp maneuvering of the vehicle in cramped
-quarters. The steering member 3I is primarily
a hollow casing having (Fig. 5) a king pin 34
driven from their own associated source of power.
The sources of power are under the control of
the vehicle operator and transmit their driving
force through hydraulic couplings and automat
ically shiftable ratio-changing transmissions re
sponsive to the speed of the respective driven
wheels. The drive is also transmitted through.
reversing gears under operator control and
therein also mounted Within a central mast 33
forming part of the main frame. The king pin
34 is extended to form a pívot connection with a
knuckle frame 36 preferably integral with the
steering member 3I.
In order to eñ'ectuate relative steering rota
tion between the main frame mast 33 and the
steering member 3I, _there is mounted on the
casing 3| within a steering compartment 3l’ a
bevel ring gear 38 with which meshes (Fig. 6) a
through diiîerential gears under automatic con
trol responsive to the steering for locking the dif
ferentials. The earth-handling devices, that is,
the main bowl, the pusher and the auxiliary bowl,
are power-actuated by operator-controlled cable
Winches and hydraulic cylinders.
The .excavator structure II is supported upon
'steering bevel 39 journaled on a collar 4I and
also meshing with bevel ring gear 42 within the
compartment and fast on the mast 33. An ex
tension 43 of the collar 4I forms a pivotal mount
ing for a piston rod 44 of a hydraulic steering
a pair of rear ground-engaging wheels I2 and a
pair of front ground-engaging wheels I3 -alnd is
made up o1” a rear, main bowl section I4 articu 20 structure (Fig. 4). A double-acting steering cyl
inder 41 is at one end mounted on a pívot pin
lated to a front, main frame section i6 for rela
49 fast with respect to the steering member 3!
tive rotation about a transverse horizontal axis
and disposed on .an extended bracket 5I mate
I'I. Relative rotation about the >axis is controlled
rially spaced from the king pin 32.
by double acting hydraulic piston and cylinder
Upon appropriate control of oil ñow to and
structures I8 pivotally mounted on the frame I6 25
from the chambers ofthe cylinder 41, the pis
and connected through stopped bell-cranksA i8 to
ton rod 44 is advanced or retracted to rotate the
the main bowl section I 4. The various instru
extension 43 and to move the bevel 39, so that
mentalities within and associated withthe main
relative rotation takes place between .the ring
bowl, including the bell-cranks I9, are substan
tially as shown in the above-identiñedAustin ap
plication. These instrumentalities generally com-v
prise an earth discharge or pusher member 2I
which is translatable within the main bowl I4
and which is connected by an articulation 22 to
an earth-retaining member 23 or auxiliary bowl
or front apron which in turn is connected to the
main bowl through a pair of links 24, so that
upon forward movement of the pusher 2i the
.30 gears 38 and 42, thus producing relative rota
tion between the steering member 3l and the
mast33 of the main frame. The gear reduction
employed is at a ratio of ,two to one, so that,
for 90 degrees angular motion of the extension
43, 180 degrees angular motion of the `steering
member with respect to the steering mast‘3l is
provided. Also by use 0f this mechanism, and
because of the resistance to flow of the hydraulic
front apron 23 rises, while upon return or rear
fluid utilized, the steering member 3 I, despite ex
ward translation of the pusher 2I the front apron 40 traneous shocks, remains substantially in the se
23 closes.
.
lected position, although the operator can, if de
While the front apron is open, material is
either discharged from or loaded into the >main
bowl over a cutting yedge 26 .disposed .approxi
sired, permit some seepage or leakage in order
that a dashpot effect may be provided.
Steering movement is imparted from the steer
mately midway of the length of the main bowl 45 ing member 3I to the front ground-engaging
structure'. Upon appropriate operation .of the
wheels I3, through supporting structures which
hydraulic cylinders I8, the cutting edge 25 can be
connect the front wheels to the `rest of .the vehi
raised to its carrying position as shown in Fig. 1,
cle. These supporting structures are substan
or can be lowered therefrom to a maximum
tially identical on opposite sides of the center,
cutting position below the surface of the ground, 350 and hence a description of one applies to both.
such movement being >accompanied by relative
Mounted upon the steering member v3l are par
rotation .of the main bowl section I4 with respect
allel rods 56 serving >as pivotal mountings for a
to the main frame section I6 about the transverse
axis I'I and also about the rotational axes of
the rear wheels I2 and the front wheels I3.
When the .hydraulic cylinders I8 are notl actu
ated, but `the liquid is blocked therein, they func
tion as restraining or locking means to prevent
unwanted or erratic relative rotation of the main
. 5
pair of support levers 51 and 58 fulcrumed on the
steering member at their inner ends and at their
outer ends connected by parallel pivots 59 and
6I to the. enlarged plate end 62 of an axle tube
63. On lthe axle tube are disposed bearings 64
and 65 rotatably supporting a wheel 66 provided
with detachable connectors 61 securing it to a
bowl and main frame members, thereby preserv
rim 68 on which .a ground-engaging pneumatic
ing the selected position of the various parts Ob tire 69 is mounted.
under the control of the operator.
By this arrangement not only does the tire,
The forward portion of the main `frame 4Iii is
rim and wheel unit revolve upon the axle tube 63,
connected to and includes a steering member 3l
but likewise the wheel assembly rises and falls
which is mounted for .relative .rotation -with re-»`
with respect to the steering member 3| as per
spect `to the main frame vabout a vertical 'axis 32,
mitted by the rising and falling movement of the
and since the front wheels I3 are .connected to
the steering member there is thus provided a
means for effectuating steering movement of the
entire vehicle, the extent ofv steering motionof.
.the front `wheels being a rotation. of :substan
tially 90 degrees in either ldirection from 'the
straight-ahead position, :so `that Ithe vehicle :can
be -steered with its front ‘wheels traveling 'in a
direction at Aright angles to :the direction v.of the
levers 51 and 58. Thus, rotational movement of
the steering member about the central vertical
axis 32 is accompanied by a corresponding move
ment of the wheels in unison therewith, to ac
complish steering of the excavator while rising
and falling movement of the wheels 'to accom
modate for irregularities in the ground is ‘per
mitted. This accommodation is resiliently re
strained. Interposed between pads on the steer
2,406,944.
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ing member 3| and pads onthe plate 62 is alpair
of coil springs 1| for transmitting the weight of
the vehicle to the ground-engaging wheels. An
other pair of springs is symmetrically arranged,
and with this suspension arrangement the steer
ing axis 32 may remain substantially in a ver
tical position while either of the front ground
f engaging wheels can accommodate itself to irre
to a transmission shaft |06 which extends
through the steering housing 3| and which car
ries a bevel side gear |01. The driven member
|04', however, is connected to a bevel side gear
|08. Together these are freely rotatable with
'f respect to the shaft |06, yet the gear |03 is con
nected with the bevel gear |01' through pinion
gularities in the terrain independently of simi
gears |09 Arestrained against planetary rotation
and mounted in journals within the housing 3|.
lar accommodating movements `by the other
wheel.
