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Патент USA US2407041

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PatentedSept. 3,
Benjamin H. Thurman, Charlotte, N. 0., assignor,
‘by memo assignments, tolBenjamin Clayton,
Houston, Ten, doing business as Re?ning.
No Drawing. Applicationoetober 10, 1941,
Serial No.414,519
6 Claims. (01. 187-15)
This invention relates to insecticides and more
particularly to insecticides of the stomach poison
One object of the present invention is to pro
vide a new insecticide of the stomach poison type
which will adhere to plant foliage and resist
washing therefrom by rain while providing an
bevadded. In many cases the addition of the
arsenic compound will materially change the pH
oi the solution, but in general the phosphatidic
materials stay in dispersion, for example the ad
dltion of calcium arsenate which has apI-I in >
aqueous solution of approximately 11.7 may
change the pH of the solution to between 11
(eifective poison for insects.
and 11.6 but the dispersion of the phospatides
Another object‘ of the invention is to provide
in‘ the water remains stable. If di?lculty is en
an insecticide of the stomach poison type which 10 countered in maintaining a stable dispersion, ad
may be applied in an aqueous medium while
resisting washing. of! by rains.
A further object of the invention is to provide
an improved insecticide of the stomach poison
type containing phosphatidic material and sub
stantially free of mineral oils but which adheres
to plant ‘foliage to provide an effective poison for
iustment of pH towards the range of 5.5 to 7.0
by adding acids or alkalies, may in most cases
be carried out so as to maintain the phosphatidic
material in dispersion except in cases where the
arsenic compound employed tends to decompose
when an acid or alkali is added.
The preferred arsenic compound is commercial
calcium arsenate which consists of a mixture of
The insecticide of the present invention was
mono-, di-, and tri-calcium arsenate. when cal
developed primarily for the control of boll weevil 20 cium arsenate is employed alone as the stomach
infestations on cotton, although it may be em
poison the preferred ratio of cottonseed oil phos
ployed for the control of other insect pests which
phatides to calcium arsenate is one part phos
eat plant foliage. The preferred insecticide of
phatides to two parts calcium arsenate. Insolu
the present invention constitutes an aqueous sus
ble dimcult to disperse precipitates‘ are formed
pension of cottonseed oil phosphatides and an 25 'when substantially more phosphatidic material
arsenic compound of a polyvalent metal in which
than indicated is employed, although stable mix
the arsenic occurs in the anion with or without
tures may be produced containing as much as
an additional stomach poison such as nicotine ‘ . four to eight times as much calcium arsenate
sulfate. Thus the arsenates and arsenites of
polyvalent metals, for example calcium, magne
sium, lead, copper, etc., are suitable for employ
ment in the present invention, the arsenates ,
being preferred as they are less likely to cause
damage to plant foliage.
as phosphatidic ‘material. With calcium arson!
30 ate in the proportions giventhere is apparently
some sort of an intermediate complex formed be
tween the calcium arsenate ‘and the phosphatides
which is on the border line of being insoluble and
which forms an adhesive compound that disperses
For application to cotton plants, cottonseed 35 in the aqueous medium. It is clear that a cal
phosphatides are preferred and best results have
cium lecithinate salt is not formed as such a
been obtained by employing the crude phos
salt would be insoluble in water and would not
phatidic material obtained from crude cottonseed
go su?iciently into solution to ‘form a stomach
oil by a degumming operation. This crude phos
' poison.v
phatidic material contains in addition to phos 40 In preparing certain insecticides, for example
phatidcs small quantities of . other materials such
those for boll weevil control, it has been found
as resins, gossypol, etc., as well as about 30%
‘advantageous to incorporate other stomach poi
'of cottonseed oil which functions as a carrier for
son such as nicotine sulfate into the composi
the phosphatides. \ This phosphatidic material
can be completely dispersed in water by bringing 45 tion.‘ When nicotine sulfate is employed in sub
stantial quantities it is found that the ratio of
the mixture of phosphatidic material and water
calcium arsenate to phosphatidlc material can
to a pH between 5.5 and '7, best results being
be reduced materially without forming insoluble
obtained between 6.0 and 6.7. Adjustment‘to
precipitates. As a speci?c example of an insecti
the correct pH may be accomplished by adding
acids or alkalies to the dispersion,-weak acids or 50 side particularly suitable for boll weevil control,
a dispersion of 1/z% crude cottonseed oil phos
alkalies being preferably employed, although
phatides in: water at a pH of 6.7 was prepared.
