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Sept-3, 1946.
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Y J. BOLTON
2,406,938 _
‘ METHOD OF AND AP-PARATUS FOR‘ USE IN PREPARING WEAVING' WARPS
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Filed Aug. 22, i944
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172867550”
Patented Sept. 3, 1946
2,406,988
UNITED STATE s PATENT OFFICE 0,
2,406,988
METHOD OF‘ AND APPARATUS" FOR USE IN
PREPARING WEAVING WARPS
James Bolton, New Bedford, Mass.
Application August 22, 1944, Serial No. 550,540
11 Claims.
(Cl. 28—32)
1
2
This invention pertains to the manufacture of
textile fabrics, speci?cally to a method of making
fabrics, especially useful in the preparation of
sheer fabrics from rayon or similar yarns, and to
a novel method of preparing warps for use in
weaving looms and to a novel means for use inv
the practice of said method. '
.
A completed weaving warp mounted on the
loom vbeam often comprises many thousands of
yarn ends, each of a length which may exceedv
20,000 yards, and the preparation ‘of this yarn
mass has heretofore customarily involved a sub
stantial number of handlings of each individual
yarn subsequent to spinning, each of these sev
eral handlings being a potential source of knot
formation so that in the completed warp a great
many knots customarily occur. Such knotsap
pear in the woven fabric, particularly if the fab
I whose width approximates the width of the de
sired warp.
.
However, a common difficulty encountered in
the, winding of yarns onto a section or loom
beam, in particular twisted yarns, results from
the tendency of the yarns constituting the sheet
to “roll” and thereby to become enmeshed with
or to adhere to adjacent yarns. This tendency
to roll or move transversely of the direction of
10 yarn travel maybe partly due to the effects of
static electricity, and partly to the stresses im
posed up'on the constituent ?bers during spin
ning and twisting, but whatever its cause, it is
a common source of snarling and breaking. Thus,
if it be attempted to employ a second comb, very
closely adjacent to the beam, in order accurately
to deliver the yarns to the beam in proper rela
tion, many of the laterally displaced yarns, en
meshed with adjacent yarns and traveling at high
ric is a thin or sheer material such as mar
quisette, as distinct and readily visible imperfec 20 speed, will be broken when they engage the
second comb. When it is practical (as for in
tions, thus detracting from the appearance and
stance in a loom, where the linear speed of the
value of the material. Moreover, such prior
warps is‘very low) to- employ separator rods and
methods, involving many handlings of the indi
combs, or their equivalent, at frequent intervals
vidual yarns, consume time, require much space
along the length of the travelling yarns, this
25
for the necessary equipment, and thus substan
tendency to roll‘ may thereby be controlled al
tially add to the cost of production.
though the space necessary for such dividers or
Such prior methods of warp preparation, for
similar equipment and the expenseinvolved in
instance, may involve winding the yarn from the
spinning bobbin onto a twister bobbin, then wind 30 its use is often prohibitive,_but in a high speed
ing the yarn onto a "spooler bobbin to form a
yarn mass, for instance 4” x 5" and of a yarn
length, for instance of 24,000 yards; then plac
ing these spooler bobbins in a creel and‘winding,
warper ‘this method of ‘control can not be em
ployed.
‘
.
‘The present invention ‘has for its principal
object the provision of an improved method of
preparing a warp whereby the entire number of
for instance, 500 ends onto a section beam; and 35 ends 'requisite‘to constitute the completed warp
then assembling, for instance, four of these sec
may be wound directly from bobbins (for example
tion beams and winding the yarns from them onto
twister bobbins) onto the loom beam, thereby
the loom beam. Another somewhat less complex
eliminating many of the steps previously con
prior method involves placing the twister bob
sidered necessary and incidentally so diminish
bins in a creel; winding, for instance, 500 ends 40 ing the number of.knots in the completed Warp
directly from these bobbins onto a w‘arper reel or
that the woven fabric is far freer from defects
“mill,” these 500 ends passing through, for in
(knots) than it has heretofore been possible to
stance, a 10" reed, then. moving the reed axially
produce by any practical method. A further
of the reel and winding on another of the 500
object is to provide an improved method of con
ends, etc., until the reel holds the entire number 45 trolling yarns during winding even at high speeds,
of ends desired, and then drawing the yarns from
for instance while winding parallel yarns onto a
the reel, and winding them directly onto the loom
loom beam, so as substantially to prevent the
beam, but it is easy to see that in each of these
yarns from rolling and thereby becoming inter
prior methods, the yarn is handled a substan
meshed or adherent to one another and thus to
tial number of times between spinning and warp. 50 preventsnarling and breakage and also, if ‘ de
In windinga beam directly from yarn pack
ages mounted in a creel, the yarns from the. sev
- sir-ed, concomitantly to tension the yarns.