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With this arrangement, when the disc |0| is in
neutral position, no power is transmitted from
the driven shaft 91 to the shaft |06. When the
disc IDI is in frictional engagement with the disc
|03, power is transmitted directly to the shaft |06
and turns it in the same direction as the engine
crank-shaft 9| rotates. When, however, the disc
|0| is in contact with the disc |04, this latter disc
then rotates in the same direction as the engine
crank-shaft, but this direction of rotation is re
versed through the pinion gears |09, so that the
gear |01 and the shaft |06 are then rotated in
a direction opposite to the direction of `rotation
of the crankshaft 0|. There is, however, no
`
In order to provide a support for the opera
to-r’s station and for propulsion mechanism, the
steering knuckle frame 36, approximately mid
way of its height, is extended to provide a sub
stantially horizontal beam -platform »16 which
forms the floor of an operator’s cab 11 containing
^a seat 18 for the operator and a steering wheel
19, together with other control instrumentali
ties, and from which the operator can see not
only ahead but also behind into the earth-ex
cavating structure, for full visual observation of
the entire operation.
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The driven member |03. is connected directly
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Situated beneath and partially supported by
speed changeby means of this reverse gear trans
mission, so that there is provided either a com
plete neutral disconnection or full power trans
mission in either of two opposite directions.
This is all under the control of the shifting fork
supplied to the vehicle. The engine is prefer 30 |02 which is itself controlled by the vehicle oper
ator.
ably water-cooled, with the radiator structure
the floor beam 16 is ya source of power, such as
an internal combustion engine 0|. This power
plant is peculiar or individual ,to the front ground
engaging wheels which are driven thereby, and
furnishes substantially half of the total power
In addition to the reversing mechanism, 4we
provide a ratio-changing mechanism between the
source of power and the ground-engaging wheels,
82 forming a linkto assist in supporting the en
gine, and derives fuel from a tank 83 disposed
beneath the driver’s seat 16. The engine 8| not
only supplies power directly to the vehicle but
also has a power take-off housing B4 from which
a shaft 86 projects to drive an air-pump 81 to
and this preferably takes‘the form of a spury gear
transmission located in a casing I I| bolted on
`the rear of the steering member 3| and also
forming a‘support for the bracket 5| previously
described. Any suitable ratio-changing mecha
supply compressed air for operating various in
strumentalities and likewise to drive a hydraulic
or oil pump 88 for operating other instrumen
talities.
nism can be utilized, and any desired number of
ratios can be afforded, but for example herein
we have disclosed an arrangement which is un
der the control of the operator or which is auto
matically actuated and provides a choice of any
one of eight speeds or ratios. This, in conjunc
n
The engine itself terminates in a standard bell
housing 89 in which the engine crank-shaft 9|
is journaled and which bolts to a housing 93 for
a hydraulic coupling. This comprises a toroidal
drive member 94 operating on and with the crank
shaft 9| and driving, by hydraulic connection, a
tion with the reversing mechanism, affords eight
speeds rearwardly and eight speeds forwardly be
tween the engine and the ground-engaging
ìtoroidal driven member 96 mounted on a driven
shaft 91 extending to Va reversing mechanism,
wheels.
generally designated 98, contained within a hous-, 50
’ ing 99. This housing is preferably bolted to the
coupling housing 93 and to a receiving face on
the steering member 3|.
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We prefer that the reversing gear be capable
of driving the vehicle in either direction at maxi
mum speed and power so that the excavator not
only can advance at maximum rate into a nar
row cut, for example, but can also retract from
such a cut and thus perform a maneuver which
cannot be performed by present excavating
structures. For that reason, the reversing mech
anism takes the form of a driving disc |0| which
has a middle, neutral position, as shown in Fig. 5,
and may be shifted by a shifting fork |02 in either
direction out of the neutral position, either for
wardly into frictional engagement with a driven
member |03 or rearwardly into frictional en
gagement with a second driven member |04.
While the driving and driven members engage
frictionally, it is not intended vthat they act pri
marily as slipping clutches, but rather the inter
engagement between the driving member |0| and .
either of the driven discs |03 and |04 is relatively
abrupt, any large difference in speed being grad
- ually absorbed by the hydraulic coupling 93.
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In the ratio-changing transmission the trans
mission shaft |06 carries a driving dog clutch ||2
under the control of a shifting fork I I3 and mov
able from a neutral position into either of two
extreme positions in engagement either with a
gear || 4 or with a gear IIE. Each of these
gears is‘freely rotatable upon the shaft |06 until
it is coupled thereto by the dog clutch ||2 upon
operation of the shifting fork I I3. Meshing with
. the gears is a pair of cluster gears ||1 and H8,
respectively, which are fast on a countershaft I I9.
Also fast on this shaft is a second shifting dog
clutch |2| under the control of a shifting fork
|22, so that upon operation of the fork the clutch
_ |2`| couples tothe countershaft H9 either of two
These in `turn mesh with a
. gears |23 and |24.
pair of cluster gears |26 and |21 integral with
‘a quill |28 revolving around the transmission
shaft |06.
Fast on `the quill, so far as rotation
is concerned, but shiftably slidable thereon, is a
Y,dog clutch |29 under the control of a shifting fork
|3| for engaging either of two gears |32 and
|33 with the quill. These gears respectively
mesh with cluster gears |34 and |36 which are
fast on a driven shaft |31.
Since there are three
shifting forks ‘|I3, |22 and |38, each of which
2,406,944
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has two shifted positions with a different gear
ratio .effective `in each, by appropriately shifting
Speed .and smal1 drive axle |56 yet a relatively
slow speed of the ground-engaging wheels.
We preferably provide means for braking the
these forks a total of eight different ratios is
vehicle, and, as an example, utilize a portion of
obtainable.
After the speed ratio has been `established in 5 the wheel housing G9 as a brake drum. Within
such drum and pivotally mounted on a brake
the transmission casing |||, the drive is taken
vfrom the shaft |31 through a pinion |38 meshing
with a ring drive gear |39 mounted on a differ
plate |63 splined on the axle housing tube 66 are
brake shoes |54 which are fluid actuated by an
interior cylinder |66 connected by a fluid con
ential spider |4| journaled within the steering
member 3|. DifferentiaI pinions |42 are carried 10 duit |61 and passages |08 in the axle tube to
a connection |59 going to the cperator’s control
by the spider [4| and mesh with side gears |43
station in the customary fashion.
and |44. Ordinarily, the drive from the ring
Not only is a driving and braking structure
gear |39 is transmitted to the spider and is di
vided evenly by the pinions |42 to the two side
employed with the two front ground-engaging
wheels |3 from a front engine 0|, but in an en
gears |43 and |44 for appropriate distribution
tirely similar fashion, except for the steering and
to the ground-engaging wheels. Under certain
the articulated, resilient suspension, there is pro
circumstances, however, we prefer that the dif
vided at `the rear of the vehicle an entirely sepa
ferential mechanism be rendered inoperative or
rate and independent engine |15 which is dis
be disabled to divide the power, so that in fact
the driving wheels are locked together for rota 20 posed in a rearward extension |11 of the main
bowl structure ||. This arrangement behind the
tion in unison with the drive gear |39. This is
rear ground-engaging wheels l2 is substantially
of particular value when the vehicle is negotiat
symmetrical about the center of the earth-carry
ing very rough terrain with different traction
ing structure with the engine disposition rela
conditions in different localized areas thereof,
and for that reason we provide a differential lock 25 tive t0 the front ground-engaging wheels, so that
the weight is at all times uniformly distributed.
ing mechanism which precludes any power or
The engine |18 is entirely comparable to the en
torque differential between the wheels on oppo
gine 8| and is similarly provided with a power
site sides of the vehicle.
take-off |84 and a power take-off shaft |86 which
Extending from the spider |4| is a friction disc
|46 with which can be engaged a friction disc 30 connects through universal joints |81 and a drive
shaft |00 to a winch mechanism |99. This winch
|41 axially movable on but splined to the hub of
structure is operator-controlled and preferably
the side gear |43. Axial movement is provided
is provided With a pair of independently actu
by a shifting collar |48 having an interengaging
ated drums | 9| and |92, each of which is nor
serrated connection |49 with a non-rotatable
thrust hub abutting the disc |41. The collar |48 35 mally left in a braked position but may be freed
for unhampered rotation or can be connected for
is controlled for partial rotation by an actuating
power driving to the engine |01, all under the
lever |5|, so that normally the> actuating lever
control of the operator.
|5| is in a position with the serrations |49 nested
As particularly shown in Figure .9, the winch
and the discs |45 and |41 out of engagement.