small amounts of stronger acids and alkalies may
To each 100 gallons of this solution was added
be used. After a thorough dispersion of the
phosphatides in water has been accomplished,
1% pounds ofcalcium arsenate and %% of nico
' ~ the arsenic compound of a polyvalent ‘metal can 55 tine sulfate. This resulted in a product having
Phosphatidic material containing 30% cot
tonseedoil as a carrier __' ___________ __~_
____________________ -_
40% nicotine sulfate _________________ __
tematively the phosphatidic material may be
substantially the following composition on a
weight basis:
stabilized with 1 to 5% 0f borlc acid before being
added to the concentrate or ?nal spray composi
It will also be apparent that nicotine sulfate
can be employed in the phosphatidic composi
tion, either a concentrate or ?nal spray, without '
the arsenic compounds. As little as 1/a% of
A light spray of this material was applied to
nicotine sulfate in a composition containing, for
young cotton plants and it remained thereon in 10 example, 1/2% phosphatidic material makes an
extremely- effective spray composition and it will
effective amounts through several rains, some
of which amounted .to one or more inches of
be apparent that the amount of nicotine sulfate
water. The phosphatidic material apparently
can be increased if desired, for example up to
1%. If nicotine sulfate is employed alone it has
formed an effective adhesive as similar‘ plants
very little e?ect upon the pH of the phosphatidic
treated in the conventional manner by dusting
material, but even at a pH of 5.5 to 7 the phos
powdered calcium arsenate thereon had the cal
cium arsenate substantially completely washed
phatidic material provides an effective adhesive
from the foliage by the ?rst shower. Although
resisting washing of the insecticide from the
plant foliage by rains.
the area treated with the insecticide containing
phosphatidic material was relatively small and
In addition to its mild effect upon plant foliage,
the cheapness and availability, and excellent poi
surrounded by untreated areas of similar cotton
plants which were severely damaged by boll
soning effect of calcium arsenate makes it par
ticularly suitable in the present invention. At a
weevils, even the effect of migration ofiweevils
pH of 11 to 11.7 it is only slightly soluble in
from the untreated areas was very slight and
substantially no damage was caused to the
water, which perhaps accounts for its mild effect
upon plant foliage, but is sufficiently soluble to
treated area. Since the boll weevil feeds on the
be an effective poison. It will be understood,
cotton boll usually below the surface thereof at
however, that the arsenic compounds of poly
least two theories have been advanced, for the
effectiveness of stomach poisons against boll
valent metals in which the arsenic occurs in the
weevils. One of these theories is that the boil
anion, such as lead arsenate, copper arsensate,
weevils use the dew on cotton plants as a source
magnesium arsenate, etc., may be similarly em
of water and that the arsenic or other stomach
ployed as well as the arsem'tes of these metals,
either for control of boll weevil or other foliage
poison applied to the plant dissolves at least par
eating insects. Crude cotton phosphatides are
tially in the dew to form a stomach poison. It is
also particularly suitable for the present inven
entirely possible that the waterretained in the
tion, especially for treating cotton plants as these
insecticide containing the phosphatidic material
phosphatides appear to be attrahent for the boil
may also form a source of water for the weevil.
The other theory holds that the stomach poison
weevil, one probable reason being that it is a
product of the cotton plant. However, it is pos
is only effective 'as the insect crawls over the
plant foliage and comes in contact with the 40 sible to employ other phosphatidic material such
as corn oil phosphatides, soya'bean phosphatides,
poison material which is transferred to the
or compounds of phosphatidic materials with
mouth of the weevil when the insect cleans itself.
salts of hydroxy organic acids disclosed in my
If the latter theory is correct it is apparent that
co-pending application Serial No. 311,707, filed
the present insecticide because of its adhesive
December 29, 1939, or compounds of phosphatidic
nature is extremely effective.