A further objectis to provide improved appa
eral packages are passed through a comb which
ratus useful in ‘the practice of the improved
disposes them‘ in a sheet. The comb disposes the
method,‘itbeing understood,‘ however, that this
yarns in very closely spaced relation in a “sheet” 55 improved apparatus isjby way. ofexampleand
2,406,988
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4
3
that the method is capable of performance by
comb I‘! the yarns extend partially around smooth
surfaced, accurately cylindrical rolls i8 and I9
speci?cally different means.
Other and further objects and advantages of
the invention will be pointed out in the follow
ing more detailed description and by reference
to the accompanying drawing wherein
Fig. l is a diagrammatic plan view of appa
ratus useful in the practice of the present inven
tion;
whose axes are parallel to the length of the comb
I‘! and to the axis of the warp beam. In order
to control the yarns after passing the roll I 9 and
before they reach the winding-on point of the
warp mass on the loom beam, there is provided a
controller device 20 which, as here shown, more
‘
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the apparatus shown
in Fig. 1;
or less resembles the usual Warper “mill” or reel.
‘ Thus this controller comprises a shaft 2i mounted
, to turn in suitable bearings and with its axis par
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary perspective View to
larger scale and in part in vertical section show7
me one of the yarn-positioning and tensioning
elements;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary longitudinal section
through one of the yam-positioning elements;
allel to that of the warp beam, and comprising
radial spokes 22 and a rim 23, the reel being of a
length exceeding the length of any loom beam
which may be employed. This reel also comprises
transverse bars 24 extending from one end to the
other of the reel, these bars, for example, being
of wood or other convenient material and being
provided with yarn-positioning elements 25 at
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary front elevation of a
yarn-separating comb forming a part of the ap 20 their peripheral surfaces. These yarn-position
paratus.
ing elements 25 are of soft resilient material, for
example a material having in general the char
Referring to the drawing the numeral I desig
nates a suitable support, for example a creel de
acteristics of sponge rubber, such that when a
signed to support yarn packages, in number at
yarn is drawn over the outer surface of the ele
ment 25 and is subjected to tension, the yarn
least as great as the number of ends in the de
sired‘warp. Preferably the creel is so arranged
tends to embed itself in the substance of the po
and
r
that these yarn packages may turn, thus permit
sitioning element as shown for example in Fig. 4,
ting the yarn to be unwound without removing
or imparting twist to the unwinding yarn. Indi
vidual tensions may be provided for these un
winding packages, if desired, as is customary in
creels in which the yarn packages rotate and each
of these yarn packages 2 may, for example, be a
twister bobbin containing a length of yarn, for
instance 24,000 yards, more than sufficient to form
one end of the desired completed warp.
so that lateral movement or rolling of the yarn
, is thereby prevented. The controlling element or
The warper 3 may in general be of a more or
termine the density of the Warp mass on the beam
reel 29 is not driven except by the frictional drag
of the yarns in contact with the elements 25, but
is preferably furnished with a brake drum 26
which is engaged by a flexible brake band ?xed
_, at one end at 28 and having a weight 29 at its
‘ opposite end. By varying the mass of the part 29
the braking effect may be varied, thereby to de
less conventional type designed removably to sup
or to accommodate yarns of different materials.
In the operation of the apparatus and assum
port a loom beam having spaced heads 4 and 5,
the beam being ?xed to a shaft 6 whose opposite 40 ing that the yarns Y have been threaded through
ends are supported in bearing brackets l’ and 8,
the combs M and I1 and passed about the reel
preferably relatively adjustable to accommodate
20 andv connected to the barrel of the drum, the
beams of different lengths. The shaft 6 is pro
operator, in starting the warp beam, will first
vided with a gear 9 which mesheswith a pinion
> so manipulate the hand wheel I3 as to impart a
driven by a shaft H] which receives its motion,
through an endless belt H, from a motor-driven
variable speed device [2, for example a mecha
low angular velocity to the beam, thereby slowly
starting the beam into operation so as to avoid
overtensioning and breaking of any of the yarns.