This permits free differentiation. But when the 40 |9| is provided with a cable |95 which extends
about pulleys |93 on the pusher 2| to an anchor
lever |5| is slightly rotated, the serrations |49 are
age |94. Thus, when the winch |9| is energized,
relatively moved, thereby translating the disc
|41 axially into frictionally locked engagement
the pusher 2| is urged forwardly. Similarly, the
winch |92 is provided with a cable |91 extending
movably locked to the spider |4| and the entire 45 around pulleys |98 on the pusher 2| to an an
chorage l 99,-so that when the winch |92 is power
differential mechanism therefore revolves as a
operated, the influence of the cable |91 is to
unit with the driving ring gear |39.
with the disc |46 so that the side gear |43 is im
From the side gears |43 and |44 the drive on
each side of the center line is exactly symmetri
cal, so that a description of one side will suffice.
rl‘he side gear |43, for example, has its hub
extending through and journaled in the wall of
the steering member casing 3| to connect with
a universal joint (not shown) enclosed in a ball
housing |52 from which a sliding joint (not
shown) encased in a telescoping housing |53
transmits the drive to a second universal joint
(not shown) in a ball housing |54. In this fash
ion the drive is transmitted between the relatively
stationary steering member and the vertically
movable wheel. From the interior of the uni
versal joint ball |54 there projects an axle |56 '
retract or withdraw the pusher 2| toward its rear
most position.
The engine |16 is provided with its own radi
ator 20| and similar appurtenances and is con
nected to the rear ground-engaging wheels |2 in
exactly the same fashion as the front engine 8|
is connected to the front wheels, but there is no
power connection between the two engines.
There is, however, within a housing 203 a dupli
cate of the hydraulic coupling 94, and within a
housing 204 there is a duplicate of the reversing
gear IGI. Also, within a transmission housing
205 there is a duplicate of the ratio-changing
mechanism contained within the housing |||.
The rear ratio-changing transmission is effective
to drive a rear differential mechanism provided
with a locking clutch and identical with that af
extending to a final gear reduction. This final
Cb Ol forded for the front wheels. The rear differen
gear reduction is preferably of the planetary
tial is disposed within a central housing 201 on
type and is entirely contained within the interior
which the winch structure |89 is mounted and
of the wheel housing 96. It includes a sun gear
which is included in and connected to the main
|51 at the end of the axle |56, which meshes with
frame || of the excavator. The rear wheels |2
a plurality of star gears |50 journaled on a spider o are suitably provided with ñnal gear reductions
journaled within the axle housing tube 63 and
|59 stationary with the axle housing tube 63
within the wheel housing 293 and, although they
and in turn meshing with a driven ring gear |5|
fast on the wheel housing 66 and enclosed by a
independently articulated for rising and falling
are mounted for rotation, are not steerable nor
cover plate |62. By this arrangement of final
movement due to road irregularities.
drive gears it is possible to have a relatively high 75 Except, therefore, for the steering and suspen
A2,406,944:
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operator, the torque reactions can be utilized for
sion mechanisms, the _rear ground-engaging
relatively rotating the parts of the structure. The
wheels l2 are driven from their separate engine
and are operated in` exactly the same fashion as
individual controls for the engines are particular
ly valuable in operating the vehicle where very
sharp turns are made and especially where the
are the front ground-engaging wheels and are
provided with identical control instrumentalities
in every respect. All of the control instrumen
talities for the rear engine |16 are brought for..
terrain is exceedingly rugged and contains chuck
_holes or mud holes, since, by selective application
vof the motive power, advantage may be taken of
wardly and are grouped with the control instru
the most favorable traction. But for all ordinary
mentalities for'the front engine 8| within and
for operation by an operator in the cab `11.Y
10 purposes under reasonably favorable conditions,
both of the controllers 25| and 251 are operated
The general operation `of the control instru
in strict conjunction.
mentalities Vwhile partially at the discretion of
i For controlling the steering of the vehicle, the
the vehicle operator, is also partially automatic
Aoperator is provided with the steering wheel 19
Vin response to various selected functions, and,
15 which is connected through a resilient means,
while the control elements themselves are illus
such as a spring 262, with a bodily movable fol
lower valve 263. This follower valve controls
the flow of hydraulic lluid through conduits 264
ih Fig. 10.
and 266 to opposite ends of the cylinder 41, so
Preferably, all of the control instrumentalities
are arranged within convenient operating dis 20 that as the steering wheel 18 is turned, the fol
lower valve 263 produces an equivalent displace
tance of the operator stationed within vthe cab
trated in the remaining figures, they are diagram
matically shown in theirfunctional relationship
11 and are connected as diagrammatically illus
trated in Fig. l0. To control `the power output '
ment of the cylinder and, correspondingly, an
equivalent turning of the ground-engaging
wheels. The wheels consequently are turned by
25 power and are held in positions at all times cor
of the front engine 8| there is provided a throttle
or governor controller 25| constituted by an op
responding to the turned position of the steering
erating handle connected by linkage 252 to the
springi 253 of an engine governor 254. By vary
ing the tension of the spring, the effector the
governor 254 on the'fuel supplier '256 of the en
wheel.
»
'
To supply not only the cylinder 41 but likewise
the other hydraulic instrumentalities with a sup
gine 8| is varied. Thus, for any given or set po 30 ply of hydraulic ñuid, the pump 88 has its intake
261 extending to a tank 268 and discharges
sition of the lever 25|, the engine is automatical
through an outlet conduit 269. A by-pass check
ly maintained by the governor 254 at substan
valve 21| regulates the pressure within the out
tially the established level of output. Similarly,
let conduit, returning any excess of fluid to the
and arranged in very Vclose juxtaposition to the
lever 25|, is a controller 251 which is connected 35 tank 268. A follower valve pressure pipe‘212 ex
tends through a flexible connection 213, to the
by linkage 258 to the speed governorl 259 of the
follower valve and supplies appropriate chambers
vengine |16, the governor being likewise connected
within the valve with pressure fluid. A return
by a rod 268 to the fuel supplier 26| of thatA en
flexible conduit 214 is connected to a ’return
gine. Since the levers 251 and 25| are arranged
pipe 216 extending to the tank 268'. The port
close together, they either can be simultaneously
arrangement within the follower valve is such
operated as a unit by the vehicle operator so as
that as the valve is moved in response to the
to produce identical= changes in operating char
4steering wheel rotation, the pressure fluid is com
municated through the valve body 211 to the
acteristics of both engines, or can be individually
operated for different power output `from each
engine.
_«
A
.