As a speci?c example of the employment of ‘
materials with phosphates such as disclosed in
my co-pending application Serial No. 311,705,
calcium arsenate without the nicotine sulfate a
?led December 29, 1939. . Most of these phos
dispersion of a 25% crude cottonseed phos
phatidlc materials disperse in water at a pH of
phatide was made in water by adjusting the pH
of the dispersion to 6.7. Two pounds of calcium '
arsentae were added to 100 gallons of this dis
persion to produce a product having approxi
mately the following composition by weight:
Water ____________________ -_ __________ __
Cottonseed phosphatides containing 30%
crude cottonseed oil _________________ __
arsenate ____ _; _______________ __
This composition was also an effective insecticide
5.5 to 7 but in certain cases it may be necessary
to vary the pH of the dispersion in order to get
an adequate incorporation of the phosphatidic
material into the water. In general, the pH of
the initial dispersion of phosphatidic material
171 {ii should have a pH of not less than 5.5 and the
pH of the ?nal composition containing arsenic
compound will not be less than 7.
No organic solvents or mineral oils are neces
' sary or desirable in insecticides of the present in
60 vention as they serve no useful purpose and have
for boll weevil control.
It will be apparent that the compositions of
a deleterious effect upon the composition. Al
though‘the insecticides of the present invention
the present invention may be made in concen
are applied in an aqueous medium they adhere
trate form by employing less water, for example
tenaciously to the plant foliage, even though sub- 1
one to ?ve parts of water instead of approximately ninety-nine parts water given in the above ex 65 jected to repeated rains. Also the phosphatidic
amples. Such products can then be diluted be
material acts as agent for stabilizing the stomach _
poisons against decomposition and loss of potency.
fore use with the appropriate amount of water
to provide a spray suitable for application to
For example it is known that calcium arsenate
rather rapidly loses its toxicity upon exposure to
plant foliage. If such concentrates or final spray
air. The phosphatidic material apparently in
compositions are to be stored for any consider
able length of time it is preferred to add a small
hibits contact between the air and the arsenic
compound to prevent such loss of toxicity. The
amount of boric acid, for example 1 to 5% on the
phosphatidic material also prevents loss of water
basis of the phosphatidic material as the borlc
acid stabilizes the phosphatidic material against
soluble stomach poisons such as nicotine sulfate.
fermentation and resulting decomposition. A1
75 by preventing rain from washing the nicotine
sulfate from the Plant foliage. It will thus be
apparent that I‘ have provided an improved in
secticide composition.
This application is a continuation-in-part of
approximately 1 part phosphatide and 2 to 8 parts ‘
calcium arsenate by weight,
.3. An insecticide of the stomach poison type
consisting essentially of an‘ aqueous dispersion of ‘
my co-pending application Serial No, 332,111,
crude cottonseed ‘oil phosphatide and a stomach
?led April 27, 1940.
v While I have disclosed the preferred embodi-
poison comprising ?nely divided slightly water
soluble calcium arsenate, the proportions of phos
ments of my invention it is understood that the
details thereof may be varied within the scope of
phatide and calcium arsenate ranging between
approximately 1 part phosphatide and 2 to 8 parts
the following claims:
10 calcium arsen'ate by weight.
4. An insecticide as de?ned in claim 1' in which
1. An insecticide of the stomach poison type
the stomach poison also comprises a substantial
I claim:
consisting ‘essentially of an aqueous dispersion of
a crude vegetable oil phosphatide and a stomach
amount of nicotine sulfate.
- - 5. An insecticide as de?ned in claim 3 in which
poison comprising a ?nely divided slightly water 15 the stomach poison also comprises a substantial
soluble compound selected from the group con
amount of nicotine sulfate.
sisting of arsenates and arsenites of polyvalent
6. An insecticide of the stomach poison type
metals, the proportions of phosphatide and poly
consisting essentially of an aqueous dispersion
valent metal compound ranging between approxi
of crude cottonseed-oil phosphatide and a stom
mately 1 part phosphatide and 2 to 8 parts poly! 20 ach poison comprising nicotine sulfate and ?nely
valent metal compound.
divided slightly soluble calcium arsenate, the pro
2. An insecticide of the stomach poison type
portions of phosphatide, nicotine and calcium
consisting essentially of an aqueous dispersion of
arsenate ranging between approximately 1 part
a crude vegetable oil phosphatide and a stomach
phosphatide and 1A to 2 parts nicotine sulfate and
poison comprising ?nely divided slightly water
1/2 to 8 parts calcium arsenate.
soluble calcium arsenate, the proportions of phos
phatide and calcium arsenate ranging between
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