nism such as is commonly known as a “Reeves”
However, as soon as the beam has picked up speed,
drive, the speed ratio of this drive being variable
the operator will manipulate the wheel [3 so as
by the actuation of a hand wheel l3 or equiva 50 to turn the warp beam shaft 5 at its maximum
lent device. Thus by manipulation by the hand
wheel l3 the angular velocity of the warp beam
velocity as determined by the characteristic of the
yarns to be wound. Thereafter as the diameter
of the winding mass on the beam increases the
shaft 6 may be varied.
operator will, from time to time, so manipulate
From the packages 2 the yarns Y are led
through suitable guide eyes to a collecting comb 55 the wheel l3 as gradually to reduce the angular
l4, usually of a length substantially greater than
velocity of the warp beam thereby to maintain a
substantially uniform but high linear speed of
the Width of the desired warp and with this comb
the yarn during the entire winding operation,
M (which is an end-and-end lease comb enabling
the operator to put in a full end-and-end lease
after ?rst starting up. It will be understood,
however, that if at any time during the warping
at the end of each warp which is made) lease
operation it be necessary to stop the machine,
rods l5 and It may be associated, if desired.
the operator will again start up at slow speed
After passing the collecting comb l4 and lease
before resuming the previous high and substan
rods l5 and I6, the yarns pass through a yarn
tially uniform winding speed.
positioning or guide comb I7. This comb I‘! (Fig.
The entire tension placed on the winding yarns
5) has dents D in each of which one and some 65
is produced by the pull developed by the power
times two yarns Y may be placed and is of such
driven loom beam and by the retarding action
length that the endmost yarns of the warp sheet
of the yarn-engaging elements 25 which resist the
are spaced apart a distance substantially exactly
forward movement of the yarns to an extent de
the width of the desired warp, the endmost dents
of the comb being disposed substantially in the a pending upon the load placed on the brake band
parallel planes of the respective inner surfaces
21.
It is to be noted that from the time the yarns
of the heads 4 and 5 of the warp beam. Thus
Y engage the ?rst of the series ofyarn-control
after passing the comb I‘! the yarns form a sheet
ling elements 25 until the yarns are about to
S in which the yarns are all side by side and sub‘
wind onto the warp beam they are kept under
stantially parallel. Preferably after passing the
2,406,988
5
constant restraint against sidewise movement or
rolling so that. the parallel relation imparted, by
the comb. I1 is substantially maintained until
they are incorporated in the winding mass on the
beam. Thus even though the linear winding
speed of the yarns be ‘very‘high there is no
danger of their becoming enmeshed with each
other so that upon the subsequent unwinding of
the beam they will be snarled and broken. .On
6
simply by Varying the effective length of the
comb
l‘l.
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While one desirable embodiment of the inven
tion is herein disclosed by way of example, it is
to be‘ understood that other and equivalent means
and method‘ steps may be used within the scope
of l the invention as de?ned by the appended
claims.
I claim:
i
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the other hand, by the employment of this sim 10V
1. ‘In apparatus for winding a Warp on a loom
ple controlling device 20, the accurate parallel
beam-in combination, means for supporting yarn
relation of the yarns is insured without resort to
complicated, expensive and space-using sepa
masses in number at least equal to the number
of ends in the desired warp, a comb operative
rator devices such as have heretofore been pro
posed and most of which are inapplicable to high
to. dispose the yarns in side by side relation,
the length of the comb being substantially equal
speed operations.
to the width of the desired warp, a loom beam
.
’
Preferably, in accordance with this improved
and means for rotating the beam, the axis of the
method and as above suggested, each of the ‘yarn
beam being parallel to the length of the comb,
packages 2‘contains a length of yarn substan
and a series of spaced yarn-positioning elements
tially greater than that required to form one end 20 which ‘move with ‘the yarns as the latter ap
of the completed warp. Since these yarns from
preach the winding mass on the beam, said posi- ‘
the packages 2 are thus delivered directly to the
tioning elements being constructed andlarranged
to prevent the yarn from rolling.