For usual operation of the vehicle, the control
1ers 25| and 251 are operated together and uni
formly, so that both engines 8| and |16 produce
substantially equivalent amounts of power and
45 appropriate portion of the cylinder 48, so that
for any degree of steering wheel rotation the
l front wheels are steered an equivalent amount
through the intervening servo action of the fol
lower valve and the hydraulically actuated cyl
produce substantially equal torques at the driv 50 inder.
Since the steering of the vehicle is of the cen
ing wheels. In this type of operation the engine
3|, in propelling the vehicle forward, produces a
torque reaction which tends to move the forward
portion of the main frame in a counter-clockwise
direction (Fig.v 3) about the axis of the front,
ground-engaging wheels, whereas the rear engine
|16 produces Va driving torque reaction which
tends to rotate the rear portion of the main frame
and main bowl structure also in a counter-clock
wise direction (from the same viewpoint) about
Vthe axis of the rear wheels. These torque-reac
tions, being exactly equal, neutralize each other
and do not tend to produce any rotation about
the transverse axis |1.
Y
»-
'
"
-
tral pivot or “fifth wheel” type, it is deemed desir
able progressively to limit the amount of turn
ing angle with increasing speed, so that, while
the vehicle is fully maneuverable when it is oper
ating at low speed and in cramped quarters, the
amount of' turning which can be effected at higher
speeds is progressively decreased as the vehicle
speed increases. Since the excavator is intended
to haul very heavy loads of earth at a relatively
high rate of speed, an automatic means is pro
vided for insuring stability by precluding exces
sive steering movement; that is, by reducing the
range of possible steering as the speed is in
‘
Under other types of operation, however, the
two engines 8| and |16 are individually operated
by individual manipulation of the levers 25| and
251 to produce different torque effects upon the
front wheels and the rear wheels; and 4since the
driving torques are in different amounts, the cor-,_
responding reactions tendV to induce a relative
rotation of the main frame and main bowl struc
ture about the transverse axis |1. This is nor
creased.
.
-
.
l
For this reason, there is driven by the rear
wheels I2, or is responsive to the speed thereof,
an excavator speed governor 218 which translatesv
a controller219 as the vehicle speed increases.
Themovernent of this controller is likewise trans
mitted through a similar control rod 28| fastened
thereto andY effective through a link 282 to trans
late` a restraining block 283 against the urgency
of a‘return spring 284. The block has a cam
mally resisted by the hydraulic cylinder; mecha
nism I8. Since these are under the control of the 75 face 286 which is contoured to cooperate with a
l1
cani- 28‘1 moving simultaneously with an-d fast
upon< the follower valve 263. When the parts
12
acting hydraulic chambers `I8. While ordinarily
thel operator controls both of the pedals 306 and
301 in unison, this being facilitated by their loca
tion in juxtaposition, the operator can, since the
soever upon the transverse translatory movement CSI brake pedals are separate, indivi-dually control
of the cam 291, and full steering may be obtained.
the brakes to facilitate maneuvering of the Ve
`But as the speed of the vehicle increases, the
hicle.
governor 218 actuates the control rods 219 and
In accordance with our invention, and in order
28| and», through the connection 232, tensions the
to assist in the versatility and maneuverability of
spring 294 by translating the block 283 toward
the vehicle, we provide means for permitting the
are in the position shown in Fig. 10, which is the
low-speed position, there is no restriction What
the cam 28-1.
When that is done, the cam face
286 progressively limits the translatory movement
of the cam, and when the cam block is fully in
con-tact with the cam 281 the translatory move
ment thereof is limited to a predetermined
>amount-«for example, 30 degrees of steering of
the front wheels each side of center position.
Since the steering wheel 19 is connected to the
differential mechanisms, such as I4I, normally
to function when the vehicle is turning a sub
stantial amount but to render the differentials
inoperative or to disable them when the vehicle
is going in a straight path or approximately so.
Further, We preferably arrange matters so that
the front differential mechanism and the rear
differential mechanism are disabled under difier
ent conditions. For that reason, the air pressure
necting spring 262, even if the operator should 20 line 302 has a branch line 308 extending to a
follower valve 203 by means> of a resilient con
‘operate the wheel 19 beyond the permissible 30
degree limit at high speed, for example, the cam
«block 283', being actuated by a superior force,
will restore the cam 281 and the follower valve
233 toward central position sufficiently to bring
>the steering within the established maximum
range at that speed. Thus, while steering is
entirely free at relatively low speeds and is re
stricted to a predetermined maximum amount at
control «valve 309 spring-pressed into inoperative
position normally but effective when operated to
establish connection between the branch 308 and
an air line 3| I extending to an operating chamber
25 3|'2 connected to the lever |5I for operating the
locking clutch on the front differential. The
branch 308 likewise extends to a control valve
3I3 normally ineffective but, when actuated, ef
fective to establish communication through a line
¿high speeds, the range of restriction gradually 30 3I'4 to an operating chamber 3|6 of a similar
varies between the low-speed and highespeed
character but working upon the locking clutch
limits as the cam 291 is contacted by successive
lever for Athe differential of the rear engine.
‘portions of the cam face 289. This mechanism
Thus, when the valve 309 is operated, the air
vprovides an automatically effective means for
pressure is eiîective to unlock the front differen
vprecluding dangerous steering at the higher 35 tial, whereas when the valve 3|3 is actuated, the
~speeds.
air pressure is effective to unlock the rear differ
-' Arranged for convenience next to the steer
ential. The differential locking and unlocking is
ing' wheel 19 is a controller 29| which is effec
preferably responsive to steering movement.
tive to rotate a conventionally illustrated hydrau
Consequently, moving in conjunction with the
-lic valve 292 for controlling the supply of hydrau 40 steering piston rod 44 there is a cam block 3| 1
lic fiuid through the supply pipe 269 to the
which has a narrow notch 3I`8 on one face, in
‘cylinders I8 connected in parallel, and the dis
effective when the steering is straight ahead, but
charge of fluid therefrom through the discharge
effective upon a turn of approximately 5 degrees,
`pipe 216. These are the cylinders which deter
either side of center, to translate the valve 309.
mine the resistance of they mechanism to torque ' 45 Thus, While the front ydifferential is locked for all
freactions of the engines when driving and also
steering positions of the front wheels between 5
govern the position of the- cutting edge 26. By
degrees left of center and 5 degrees right of cen
-appropriately operating the controller 29| the
ter, as soon as this ,amount of turning is exceeded,
operator can admit, release or hold hydraulic
the front differential «is unlocked and the drive
fluid within the cylinders I8 to retain the parts 50 of .the front engine is distributed to the two front
"locked in position or to move the partsvto any
wheels. The. rear differential, however, remains
'selected other position within the total range
locked until the front steering approaches a Value
` of Vmovement.
approximately 30 degrees either side of center,
While many other control instrumentalities on
as governed «by a Wide cam notch 3I9 also in the
the excavator .can be hydraulically actuated, it is 55 block 3-|1, which »is effective to displace the con
preferred, in the present embodiment, to utilize
troller 3|3. For all values of steering, therefore,
hydraulic actuation only for the steering .and for
substantially in excess of 30 degrees left or right
l‘the cylinders I8. The remaining power-operated
of straight-ahead position, the rear differential is
instrumentalities are preferably operated through
unlocked and the rear wheels are fully difieren
the medium of compressed air. Thus, the com 60 tiated, or the power of the rear engine is then
pressor 81, driven by the forward engine 8|, sup
distributed to the twov rear wheels in varying
'plies air under a predetermined regulated pres
amounts. Upon restoration of the steering mech
sure to a tank 30|. From the. .tank a pressure
anism toward center position, the rear differen
'line 302 extends to valves 303 -and 304 which con
tial is relocked as soon as the range between 30
Itrol the brakes on the front wheels and on thev 65 degrees left of center and 30 degrees right of cen
rear Wheels respectively. 'I'he valves 303 and 394
ter is entered, while as soon as the range be
Aare provided with individual pedals 306 and 301
tween 5 degrees left of center and 5 degrees right
‘located side by side and convenient to the driver
of center is entered, the front differential is
‘in the operator’s cab, so that the front end of the
relocked.
"device may be braked separately from the rear 70 It is considered desirable to reduce the power
end. The braking produces torque reactions
voutput of the rear- engine when .the front wheels
f quite similar to those produced by the engine
are turned or steered a large amount, so that
driving forces, except lthat they occur in a reverse
'the driving force of the rear wheels does not tend
direction and, unless exactly equal (in which case
lto produce a skid of the front end. As a con
they neutralize), are also resisted by the double i' 75 vement way of doing this, the air line 3I4 is
2,406,921@
.
13
-
abrupt,- andV excessive momentary torque is pri-~
branched to connect to a controller 3|5'e1lîective
marilyfabsorbed in the two liquid couplings, one
when energized to position a cam 323 in the `path
for each power plant. Since these liquid cou
of a cam 325 mounted on the control rod-260 of
plings are »in part responsive to centrifugal forces,
Vthe rear engine.A When the front `wheels are
steered more than 30 -degrees either side of center, en dependent upon the speed of the respective en
gines, and- since the engines are individually con
the controller 3|5 progressively reduces the rear
engine speed.
'
»
trolled through the-controllers 25| and 251, it is
possible, by »manually or automatically minimiz
Conveniently arranged next to the control lever
ing-the power output of `one engine, for example,
29| for raising and lowering the cutting edge, are
the rear engine during very sharp turns, to drive
the winch control levers. For example, a control
substantially by the other or front engine alone,
lever` 32| is effective upon a conventional valve
so th'at `the direction of rotation of the rear
322 to govern the now from a supply pipe 323 to
wheels relative to each other and relative tothe
eitherof the oppcmite ends of an actuating charn
rear Vengine is not particularly material. That is,
ber 324 which is of a standard type repeatedly
one engine, when operating relatively slowly, is
utilized in the structure and normally centralized
to a neutral position by equally acting springs
326 and 321. When thevalve 322 is maintained
in neutral position by the median position of the
lever 32 |, the winch is likewise in neutral position
and transmits no power. However, when the
lever 32| is rocked in one direction, air is admit
ted to one end of the chamber 324, thereby plac
ing the winch in braked position, and when the
lever 32| is swung to its opposite extreme posi
tion the> winch is connected to power. Thus, the
substantially uncoupled by> the hydraulic cou
pling, so that the remaining mechanism may be
operated in a reverse direction without affecting
the one engine.
.
. Forexample, when the front wheels are turned
substantially at 90 degrees to the longitudinal
direction of the vehicle, the rear engine can be
idle and the front engine can be operated at con
siderable speed and power output so as to be
- coupled with the front wheels. The front drive
can then. bealternated between forward and re
verse, to move the forward end of the vehicle in
an Varcuate path substantially about the center
lever 32| is effective to control one of the winch
drums, for example, drum ESI. A lever 33| con'-A
trols a standard valve 332 for regulating the sup
of the 4rear wheel axis as a turning pivot. `But at
ply and discharge of air t0 and from the opposite
ends of an actuating chamber 333 which is effec 30. this time the rear yengine, although being re
tive to control operation of the winch drum |96.
so that by operation of the grouped levers 29 | ,32|
and 33|, the operator can effectuate all ofthe
usual controlling mo-tions of the earth-carrying
and handling structure.
Since the vehicle is designed to be operated
versely Yand forwardly related to its ground-en-`
gaging wheels along with the front engine, is sub
stantially ineffective upon the rear wheels be
cause its-low speed effectuates a hydraulic un
,¿ coupling. Under these conditions the rear dif
ferential is also unlocked. The front end of the
vehicle can be operated substantially at right
angles and with full poweroutput. This is of
as rapidly in a reverse direction as it is in for
ward direction, to obviate the necessity of turn
considerable importance in maneuvering in
ing around,` the control of the reversing clutch
IUI for th'e front engine and of the corresponding 40 cramped quarters and where the ground condi
tions are quite irregular. Thus, by reason of the
clutch for the rear engine >is .simultaneously effec
common reverse of the two engines but of the
tuated. A reversing lever 334 controls a standard
valve 33,6V to provide any one of three positions
thereof. In an intermediate, neutral position,
separate control of the power output of each and
th'e automatic uncoupling feature of the hy
draulic couplings at low engine speeds,`there is
air from the main 323 is excluded from a front
operating chamber 33'! as well as from a rear op
provided a somewhat interrelated but extremely
flexible and maneuverable power transmission
erating chamber 338. The piston in each of
system for the excavator.
.these chambers is spring-centralized, as previ
The hydraulic coupling characteristics, in ad
ously described, when no air pressure isy exerted
thereupon. The chamber 331, for example, is 550 dition to slippage at low speeds, are of any se
lected sort, and the coupling may have turbine
leffective to hold the shifting fork |32 of the front
or torque multiplying characteristics. The illus
reversing structure in neutral position, as shown
tration, such as Fig. 5, is diagrammatic ‘but dis
in Fig. 5. The chamber 338 for the rear struc
closes a type in which there is very little torque
ture is identical in operation.
u
l
multiplication but in which the centrifugal cou
When, therefore, the lever 334 is moved in one
pling is extremely effective. If no material torque
direction out of central position, air is admitted
multiplication is provided by the hydraulic cou
,to one end of both of the operating chambers 331
pling„we provide other means for changing the
and 338, and the shifting -forks are effective to
torque ratios. In the present instance, there
Yconnect the structure for motion in one direc
fore, where the hydraulic coupling itself has very
tion, for example, forwardly. When the control
little torque changing characteristic, we provide
lever 334 is shifted to its opposite extreme posi
the eight-speed transmission or some equivalent
tion, the air is released from the previously
:gear-change mechanism which is ` preferably
charged end of the operating chambers 331 and
partly automatic and partly under the control
338 and pressure air is simultaneously introduced
of the vehicle operator.
into the opposite ends thereof so that the shift- Vî `
ing forks controlled thereby are simultaneously
vshifted into opposite extreme positions and a
>‘reverse coupling or direction of drive is effectu
`ated. Thus, the direction of advance of the ve
¿hicle is under the control of the operator by a f
single lever, although other parts of the drive
are quite separate.