loom beam, and since although this apparatus
winds the warps at very high speed, very little
2. In apparatus for winding 3, warp on a loom
breakage results, the number of knots in the
beam in combination, means for supporting and
for turning a loom beam and a loom beam
completed warp is thus very ‘much smaller, for
example 50% less than is common‘when a warp
mounted in said supporting means, means for
supporting spaced yarn packages in number at
is prepared in accordance with usual prior meth
least equal to‘the number of ends in the desired
ods. After the warp has been completed, ‘the
yarn remaining‘ on the packages 2 is then pref 30 Warp, a comb having dents each designed to
erably wound directly onto the weaving bobbin
and is used with the warp from the beam in weav
receive one or more warp ends and of such length
as to dispose said ends in a sheet of a width of
the desired warp, and an endless series of yarn
ing the desired cloth. Thus the ?lling also con
tains less knots than usual and the resulting
fabric, both in warp and weft has much fewer
engaging elements interposed between the comb
knots than customary. By thus ‘using the re
the yarns directly to the beam, each' of said ele
ments being of soft, resilient material in which
' mainder of the yarn on packages 2 inwinding
loom bobbins, it becomes unnecessary when wind
ing the packages 2, to_ use any particular care
that the length of yarn on a giVen package does
not greatly exceed the longest of the desired,
warps, since this remaining yarn on the package
2' is not wasted.
.
.As a speci?c example of‘ the practice of this
novel method, nineteen thousand yards of rayon
yarn of 70'denier, having twenty turns of twist
per inch, are wound on each of. the requiste num
and the beam and which are operative to deliver
each yarn embeds itself, and means for moving
said elements in the direction of ‘yarn travel.
3. In the apparatus for winding a warp on a
loom beam in combination, a creel having pro
vision for holding yarn masses in number at least
equal to the number of ends in the desired ‘Warp,
a comb having dents each designed to receive one
or more warp ends and of such length as to dis
pose said ends in a sheet of the width 0f the desired warp, and a reel interposed between the
comb and the beam, theatres of the reel and beam
ber of twister bobbins and used in winding warps,
being substantially parallel to the length of the
each of a length of three thousand yards. Each
twister bobbin thus provides enough yarn to form 50 comb, the reel having spaced peripherally ar
ranged yarn-engaging elements which deliver the
one warp end for six full loom beams, with
yarn directly to the beam and which are so con
enough yarn remaining to wind a full ?lling bob
structed and arranged as to prevent the yarns
bin. In order to avoiod the necessity for sizing
from rolling as they move toward the winding
the yarns, in accordance with the present inven
warp mass on the beam.
‘
tion they are preferably twisted to provide the 55
4. In apparatus for winding a warp on‘ a loom
requisite strength, a- crepe or voil twist being
beam in combination, means for supporting and
used.
,
for‘ turning a loom beam and a loom beam mount
In Winding, and after ?rst starting the beam
ed in said supporting means, means for rotatably
into motion, a uniform linear ‘yarn speed of, for
supporting yarn packages in number at least
example, sixty yards per minute is safe andprac
equal to the number of ends in the desired warp,
tical, and may be maintained throughout the
a creel ‘having provision for rotatably supporting
winding operation, although if preferred, as the
yarn packages in number at least equal to the
yarn masses on the bobbins ‘become very small,
number of ends in the desired warp, a comb con
the speed of win-ding may be reduced for instance 65 structed and arranged to dispose the yarns in
to ?fty yards per minute to avoid undue bobbin
parallel relation, the length of the comb sub
speed.
'
‘
Since beams of different lengths may readily
be substituted one for another merely by chang
stantially equalling the width of the desired warp,
a rotatable reel of a diameter substantially larger
than that 'of the beam and which turns on an
70 axis parallel to that of the beam, the reel being
8, and since the positioning elements 25, traveling
so arranged that the yarn on its way from the
with the yarns from the comb ll toward the
comb to the beam embraces a portion of the pe
ing the relation between the beam supports 1 and
beam, exactly maintain the width of the warp
riphery of the rim, the reel having peripherally
sheet as determined by the comb ll, it is possible
spaced yarn-engaging elements each of resiliently
to wind any width of loom beam in this apparatus 75 yieldable material and from which the yarns are
2,406,988
7
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ing off the yarns from the several yarn masses
and passing them between separator elements
thereby to dispose them side by side to form a
sheet of a width substantially equal to that of
the desired warp, winding the several yarns di
rectly onto a loom beam while engaging each
ber at least as great as the number of warp ends,
individual yarn with a soft, resilient element in
a loom beam and means for rotating it at a vari
which the yarn is partially embedded thereby to
able angular velocity such that the linear speed
keep it from rolling and from which the yarn
of the winding yarn is substantially constant
throughout the winding operation, a comb-guide 10 passes directly to the beam, and bodily moving
said element with the yarn as the latter ap
for disposing the several yarns in substantially
proaches the winding yarn mass.
parallel relation, a rotary support turning about
9. That method of preparing a weaving warp
an axis parallel to that of the beam, said support
which comprises as steps providing yarn masses
carrying a plurality of peripherally yarn-engag
ing spaced friction elements from which the 15 in number equalling the desired number of yarn
ends in the completed warp and each consisting
yarns are delivered directly to the beam, means
of a single yarn whose length at least equals
operative to cause the parallel yarns partially to
the length of the desired warp, simultaneously
wrap about said rotary support on their way from
drawing off the yarns from the several yarn
the comb-guide to the beam and to engage said
friction elements, and means to restrain the free 20 masses and passing them between separator ele
delivered ‘directly to the beam, and means oppos
ing free rotation of the reel thereby to tension
the yarns.