While the reversing clutches have .a slight slip
page at very high torques, the shift due to the
pneumatic controllers 331 and 33B is relatively
_
The particular ratio of the front transmission
in the casing ||| which is effective at any one
time is controlled by a valve shaft 34| rotatable
by Van operator’s control levei` 342 or by an op
70 erating rod 343 regulated by a speed-responsive
governor 344 actuated by the front ground-en
g'aging wheels I3. Thus the position of the shaft
34| is responsive to the speed of the front ground
engaging wheels. `That is, the greater the speed
of the front wheels I3, the more the shaft 34|l
2,406,944
15
is- rotated from its zero position. But it may be
restrained in any selected position by the vehicle
16
eight speeds, the control shaft 34| has nine posi
tions. The initial or zero position. is illustrated
in Fig. 10 in which none of- the valves is in a
or with a latching structure (not shown) . If the
position to supply air and all of the control cham
lever 342 is held, the corresponding transmission 5 bers 359, 36S and `381 are in neutral position with
operator holding the lever 342, either by hand
remains inthe selected ratio, but if the lever 342
is free then the particular ratio depends upon
the iront-wheel speed. Under governor control,
however, the lever does not go into zero position,
but at lowest wheel speed, or stopped, the lever
occupies first speed position. Manual position
the various shifting forks ||3, |22 and I3| like
wise in neutral position so that none of the gears
is in power-transmitting position. When, how
ever, the shaft 34| is moved into its Iirst Posi
10, tion, air pressure is transmitted through the port
351, through the port 363, and through the port
ing of the lever in zero position, or neutral, is en
38| simultaneously, in order to establish corre
sponding positions of the control chambers and
In a quite similar fashion, the control rod 219
the respective shifting forks. When the shaft
from the governor 218 which is responsive to the 15 34| is moved to its second position, the ports 351
speed of the rear ground-engaging wheels l2, ex
and 363 remain effective, but the port 388 be
tends to and is eifective upon the valve control
comes effective. In the third position, while the
shaft 346 for the rear transmission. A manual
port 351 is still eiTective, the port 31| then be
controller 341 is in all respects comparable to
comes eiîective and the port 382 is effective, there
the controller 342 and is located in juxtaposition 20 by duplicating the function of the port 38|. In
therewith so that the two controllers 342 and
fourth position, the port 354 remains effective, the
341 can be simultaneously actuated by the op
port 31| remains effective, .but the port 389 is ef
erator, or can be simultaneouly latehed in posi
fective as previously the port 388 was eiîective.
tion, or can be individually located so that under
In fifth position, the port 36| becomes eiïective,
rather unusual operating conditions the ratio 25 the port 364 becomes effective in the fashion of
of power transmission between the front engine
the original port 363, -while port 383 is effective.
and the front wheels is diiîerent from the ratio
In sixth position, port 36| is eiîective, port 364
of power transmission between the rear engine
remains effective, but port 39| is effective. In
and the rear wheels. Normally, however, both
seventh position, port 36| is eiîective, but port
engines are free to transmit power through the 30 312 then becomes effective, while port 384 is con
same or approximately the same ratio under au
nected. In eighth position, port 36| is effective,
tirely possible.
tomatic wheel-speed responsive control.
port 312 remains effective, while port 392 is effec
Since the servo mechanism for translating the
tive.
position of the shaft 34| into gear positions in
In this fashion, the shifting fork ||3 remains
the iront transmission is substantially the same 35 in one extreme position for the first four speeds
as the servo mechanism for translating the posi
and then occupies a second extreme position for
tion of the controlling shaft 346 into correspond
the second four speeds. The shifting fork | 22
ing gear positions in the rear transmission, a de
occupies one extreme position for the first two
scription of but one of them applies to both. For
speeds, occupies its other extreme position for the
example, air from the main 323 is conducted
next two speeds, then the first extreme position
through supply pipes 35|, 352 and 353 to each of
three valves 354, 355 and 356 having substantally
the same rotors `but having somewhat different
for the subsequent pair of speeds, and ñnally the
second eXtreme position for the ultimate pair of
speeds. The shifting fork is alternately moved
valve casings. The valve 354 is provided with
from one extreme position to the other as the
but two ports, one port 351 being connected by 46 range of speeds is traversed. Thus, in response
a conduit 358 to one end of an actuating cham
to the position of the shaft 34|, the ratio of
ber 359 comparable to the chamber 324 but con
speeds between the front engine and the front
nected to the shifting fork I |3, for example. The
ground-engaging wheels is automatically or man
piston in the chamber 359 is ordinarily in a neu
ually controlled. Since the controlling structure
tral position, but when air is applied to one end 50,1501- the rear ratio-changing transmission is iden
of the chamber it is shifted into one extreme
tical, the position of the shaft 346 similarly con
position, and that is what occurs when the valve
trols the ratio betwen the rear engine and the
354 is ñrst rotated out of its zero position. The
rear ground-engaging wheels, either automati
valve 354 likewise has a port 36| connected by
cally or manually.
a duct 362 with the opposite end of the cham 55 Particularly under favorable or normal oper
ber 359.
ating conditions, the speed transmissions and hy
The Valve 355 is provided with alternating and
draulic couplings provide an automatic connec
spaced ports 363 and 364 which are connected
tion between the engines and the remaining driv
by ducts 366 and 361 joining in a pipe 368 to
ing structure, so that the operator of our ex
one end of a control chamber 399. Interspersed 60 cavator need concern himself primarily with but
ports 31| and 31.2 join in a duct 313 connected
the steering, braking and throttle controls 251
to the opposite end of the control chamber 369.
and 25|. He, therefore, can give plenty of at
The piston of this chamber is effective upon the
tention to and has adequate time to operate the
shifting fork |22.
winch and hydraulic elevating structures of the
The valve 356 is provided with a series of alter 65 earth-carrying portion of the machine. He is
nate ports 38|, 382, 383 and 384, each- of which
precluded from steering excessively at relatively
is joined by its individual pipe to a duct 386
high speeds and is given the assistance of max
extending to one end of a controller 381 effective
imum drive and traction by virtue of the locking
upon the shifting fork I3|. The valve 356 inter
differentials under most conditions. Under eX
mediate each of the ports 38|, 382, 383 and 384 70 treme conditions, however, the manual controls
is provided with a series of ports 388, 389, 39|
are available for producing individual driving
and 392 each of which is connected by its indi
eiîects, so that the full capabilities of the exca
vidual pipe to a duct 393 extending to the oppo
vator can be obtained.
site end of the controller 381.
Under extreme operating conditions, or in cer
_ Since the ratio-changing transmission has 75 tainl environments, it is advisable to have an
2,406,944
17
18
auxiliary power structure, and we have, there
means, we preferably provide a second control
fore, illustrated in Fig. 8 a device which is sub
stantially the same as previously described in all
valve 42| `arranged generally in parallel with the
valve 292. The construction of the valve 42| is
like that of the valve 292 and hence it receives
ñuid under pressure from the duct 212 through
respects except that the main frame structure
40| is not articulated between its ends and is`
not provided with any earth handling structure
.but rather extends simply as a frame to a rigid
` a branch duct 422 and is similarly connected to
the discharge pipe 216 by a branch discharge
connection at 402 with the rear >engine unit.
This vehicle is preferably provided with a rear
hook 44113 for facilitating a draft connection with 10
'
the front end of the excavating vehicle shown
pipe A423. In a comparable fashion the valve
42| is connected to raise the main bowl I4 by
supplying fluid to the duct 4I3 through a branch
duct 424, while the -valve is connected to lower
the remaining figures.
1
Under some operating conditions, it is consid
the main bowl I4'by supplyingfluid to the line
is made. Under such circumstances, it -is often
such as one of the rear wheels I2, through the
medium of a servo or power'multiplying mecha
411 through a branch line 426. The control valve
42| is not provided with any manual lever but
ered advisable to provide means for regulating
the position of the main bowl I4 with respect to 15 is‘ operated by power since its operating lever
421 is connected to a movable cylinder 428 within>
the ground, especially during cutting or excavat-`
which a piston 429 is stationarily established by a
ing, in accordance with the load as represented
piston rod 43| fastened to a fixed support 432.
by the speed of advance ofthe vehicle. That
The cylinder 428 is centralized with respect to
is, under conditions Where very hard going> is
encountered, the governed engines furnish max 20 the piston 429 by interior springs 433 and 434.
Movement of the cylinder 42B is preferably in
_imum power but this may be insufficient to main
response to the speed of a ground-engaging wheel,
tain the speed of the vehicle -and slower progress
advantageous to reducethe depth of cutting in
order to maintain the rate of advance of the ve
hicle.
This
is
effectuated
25 nism.
automatically, d al
though manual supervision is retained.
Conversely, if the going is particularly easy, the
cutting depth can be increased without reduc
ing the speed of advance of the vehicle, and un 30
Rotation of the ground-engaging wheel
I2 is normally effective through multiplying gear
ing 436 to drive a sensitive governor 431 at a rela
tively high speed. The multiplying- mechanism
which automatically will increase the depth of
436 is desirable since during excavation the speed
of advance of the vehicle is usually relatively
Yslow and it is advisable, consequently, to make
the governor highly responsive during low-speed
cut so as to ensure that under all circumstances
operation.
omitted from; the mechanism without substan- -
as the vehicle wheel speed I2 increases, the gov-.- ‘
der those circumstances we provide a mechanism
The - governor
431
is
connected
through linkage 438 to a slide valve 439 govern
the vehicle is making the best use of the maxi
mum power available from the power source. 35 ing the supply _to andexhaust from the cylinder
438 of a pressure fluid, such as air. This air is
Most of the time the »manual supervision can be
supplied from the source through‘the duct 302
omitted and the automatic mechanism relied
under the control of a valve 44| ywhich communi
upon, but there are often unusual circumstances
cates with the movable valve 439 through a. flex
which can best bemet -by manually controlled
40 ible duct-'442.
means‘
if,
l‘
A,
C
'The‘operation of the ‘mechanism is such that,
Since this arrangement‘can be applied to or
ernor 431 correspondingly changes its position
and moves the valve 439 correspondingly. This
shown in a separate diagram in Fig. 11, it being
understood that this structure preferably is added 45 movement displacesthe valves 439 toward the
right, as seen in Fig. 1l, uncovering the cylinder
to the structure as diagrammatically illustrated`
428 to the left of the piston 429 to the atmosphere
in Fig. 10. As illustrated in Fig. 11, the main bowl
through a port 443 and simultaneously uncover
I4 is movable vertically with respect to the main
ing a port 444 in the right-hand side of the cham
frame I6, in order to move the cutting edge with
respect to the ground, and this motion prefer 50 ber 428 to the supply of pressure air through the
valve 439. This produces a corresponding trans
ably efïectuated by ‘the cylinder and p1ston ar
lation of the cylinder V428 in exact proportion to
rangement I8 which is connectedto the main
the movement of the valve439 responsiveto the
bowl I4 by a piston rod 4I I and which is hydrauli
governor, and the cylinder movement rotates,
cally operated.
,
i
The hydraulic liquid ís obtained from the stor 55 through the lever 421, the valve 42| so that com
munication is established between the supply duct
age tank 268 from which it is conducted through
422 and the lowering duct 426, while liuìd dis
the pipe 261 to the force pump 88 and is dis
charge also occurs from ‘the other end of `the
charged therefrom under pressure through con
cylinder 428, thereupon causing the main bowl I4
duit 269 past the by-pass valve 21| and into the
to lower with respect to the ground or to cause
controlling valve 292 through the pipe 212. From
the valve 292, which is operated by the hand 60 the cutting edge to engage the ground more
deeply. 'I‘his normally increases the load upon
controller 29|, discharge either is through a pipe
the vehicle and slows its advance to the optimum
4|2 into a duct 413 leading to the bottom of the
value.
cylinder I8 and which when connected is effective
to lift the piston rod 4|I and correspondingly 65 When the speed of the vehicle is VVless than
the optimum value and the wheel I2 drops below
to raise the main bowl I4, or, in the alterna
that speed, the governor 431/is correspondingly
tive, is through a duct 4|6 into a pipe 4I1 leading
to the top of thercylinder I8 and effective to
affected, and the valve 439 is translated toward
tially altering the remaining portions thereof, it is
depress the main bowl I4 with respect to the
the leftin Fig. 1l, thereby exposing the port
ground. Thus, by operating the hand control 70 444 to atmosphere and connecting the port 443‘ to
the supply of air, thereby displacing the ‘mov
29|, as previously described, the operator may,
by hydraulic power, raise and lower Vthe main
bowl I4 not only with respect to the mainframe
able cylinder 428 toward the left in the ligure,
rotating the valve 42| in a clockwise direction,
andiconnecting the supply duct 422 -to the rais
; i
In order to provide an automatically effective -75 ine lduct 424. Thus, `when the speed or the
I6 but also with respect to the ground.
2,406,944
19
20
vehicle drops below the optimum value the main
restriction.
bowl I4 is raised and the cutting edge is lifted
is moved in either direction `from its neutral po
sition, -the immediate effect is for the extension
46| to permit the lever 462 to rise with the stem
463 under «the urgency of the spring 465. Si
with respect to the ground, thereby normally de
creasing the load upon the engine and permit
ting the vehicle speed to be restored.
In accordance with the operation of this mech
anism, the position of the main bowl 'is main
tained at a value which will afford substantially
multaneously, the valve 464 rises, thereby cutting
oil’ Vcommunication from the source of air 392
to the servo valve 439 and connecting such valve
a constant speed of advance of the vehicle with-A
out operator’s supervision and automatically. Y
But when the hand controller 29|
to atmosphere through a drain duct v46T'. Since,
10
therefore, -despite t-he position momentarily of the
But since such automatic regulation is of value
valve 439, the cylinder 423 is connected -on both
chieñy during excavation, and since the sensi
sides of the piston 429 to atmosphere, the cen~
tive governor 437 may be damaged vby over-speed
-tralizing springs 433 and 434 are effective in
ing when the vehicle is transporting a load or
stantly to restore the automatic valve 42| to a
dumping a load, we provide lmeans for disabling 15 central, neutral or ineffective position, andthe
the automatic structure except during excavation.
manual control lever 29| is the sole means of
The piston rod 4|4 carries a collar `45| which
producing motion of the main bowl I4. As soon,
moves with such rod between the maximum ex
however, as manual control of the lever 29| is
cavating position indicated by the dotted lines
relinquished, or the lever is restored to its cen
452 in Fig. 1l, between the maximum raised po
tral neutral position, the valve 464 is again po
sition indicated by the dotted lines 453 in that
sitioned so that the valve 439 is supplied with air
ligure, and the intermediate position shown by
and vthe automatic 4servo mechanism is restored
the solid lines in Fig. 11 wherein the cutting edge
to eiiectiveness.
is supposedly substantially ñush with the surface
By the provision -of this mechanism, therefore,
of the ground.