5. Apparatus for use in preparing weaving
warps comprising a support for bobbins in num-_
ments thereby to dispose them side by side to
form a sheet of a width substantially equalling
rotation of said rotary support thereby to ten
sion the yarn.
6. Apparatus for use in preparing weaving
the width of the desired warp, winding the sev
eral yarns under substantially equal tension upon
a loom beam, and partially embedding each in
dividual yarn, during its travel from the sepa
rator elements to the winding yarn mass, in a
warps comprising a support for bobbins in num
ber at least as great as the number of warp ends,
a loom beam and means for rotating it, a comb
guide for disposing the several yarns in substan
tially parallel relation, a reel arranged to turn
about an axis parallel to that of the beam, said
reel having a plurality of peripherally spaced
transverse bars each provided with a friction pad
from which the yarns contact and from which
the yarns are delivered directly to the beam, guide
series of spaced resiliently yieldable parts which
travel in succession with the yarns toward the
beam, thereby to prevent rolling of the yarns.
10. That method of preparing a weaving warp
which comprises as steps providing yarn masses
in number equalling the desired number of yarn
ends in the completed warp and each consisting
of a single yarn whose length at least equals the
means constraining the yarn on its way from the
comb-guide to the beam partially to wrap about
the reel and thereby concomitantly to engage a
plurality of said pads, and a brake cooperable
with the reel to retard rotation thereof whereby
the linear speed of said pads is less than that
of the traveling yarn.
length of the desired warp, simultaneously draw
ing off the yarns from the several yarn masses
40
7. In apparatus for winding a warp on a loom
beam in combination, means for supporting and
turning a loom beam, a loom beam mounted in
said supporting beams, a creel having provision
for rctatably supporting yarn packages in num- a
ber at least equal to the number of ends in the
desired warp, a comb having'dents for the re
ception of the warp ends and of a length sub
stantially equalling the width of the desired warp,
the warp beam having its axis parallel to the
length of the comb, and a series of spaced mov
able pads of yielding resilient material, each of
a length at least equal to that of the comb, and
which are parallel to the latter and which engage
each of the several yarns as they are moving from
the comb toward the beam and from which the
yarns are delivered directly to the beam and into
which each individual yarn embeds itself, and
means for moving said pads toward the beam
and passing them between separator elements
thereby to dispose them side by side to form a
sheet of a Width substantially equal to that of
the desired warp, winding the several yarns di
rectly onto a loom beam while preventing them
from rolling during their passage from the sepa
rator elements to the winding warp mass by em
bedding each yarn individually in a series of
spaced yieldable positioning elements which move
with the yarns toward the winding warp mass,
the angular velocity of the 100m beam being grad
ually accelerated, when starting empty, up to its
maximum value and then being gradually dimin
ished as the winding mass increases in diameter.
11. In apparatus for winding a warp on a loom
beam in combination, means for supporting and
for turning a loom beam and a loom beam
mounted in said supporting means, means for
supporting yarn masses in number at least equal
to the number of ends in the desired warp, a
comb operative to dispose the yarns in parallel
relation, the length of the comb substantially
while keeping them parallel to the comb thereby 60 equalling the width of the desired warp, a rotat
able reel interposed between the comb and beam
to constrain each individualyarn to move in a
and turning on an axis parallel to that of the
path located in a plane perpendicular to the axis
beam, said reel having peripherally spaced yarn
of the beam.
engaging elements from which the yarns are de
8. That method of preparing a weaving warp
which comprises as steps providing yarn masses 65 livered directly to the beam, each of said ele
ments having the characteristic resilience of
in number equalling the desired number of yarn
sponge rubber so that the moving yarns embed
ends in the completed warp and each consisting
themselves in said elements.
of a single yarn whose length at least equals the
JAMES BOLTON.
length of the desired warp, simultaneously draw
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