it is possible‘to have the lmaximum -utilization of
As the collar 45| rises from the central po
the engine power, as measured by the speed -of
sition illustrated, wherein the cutting edge is
advance ofthe vehicle, effective to control the
substantially even with the surface of the ground,
depth of cut or, in general, the position of the
it engages and lifts with it a lever 454 against the
main bowl 14, although manual supervision is
urgency of a spring 456, and the motion of the
' retained and the automatic control is made in
lever is transmitted through linkage 451 to dis
effective except for -a `portion of the range -of
engage a driving clutch 458 interposed in the
movement of the main 4bowl with respect to the
ground.
drive line between the rear Awheels I2 and the
multiplication gearing 436. Thus, as the main
We claim:>
bowl I4 rises above its ground-level position, the l. A vehicle` comprising: a frame; yrear .wheels
clutch 458 is disengaged and no motion is trans
for Ysupporting said frame; a first means con
mitted to the governor 431. Under these cir
nected to drive said rear wheels; front wheels for
cumstances, in the event no manual control is
supporting and steering said frame; a second
exercised, the operation of the governor is such
means connected «to -drive said front wheels;
as tor produce an extreme displacement of the
valve 439 so that the valve 42| is rotated to
means for steering said front wheels; and means
bring the main bowl 'I4 toits maximum elevated
responsive Íto the steering Aof said -front wheels for
altering the driving connection of said second
position for carriage.
means to 'said front wheels.
Whenever the governor
is 'brought to its declutched or stationary -posi-2. A -vehicle comprising: 'a frame; rear wheels
tion, as, for example, when the cutting edge 45 for lsupporting said :fra-me; a ñrst means con
strikes an obstruction, or when the load is so
nected to -drive'said rear wheels; front wheels for
supporting andV lsteering sai-d «if-rame; a second
lar operation of the valve 439 promptly brings
means `connected to drive -said front wheels;
the bowl to highest carrying position.
'
means -for steering Asaid front wheels;- and means
When the main bowl I4 is lowered to and be 50 responsive to “the Asteering of said ~front wheels for
low the central position, and as the collar 45|
altering the drivingl connection of Vsaid ñrst
great as to slow ’the vehicle materially,” a simi
descends, the spring 456 is effective upon the
lever 454 and the linkage 451 to engage the
clutch 453 and tobring the governor 431 up to
means to‘said rea-r wheels.
>
-
3. A vehicle comprising: a frame; rear wheels
for supporting said frame; a iirst lmeans Vcon
speed. Below the central position, therefore, the -55 nected to drive -said rear wheels; front wheels for
operation is automatically controlled.
supporting Aand steering said frame; a second
Manual control by the lever 29| at all times
means connected -to drive vsaid front wheels;
supersedes automatic control when the operator
means for s-teerin-g said -front wheels; and means
responsive to the steerin-g :of said iront wheels for
so desires, and to effectuate that condition the
lever 29| is provided with an extension 46| adapt 60 altering -the 4driving connection Abetween said sec
ond means and said yiront wheels and between
ed to cam against a lever 462 bearing upon the
said` ñrst-means and said rear wheels.
end of a valve stem 463 joined to the valve 464.
4. A vehicle comprising: a frame; rear Wheels
The valve is ordinarily pressed by a spring 466
for supporting said frame; Ya first means .carried
into an uppermost position against the lever '462
which in turn presses against the extension 46|. y(55 bysaid frame and arranged to drive said rear
wheels; dirigible front wheels for 'supporting said
When the hand control lever 29| is in its central
frame; a second means arranged to drive said
or neutral position, so that the valve 292 is in
front wheels; means for steering -said dirigible
eiîective to produce any movement of the main
wheels; -and means responsive to the steering of
bowl I4, the lever 462 is depressed, as is the stem
463, against the urgency of the spring 466, so ?70 said front wheels a predetermined» amount for al
that the valve 464 permits free communication
ter-ing the driving connection between said second
of air from the duct 302 to the valve 439 and the
means and said front wheels.
servo cylinder 428. Thus, when the hand con
5. A vehicle comprising: -a main frame and
troller 29| is in a central or inactive position,
main Ibody structure; rear wheels for supporting
the automatic .mechanism can operate without 75 said structure; a iirst means` connected to drive
21
25,406,944
said rear wheels; front wheels for supporting and
steering said structure; a second means connected
to drive said front wheels; means for steering said
front wheels; and means responsive to the steer
ing of said front wheels a predetermined amount
for altering the driving connection of said second
means to said front wheels and responsive to the
steering of said front Iwheels a different amount
for altering the driving connection of said ñrst
means to said rear wheels.
22
said rear wheels; a rear differential lock for dis-«
abling said rear differential; front Wheels for
supporting said frame; a second means for driv
ing said front wheels; a front differential for
variably dividing power from said second means
between said front wheels; a front differential
lock for disabling said front differential; means
for steering said front wheels; and means respon
sive to said steering means for operating said
10 `iront and rear differential locks and for control
6. A vehicle comprising: a frame; rear wheels
ling said first means.
n
for supporting said frame; a ñrst means for driv
9. A vehicle comprising: a frame; rear Wheels
ing said rear wheels;` a rear differential for var
for supporting said frame; front wheels for sup
iably dividing power from said iirst means be
porting and steering said frame; driving means
tween said rear wheels; a rear difl‘erential’lock 15 connected to drive said front wheels; means for
for disabling said rear diiîerential; front wheels
steering said front wheels; and means responsive
for supporting said frame; a second means for
to the steering of said front wheels for altering
driving said front wheels; a front differential for
the connection of said driving means to said front
variably dividing power from said second means
wheels.
between said front wheels; a front differential 20
10. A vehicle comprising: a frame; rear wheels
lock for disabling said front differential; and
common control means for operating said front
and rear differential locks.
for supporting said frame; front wheels for sup
porting and steering said frame; driving means
connected to drive said rear wheels; means for
steering said front wheels; and means responsive
25 to the steering of said front wheels for altering
ing said wheels; a rear ratio-changing transmis
the connection of said driving means to said rear
sion for transmitting power from said first means
wheels.
to said rear wheelsçmeans responsive to the speed
11. A vehicle comprising a frame; rear wheels
of said rear wheels for controlling said transmis
for supporting said frame;` dirigible front wheels
sion; a rear reversing mechanism interposed be 30 for supporting said frame; means 'for steering
tween said first means and said transmission;
said front wheels into a position with the planes
front wheels for supporting said frame; a second
of said wheels approximately transverse of said
means for driving said front wheels; a front ratio
vehicle; means for driving all of said wheels; and
changing transmission for transmitting power
means for altering the driving of said rear wheels
from said second means to said front Wheels; a 35 in response to said steering means.
front reversing mechanism interposed between
12. A vehicle comprising a frame; rear wheels
said second means and said front transmission;
for supporting said frame; dirigible front wheels
means responsive to the speed of said front wheels
for supporting said frame; means for steering
for controlling said front transmission; and com
said front wheels into a, position with the planes
mon control means for operating said rear re 40 of said wheels approximately transverse of said
versing mechanism and said front reversin
vehicle; means for driving al1 of said wheels, and
mechanism.
`
means for substantially releasing said rear wheels
8. A vehicle comprising: a frame; rear wheels
from said driving means upon steering of said
for supporting said frame; a ñrst means for driv
front wheels approximately into said position.
ing said rear wheels; a rear differential for vari 45
R. E. CHOATE'.
ably dividing power from said first means between
7. A vehicle"comprising: a frame; rear'wheels
for supporting said frame; a iirst means for driv
ELLSWORTH W. AUSTIN.
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